Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Ibraheem M. Attafi

16 Postmortem Analysis of Lidocaine in Women Died of Criminal Abortion

Authors: Mohammed A. Arishy, Sultan M. Alharbi, Mohammed A. Hakami, Farid M. Abualsail, Mohammad A. Attafi, Riyadh M. Tobaiqi, Hussain M. Alsalem, Ibraheem M. Attafi


Lidocaine is the most common local anesthetics used for para cervical block to reduce pain associated with surgical abortion. A 25-year-old pregnant woman who. She died before reaching hospital, and she was undergoing criminal abortion during the first trimester. In post-mortem investigations and autopsy shows no clear finding; therefore, toxic substances must be suspected and searched for routinely toxicology analysis. In this case report, the postmortem concentration of lidocaine was detected blood, brain, liver, kidney, and stomach. For lidocaine identification and quantification, sample was extracted using solid phase extraction and analyzed by GC-MS (Shimadzu, Japan). Initial screening and confirmatory analysis results showed that only lidocaine was detected in all collected samples, and no other toxic substances or alcohol were detected. The concentrations of lidocaine in samples were 19, 17, 14, 7, and 3 ug/m in the brain, blood, kidney, liver, and stomach, respectively. Lidocaine blood concentration (17 ug/ml) was toxic level and may result in death. Among the tissues, brain showed the highest level of lidocaine, followed by the kidney, liver, and stomach.

Keywords: forensic toxicology, GC-MS, lidocaine, postmortem

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15 On the Design of Robust Governors of Steam Power Systems Using Polynomial and State-Space Based H∞ Techniques: A Comparative Study

Authors: Rami A. Maher, Ibraheem K. Ibraheem


This work presents a comparison study between the state-space and polynomial methods for the design of the robust governor for load frequency control of steam turbine power systems. The robust governor is synthesized using the two approaches and the comparison is extended to include time and frequency domains performance, controller order, and uncertainty representation, weighting filters, optimality and sub-optimality. The obtained results are represented through tables and curves with reasons of similarities and dissimilarities.

Keywords: robust control, load frequency control, steam turbine, H∞-norm, system uncertainty, load disturbance

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14 Design and Implementation of a Control System for a Walking Robot with Color Sensing and Line following Using PIC and ATMEL Microcontrollers

Authors: Ibraheem K. Ibraheem


The aim of this research is to design and implement line-tracking mobile robot. The robot must follow a line drawn on the floor with different color, avoids hitting moving object like another moving robot or walking people and achieves color sensing. The control system reacts by controlling each of the motors to keep the tracking sensor over the middle of the line. Proximity sensors used to avoid hitting moving objects that may pass in front of the robot. The programs have been written using micro c instructions, then converted into PIC16F887 ATmega48/88/168 microcontrollers counterparts. Practical simulations show that the walking robot accurately achieves line following action and exactly recognizes the colors and avoids any obstacle in front of it.

Keywords: color sensing, H-bridge, line following, mobile robot, PIC microcontroller, obstacle avoidance, phototransistor

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13 Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with Ingestion of Herbal Mixtures Containing Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Case Study

Authors: M. Hakami, A. Jammaly, I. Attafi, M. Oraiby, M. Jeraiby


We reviewed an unusual case of a 65-year-old male taking an herbal mixture containing compounds with anticholinesterase activity for a long period of time, presented with acute my myocardial infarction and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome followed by death. Clinically, there are findings correlated with anticholinesterase activity, such as bilateral miosis, diaphoresis, vomiting and fasciculation without a history of any toxic ingestion or exposure. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry screening studies identified the presence of thymol, anethole in the herbal extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in the blood sample. Hence, with this case report, we intend to highlight the necessity of evaluating the long-term use of the herbal mixture.

Keywords: cholinesterase inhibitors, thymole, anethole, butylatedhydroxytoluene, cardiac toxicity, myocardial infarction

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12 Curbing Abuses of Legal Power in the Society

Authors: Tajudeen Ojo Ibraheem


In a world characterized by greed and the lust for power and its attendant trappings, abuse of legal power is nothing new to most of us. Legal abuses of power abound in all fields of human endeavour. Accounts of such abuses dominate the mass media and for the average individual, no single day goes by without his getting to hear about at least one such occurrence. This paper briefly looks at the meaning of legal power, what legal abuse is all about, its causes, and some of its manifestations in the society. Its consequences will also be discussed and some suggestions for reform will be made. In the course of the paper, references will be made to various jurisdictions around the world.

Keywords: abuse, legal, power, society

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11 Blood Chemo-Profiling in Workers Exposed to Occupational Pyrethroid Pesticides to Identify Associated Diseases

Authors: O. O. Sufyani, M. E. Oraiby, S. A. Qumaiy, A. I. Alaamri, Z. M. Eisa, A. M. Hakami, M. A. Attafi, O. M. Alhassan, W. M. Elsideeg, E. M. Noureldin, Y. A. Hobani, Y. Q. Majrabi, I. A. Khardali, A. B. Maashi, A. A. Al Mane, A. H. Hakami, I. M. Alkhyat, A. A. Sahly, I. M. Attafi


According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Pesticides Use Database, pesticide use in agriculture in Saudi Arabia has more than doubled from 4539 tons in 2009 to 10496 tons in 2019. Among pesticides, pyrethroids is commonly used in Saudi Arabia. Pesticides may increase susceptibility to a variety of diseases, particularly among pesticide workers, due to their extensive use, indiscriminate use, and long-term exposure. Therefore, analyzing blood chemo-profiles and evaluating the detected substances as biomarkers for pyrethroid pesticide exposure may assist to identify and predicting adverse effects of exposure, which may be used for both preventative and risk assessment purposes. The purpose of this study was to (a) analyze chemo-profiling by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, (b) identify the most commonly detected chemicals in a time-exposure-dependent manner using a Venn diagram, and (c) identify their associated disease among pesticide workers using analyzer tools on the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) website, (250 healthy male volunteers (20-60 years old) who deal with pesticides in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia (exposure intervals: 1-2, 4-6, 6-8, more than 8 years) were included in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information, the duration of pesticide exposure, and the existence of chronic conditions. Blood samples were collected for biochemistry analysis and extracted by solid-phase extraction for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Biochemistry analysis reveals no significant changes in response to the exposure period; however, an inverse association between the albumin level and the exposure interval was observed. The blood chemo-profiling was differentially expressed in an exposure time-dependent manner. This analysis identified the common chemical set associated with each group and their associated significant occupational diseases. While some of these chemicals are associated with a variety of diseases, the distinguishing feature of these chemically associated disorders is their applicability for prevention measures. The most interesting finding was the identification of several chemicals; erucic acid, pelargonic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, dibutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dodecanol, myristic Acid, pyrene, and 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid, associated with pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, asthma, silicosis and berylliosis. Chemical-disease association study also found that cancer, digestive system disease, nervous system disease, and metabolic disease were the most often recognized disease categories in the common chemical set. The hierarchical clustering approach was used to compare the expression patterns and exposure intervals of the chemicals found commonly. More study is needed to validate these chemicals as early markers of pyrethroid insecticide-related occupational disease, which might assist evaluate and reducing risk. The current study contributes valuable data and recommendations to public health.

Keywords: occupational, toxicology, chemo-profiling, pesticide, pyrethroid, GC-MS

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10 Factors Affecting Time Performance in Building Construction Projects

Authors: Ibraheem A. K. Mahameed


The aim of this study is to identify the risks affecting time performance of building construction projects in the West Bank in Palestine from contractors’ viewpoint. 38 risks that might affect time performance of building construction projects were defined through a detailed literature review. These risks have been classified into 6 groups: project, managerial, consultant, financial, external, and construction items. A questionnaire survey was performed to rank the considered risks in terms of severity and frequency. The analysis of the survey indicated that the top five risks affecting time performance of building construction projects in Palestine are: award project to the lowest price, political situation, poor communication and coordination between construction parties, change orders, and financial status of contractor.

Keywords: delay, time performance, construction, building

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9 The Role of the Constructivist Learning Theory and Collaborative Learning Environment on Wiki Classroom and the Relationship between Them

Authors: Ibraheem Alzahrani


This paper seeks to discover the relationship between both the social constructivist learning theory and the collaborative learning environment. This relationship can be identified through given an example of the learning environment. Due to wiki characteristics, wiki can be used to understand the relationship between constructivist learning theory and collaborative learning environment. However, several evidences will come in this paper to support the idea of why wiki is the suitable method to explore the relationship between social constructivist theory and the collaborative learning and their role in learning. Moreover, learning activities in wiki classroom will be discussed in this paper to find out the result of the learners' interaction in the classroom groups, which will be through two types of communication; synchronous and asynchronous.

Keywords: social constructivist, collaborative, environment, wiki, activities

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8 Plasma Systems Application in Treating Automobile Exhaust Gases for a Clean Environment (Case Study)

Authors: Tahsen Abdalwahab Ibraheem Albehege


Exhaust fuel purification is of great importance to prevent the emission of major pollutants into the atmosphere such as diesel particulates and nitrogen oxides and meet environmental regulations, so environmental impacts are a primary concern of Diesel Exhaust Gas (DEG) which contains hazardous substances harmful to the environment as well as human health.We can not plasma formed through directing electrical energy to create free electrons, which in turn can react with gaseous species, but we can by used to treat engine exhaust gases. . By NO that has been reportedly oxidized to HNO3 and then into ammonium nitrate, and then condensed and removed. In general, thermal plasmas are formed by heating a system to high temperatures 2,000 degrees C, however this can be inefficient and can require extensive thermal management.

Keywords: plasma system application, project physics, oxidizing environment, electromagnetically

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7 Exploring and Evaluating the Current Style of Teaching Biology in Saudi Universities from Teachers' Points of View

Authors: Ibraheem Alzahrani


The Saudi Arabia ministry of higher education has established 24 universities across various cities in the kingdom. The universities have the mandate of sustaining technological progress in both teaching and learning. The present study explores the statues of teaching in Saudi universities, focusing on biology, a critical curriculum. The paper explores biology teachers’ points of view is several Saudi higher education institutions through questionnaires disseminated via emails. According to the findings, the current teaching methods are traditional and the teachers believe that it is critical to change it. This study also, reviews how biology has been taught in the kingdom over the past, as well as how it is undertaken presently. In addition, some aspects of biology teaching are considered, including the biology curriculum and learning objectives in higher education biology.

Keywords: higher education, teaching style, traditional learning, electronic learning, web 2.0 applications, blended learning

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6 Perceptions of Corporate Governance and Business Ethics Practices in Kuwaiti Islamic and Conventional Banks

Authors: Khaled Alotaibi, Salah Alhamadi, Ibraheem Almubarak


The study attempts to explore both corporate governance (GC) and business ethics (BE) practices in Kuwaiti banks and the relationship between CG and BE, using an accountability framework. By examining the perceptions of key stakeholder groups, this study investigates the practices of BE and CG in Islamic banks (IBs) compared to conventional banks (CBs). We contribute to the scarce studies concerned with relations between CG and BE. We have employed a questionnaire survey method for a random sample of crucial relevant stakeholder groups. The empirical analysis of the participants’ perceptions highlights the importance of applying CG regulations and BE for Kuwaiti banks and the clear link between the two concepts. We find that the main concern is not the absence of CG and BE codes, but the lack of consistent enforcement of the regulations. Such a system needs to be strictly and effectively implemented in Kuwaiti banks to protect all stakeholders’ wealth, not only that of stockholders. There are significant patterns in the CG and BE expectations among different stakeholder groups. Most interestingly, banks’ client groups illustrate high expectations concerning CG and BE practices.

Keywords: corporate governance, GC, business ethics, BE, Islamic banks, IBs, conventional banks, CBs, accountability

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5 Comparative Evaluation of Pharmacologically Guided Approaches (PGA) to Determine Maximum Recommended Starting Dose (MRSD) of Monoclonal Antibodies for First Clinical Trial

Authors: Ibraheem Husain, Abul Kalam Najmi, Karishma Chester


First-in-human (FIH) studies are a critical step in clinical development of any molecule that has shown therapeutic promise in preclinical evaluations, since preclinical research and safety studies into clinical development is a crucial step for successful development of monoclonal antibodies for guidance in pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of human diseases. Therefore, comparison between USFDA and nine pharmacologically guided approaches (PGA) (simple allometry, maximum life span potential, brain weight, rule of exponent (ROE), two species methods and one species methods) were made to determine maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD) for first in human clinical trials using four drugs namely Denosumab, Bevacizumab, Anakinra and Omalizumab. In our study, the predicted pharmacokinetic (pk) parameters and the estimated first-in-human dose of antibodies were compared with the observed human values. The study indicated that the clearance and volume of distribution of antibodies can be predicted with reasonable accuracy in human and a good estimate of first human dose can be obtained from the predicted human clearance and volume of distribution. A pictorial method evaluation chart was also developed based on fold errors for simultaneous evaluation of various methods.

Keywords: clinical pharmacology (CPH), clinical research (CRE), clinical trials (CTR), maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD), clearance and volume of distribution

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4 Patterns, Triggers, and Predictors of Relapses among Children with Steroid Sensitive Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje, Ibraheem Ishola


Background: Childhood steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (SSINS) is plagued with relapses that contribute to its morbidity and the cost of treatment. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of relapses among children with SSINS at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital from January 2016 to July 2020. Triggers related to relapse incidents were noted. Chi-square test was deployed for predictors (factors at the first clinical presentations that associate with subsequent relapses) of relapses. Predictors with p-values of less than 0.05 were considered significant and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and odd ratio (OR) were described. Results: Sixty SSINS comprising 52 males (86.7%), aged 23 months to 18 years, with a mean age of 7.04±4.16 years were studied. Thirty-eight (63.3%) subjects had 126 relapses including infrequent relapses in 30 (78.9%) and frequent relapses in 8 (21.1%). The commonest triggers were acute upper respiratory tract infections (68, 53.9%) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 25 (19.8%) relapses. In 4 (3.2%) relapses, no trigger was identified. The time-to-first relapse ranged 14 days to 365 days with a median time of 60 days. The significant predictors were hypertension (OR=3.4, 95% CI; 1.04-11.09, p=0.038), UTIs (OR=9.9, 95% CI; 1.16-80.71, p= 0.014), malaria fever (OR=8.0, 95% CI; 2.45-26.38, p˂0.001), micro-haematuria (OR=4.9, 95% CI; 11.58-15.16, p=0.004), elevated serum creatinine (OR=12.3, 95%CI; 1.48-101.20, p=0.005) and hypercholesterolaemia (OR=4.1, 95%CI; 1.35-12.63, p=0.011). Conclusion: While the pathogenesis of relapses remains unknown, it is prudent to consider relapse-specific preventive strategies against triggers and predictors of relapses in our setting.

Keywords: Patterns, triggers, predictors, steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, relapses, Nigeria

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3 Genetic Diversity and Variation of Nigerian Pigeon (Columba livia domestica) Populations Based on the Mitochondrial Coi Gene

Authors: Foluke E. Sola-Ojo, Ibraheem A. Abubakar, Semiu F. Bello, Isiaka H. Fatima, Sule Bisola, Adesina M. Olusegun, Adeniyi C. Adeola


The domesticated pigeon, Columba livia domestica, has many valuable characteristics, including high nutritional value and fast growth rate. There is a lack of information on its genetic diversity in Nigeria; thus, the genetic variability in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences of 150 domestic pigeons from four different locations was examined. Three haplotypes (HT) were identified in Nigerian populations; the most common haplotype, HT1, was shared with wild and domestic pigeons from Europe, America, and Asia, while HT2 and HT3 were unique to Nigeria. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.052± 0.025, and nucleotide diversity was 0.026± 0.068 across the four investigated populations. The phylogenetic tree showed significant clustering and genetic relationship of Nigerian domestic pigeons with other global pigeons. The median-joining network showed a star-like pattern suggesting population expansion. AMOVA results indicated that genetic variations in Nigerian pigeons mainly occurred within populations (99.93%), while the Neutrality tests results suggested that the Nigerian domestic pigeons’ population experienced recent expansion. This study showed a low genetic diversity and population differentiation among Nigerian domestic pigeons consistent with a relatively conservative COI sequence with few polymorphic sites. Furthermore, the COI gene could serve as a candidate molecular marker to investigate the genetic diversity and origin of pigeon species. The current data is insufficient for further conclusions; therefore, more research evidence from multiple molecular markers is required.

Keywords: Nigeria pigeon, COI, genetic diversity, genetic variation, conservation

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2 Culturally Adapting Videos to Involve Nigerian Patients with Cancer in Clinical Trials

Authors: Abiola Falilat Ibraheem, Akinyimika Sowunmi, Valerie Otti


Background: Introduction of innovative cancer clinical trials to Nigeria is a critical step in addressing global inequities of cancer burden. Low health and clinical trial literacy among Nigerian patients have been sighted as a significant barrier to ensuring that patients enrolled in clinical trials are truly informed. Video intervention has been shown to be the most proactive method to improving patient’s clinical trial knowledge. In the US, video interventions have been successful at improving education about cancer clinical trials among minority patients. Thus, this study aimed to apply and adapt video interventions addressing attitudinal barriers peculiar to Nigerian patients. Methods: A hospital-based representative mixed-method study was conducted at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) from July to December 2020, comprising of cancer patients aged 18 and above. Patients were randomly selected during every clinic day, of which 63 patients volunteered to participate in this study. We first administered a cancer literacy survey to determine patients’ knowledge about clinical trials. For patients who had prior knowledge, a pre-intervention test was administered, after which a 15-minute video (attitudes and intention to enroll in therapeutic clinical trials (AIET)) to improve patients’ knowledge, perception, and attitudes towards clinical trials was played, and then ended by administering a post-intervention test to the patients. For patients who had no prior knowledge, the AIET video was played for them, followed by the post-intervention test. Results: Out of 63 patients sampled, 43 (68.3%) had breast cancer. On average, patients agreed to understand their cancer diagnosis and treatment very well. 84.1% of patients had never heard about cancer clinical trials, and 85.7% did not know what cancer clinical trials were. There was a strong positive relationship (r=0.916) between the pretest and posttest, which means that the intervention improved patients’ knowledge, perception, and attitudes about cancer clinical trials. In the focus groups, patients recommended adapting the video in Nigerian settings and representing all religions in order to address trust in local clinical trialists. Conclusion: Due to the small size of patients, change in clinical trial knowledge was not statistically significant. However, there is a trend suggesting that culturally adapted video interventions can be used to improve knowledge and perception about cancer clinical trials.

Keywords: clinical trials, culturally targeted intervention, patient education, video intervention

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1 Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation (Baseline vs. 12 months) for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Yasmeen Jamal Alabdallat, Almutazballlah Bassam Qablan, Hamza Al-Salhi, Salameh Alarood, Ibraheem Alkhawaldeh, Obada Abunar, Adam Abdallah


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder caused by the repeated collapse of the upper airway during sleep. It is the most common cause of sleep-related breathing disorder, as OSA can cause loud snoring, daytime fatigue, or more severe problems such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, insulin-resistant diabetes, and depression. The hypoglossal nerve stimulator (HNS) is an implantable medical device that reduces the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea by electrically stimulating the hypoglossal nerve in rhythm with the patient's breathing, causing the tongue to move. This stimulation helps keep the patient's airways clear while they sleep. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the clinical outcome of hypoglossal nerve stimulation as a treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. A computer literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted from inception until August 2022. Studies assessing the following clinical outcomes (Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Oxygen Desaturation Indices (ODI), (Oxygen Saturation (SaO2)) were pooled in the meta-analysis using Review Manager Software. We assessed the quality of studies according to the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB2), Risk of Bias In Non-randomized Studies - of Interventions (ROBINS-I), and a modified version of NOS for the non-comparative cohort studies.13 Studies (Six Clinical Trials and Seven prospective cohort studies) with a total of 817 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The results of AHI were reported in 11 studies examining OSA 696 patients. We found that there was a significant improvement in the AHI after 12 months of HNS (MD = 18.2 with 95% CI, (16.7 to 19.7; I2 = 0%); P < 0.00001). Further, 12 studies reported the results of ESS after 12 months of intervention with a significant improvement in the range of sleepiness among the examined 757 OSA patients (MD = 5.3 with 95% CI, (4.75 to 5.86; I2 = 65%); P < 0.0001). Moreover, nine studies involving 699 participants reported the results of FOSQ after 12 months of HNS with a significant reported improvement (MD = -3.09 with 95% CI, (-3.41 to 2.77; I2 = 0%); P < 0.00001). In addition, ten studies reported the results of ODI with a significant improvement after 12 months of HNS among the 817 examined patients (MD = 14.8 with 95% CI, (13.25 to 16.32; I2 = 0%); P < 000001). The Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation showed a significant positive impact on obstructive sleep apnea patients after 12 months of therapy in terms of apnea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation indices, manifestations of the behavioral morbidity associated with obstructive sleep apnea, and functional status resulting from sleepiness.

Keywords: apnea, meta-analysis, hypoglossal, stimulation

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