Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Iacopo Carnacina

5 Next Generation UK Storm Surge Model for the Insurance Market: The London Case

Authors: Iacopo Carnacina, Mohammad Keshtpoor, Richard Yablonsky

Abstract:

Non-structural protection measures against flooding are becoming increasingly popular flood risk mitigation strategies. In particular, coastal flood insurance impacts not only private citizens but also insurance and reinsurance companies, who may require it to retain solvency and better understand the risks they face from a catastrophic coastal flood event. In this context, a framework is presented here to assess the risk for coastal flooding across the UK. The area has a long history of catastrophic flood events, including the Great Flood of 1953 and the 2013 Cyclone Xaver storm, both of which led to significant loss of life and property. The current framework will leverage a technology based on a hydrodynamic model (Delft3D Flexible Mesh). This flexible mesh technology, coupled with a calibration technique, allows for better utilisation of computational resources, leading to higher resolution and more detailed results. The generation of a stochastic set of extra tropical cyclone (ETC) events supports the evaluation of the financial losses for the whole area, also accounting for correlations between different locations in different scenarios. Finally, the solution shows a detailed analysis for the Thames River, leveraging the information available on flood barriers and levees. Two realistic disaster scenarios for the Greater London area are simulated: In the first scenario, the storm surge intensity is not high enough to fail London’s flood defences, but in the second scenario, London’s flood defences fail, highlighting the potential losses from a catastrophic coastal flood event.

Keywords: storm surge, stochastic model, levee failure, Thames River

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4 Spatial Data Science for Data Driven Urban Planning: The Youth Economic Discomfort Index for Rome

Authors: Iacopo Testi, Diego Pajarito, Nicoletta Roberto, Carmen Greco

Abstract:

Today, a consistent segment of the world’s population lives in urban areas, and this proportion will vastly increase in the next decades. Therefore, understanding the key trends in urbanization, likely to unfold over the coming years, is crucial to the implementation of sustainable urban strategies. In parallel, the daily amount of digital data produced will be expanding at an exponential rate during the following years. The analysis of various types of data sets and its derived applications have incredible potential across different crucial sectors such as healthcare, housing, transportation, energy, and education. Nevertheless, in city development, architects and urban planners appear to rely mostly on traditional and analogical techniques of data collection. This paper investigates the prospective of the data science field, appearing to be a formidable resource to assist city managers in identifying strategies to enhance the social, economic, and environmental sustainability of our urban areas. The collection of different new layers of information would definitely enhance planners' capabilities to comprehend more in-depth urban phenomena such as gentrification, land use definition, mobility, or critical infrastructural issues. Specifically, the research results correlate economic, commercial, demographic, and housing data with the purpose of defining the youth economic discomfort index. The statistical composite index provides insights regarding the economic disadvantage of citizens aged between 18 years and 29 years, and results clearly display that central urban zones and more disadvantaged than peripheral ones. The experimental set up selected the city of Rome as the testing ground of the whole investigation. The methodology aims at applying statistical and spatial analysis to construct a composite index supporting informed data-driven decisions for urban planning.

Keywords: data science, spatial analysis, composite index, Rome, urban planning, youth economic discomfort index

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3 Seismic Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Structures by Highly Dissipative Technologies

Authors: Stefano Sorace, Gloria Terenzi, Giulia Mazzieri, Iacopo Costoli

Abstract:

The prolonged earthquake sequence that struck several urban agglomerations and villages in Central Italy, starting from 24 August 2016 through January 2017, highlighted once again the seismic vulnerability of pre-normative reinforced concrete (R/C) structures. At the same time, considerable damages were surveyed in recently retrofitted R/C buildings too, one of which also by means of a dissipative bracing system. The solution adopted for the latter did not expressly take into account the performance of non-structural elements, and namely of infills and partitions, confirming the importance of their dynamic interaction with the structural skeleton. Based on this consideration, an alternative supplemental damping-based retrofit solution for this representative building, i.e., a school with an R/C structure situated in the municipality of Norcia, is examined in this paper. It consists of the incorporation of dissipative braces equipped with pressurized silicone fluid viscous (FV) dampers, instead of the BRAD system installed in the building, the delayed activation of which -caused by the high stiffness of the constituting metallic dampers- determined the observed non-structural damages. Indeed, the alternative solution proposed herein, characterized by dissipaters with mainly damping mechanical properties, guarantees an earlier activation of the protective system. A careful assessment analysis, preliminarily carried out to simulate and check the case study building performance in originally BRAD-retrofitted conditions, confirms that the interstorey drift demand related to the Norcia earthquake's mainshock and aftershocks is beyond the response capacity of infills. The verification analyses developed on the R/C structure, including the FV-damped braces, highlight their higher performance, giving rise to a completely undamaged response both of structural and non-structural elements up to the basic design earthquake normative level of seismic action.

Keywords: dissipative technologies, performance assessment analysis, concrete structures, seismic retrofit

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2 Gender Diversity and Financial Resilience in Company: A Literature Review

Authors: Giuseppina Iacoviello, Iacopo Cavallini, Elena Bruno

Abstract:

This paper examines the relation between the gender diversity and financial resilience in the company. Prior studies have investigated different corporate governance mechanisms that can have relationships with gender diversity. Furthermore, over the years, the issue of gender diversity in corporate governance has received increasing attention in both academic research and empirical studies. Financial resilience is the ability of a company (entrepreneur and/or manager) to ‘bounce back’ after adverse events and experiences (i.e., Pandemic Covid-19), to adapt to changing circumstances, and to deal with environmental stress. The company’s skill of response evolves with time and can improve through “continual learning”. .” This means that not company adjusts and copes with adverse events the same way. Cognitive skills, positive views of self, hope, and optimism are personal characteristics that can have stress-suppressing effects on financial resilience. The network of relationships indeed is an important contributor to resilience, including community ties, connections to family and friends, (gender) diversity as well as can help provide access to and sources of “information, advice, and assistance”. However, individuals do not have access to the resources on an equal basis due to social and economic disparities often outside the individual’s control; it implies that context and individual differences are important. It also points out that resilience is dependent on the individuals’: knowledge of the adverse event; , ability to accurately predict risks associated with such events; , and access, and knowledge of available alternatives; , and resources to adapt successfully. According to the Authors, diversity can be a factor in determining one’s ability to adapt in the face of adversity. Therefore, in this paper, we are interested in better understanding financial resilience in a company and how gender diversity can and should it. The aim of this paper is to understand how gender diversity can cope with financial adversity. The methodology is a systematic literature review to examine the current studies on the topic of financial resilience and gender diversity applied to companies. Our contributions are threefold. First, this paper builds on the concept of financial resilience in a company. This paper investigates where resources can and should be invested to best increase corporate governance’s ability to adapt to changing circumstances and manage financial adversity (e.g. ease with which debts are paid; levels of financial resources; levels of financial knowledge and confidence; levels of social capital such as social support in times of crisis). The challenges in building financial resilience combine access to and demand for financial products and services with economic resources, financial knowledge and behavior, and social capital. The findings have useful policy overtones given that there isn’t evidence of studies on the relation between the effectiveness of the gender diversity and the financial resilience in a company.

Keywords: financial resilience, gender diversity, financial knowledge and confidence, entrepreneurship

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1 The Chinese Inland-Coastal Inequality: The Role of Human Capital and the Crisis Watershed

Authors: Iacopo Odoardi, Emanuele Felice, Dario D'Ingiullo

Abstract:

We investigate the role of human capital in the Chinese inland-coastal inequality and how the consequences of the 2007-2008 crisis may induce China to refocus its development path on human capital. We compare panel data analyses for two periods for the richer/coastal and the relatively poor/inland provinces. Considering the rapid evolution of the Chinese economy and the changes forced by the international crisis, we wonder if these events can lead to rethinking local development paths, fostering greater attention on the diffusion of higher education. We expect that the consequences on human capital may, in turn, have consequences on the inland/coastal dualism. The focus on human capital is due to the fact that the growing differences between inland and coastal areas can be explained by the different local endowments. In this respect, human capital may play a major role and should be thoroughly investigated. To assess the extent to which human capital has an effect on economic growth, we consider a fixed-effects model where differences among the provinces are considered parametric shifts in the regression equation. Data refer to the 31 Chinese provinces for the periods 1998-2008 and 2009-2017. Our dependent variable is the annual variation of the provincial gross domestic product (GDP) at the prices of the previous year. Among our regressors, we include two proxies of advanced human capital and other known factors affecting economic development. We are aware of the problem of conceptual endogeneity of variables related to human capital with respect to GDP; we adopt an instrumental variable approach (two-stage least squares) to avoid inconsistent estimates. Our results suggest that the economic strengths that influenced the Chinese take-off and the dualism are confirmed in the first period. These results gain relevance in comparison with the second period. An evolution in local economic endowments is taking place: first, although human capital can have a positive effect on all provinces after the crisis, not all types of advanced education have a direct economic effect; second, the development path of the inland area is changing, with an evolution towards more productive sectors which can favor higher returns to human capital. New strengths (e.g., advanced education, transport infrastructures) could be useful to foster development paths of inland-coastal desirable convergence, especially by favoring the poorer provinces. Our findings suggest that in all provinces, human capital can be useful to promote convergence in growth paths, even if investments in tertiary education seem to have a negative role, most likely due to the inability to exploit the skills of highly educated workers. Furthermore, we observe important changes in the economic characteristics of the less developed internal provinces. These findings suggest an evolution towards more productive economic sectors, a greater ability to exploit both investments in fixed capital and the available infrastructures. All these aspects, if connected with the improvement in the returns to human capital (at least at the secondary level), lead us to assume a better reaction (i.e., resilience) of the less developed provinces to the crisis effects.

Keywords: human capital, inland-coastal inequality, Great Recession, China

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