Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: I/O optimizations

48 Developing NAND Flash-Memory SSD-Based File System Design

Authors: Jaechun No


This paper focuses on I/O optimizations of N-hybrid (New-Form of hybrid), which provides a hybrid file system space constructed on SSD and HDD. Although the promising potentials of SSD, such as the absence of mechanical moving overhead and high random I/O throughput, have drawn a lot of attentions from IT enterprises, its high ratio of cost/capacity makes it less desirable to build a large-scale data storage subsystem composed of only SSDs. In this paper, we present N-hybrid that attempts to integrate the strengths of SSD and HDD, to offer a single, large hybrid file system space. Several experiments were conducted to verify the performance of N-hybrid.

Keywords: SSD, data section, I/O optimizations, hybrid system

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
47 Aerodynamic Optimum Nose Shape Change of High-Speed Train by Design Variable Variation

Authors: Minho Kwak, Suhwan Yun, Choonsoo Park


Nose shape optimizations of high-speed train are performed for the improvement of aerodynamic characteristics. Based on the commercial train, KTX-Sancheon, multi-objective optimizations are conducted for the improvement of the side wind stability and the micro-pressure wave following the optimization for the reduction of aerodynamic drag. 3D nose shapes are modelled by the Vehicle Modeling Function. Aerodynamic drag and side wind stability are calculated by three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and micro pressure wave is done by axi-symmetric compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The Maxi-min Latin Hypercube Sampling method is used to extract sampling points to construct the approximation model. The kriging model is constructed for the approximation model and the NSGA-II algorithm was used as the multi-objective optimization algorithm. Nose length, nose tip height, and lower surface curvature are design variables. Because nose length is a dominant variable for aerodynamic characteristics of train nose, two optimization processes are progressed respectively with and without the design variable, nose length. Each pareto set was obtained and each optimized nose shape is selected respectively considering Honam high-speed rail line infrastructure in South Korea. Through the optimization process with the nose length, when compared to KTX Sancheon, aerodynamic drag was reduced by 9.0%, side wind stability was improved by 4.5%, micro-pressure wave was reduced by 5.4% whereas aerodynamic drag by 7.3%, side wind stability by 3.9%, micro-pressure wave by 3.9%, without the nose length. As a result of comparison between two optimized shapes, similar shapes are extracted other than the effect of nose length.

Keywords: aerodynamic characteristics, design variable, multi-objective optimization, train nose shape

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
46 Method for Assessing Potential in Distribution Logistics

Authors: B. Groß, P. Fronia, P. Nyhuis


In addition to the production, which is already frequently optimized, improving the distribution logistics also opens up tremendous potential for increasing an enterprise’s competitiveness. Here too though, numerous interactions need to be taken into account, enterprises thus need to be able to identify and weigh between different potentials for economically efficient optimizations. In order to be able to assess potentials, enterprises require a suitable method. This paper first briefly presents the need for this research before introducing the procedure that will be used to develop an appropriate method that not only considers interactions but is also quickly and easily implemented.

Keywords: distribution logistics, evaluation of potential, methods, model

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
45 Dido: An Automatic Code Generation and Optimization Framework for Stencil Computations on Distributed Memory Architectures

Authors: Mariem Saied, Jens Gustedt, Gilles Muller


We present Dido, a source-to-source auto-generation and optimization framework for multi-dimensional stencil computations. It enables a large programmer community to easily and safely implement stencil codes on distributed-memory parallel architectures with Ordered Read-Write Locks (ORWL) as an execution and communication back-end. ORWL provides inter-task synchronization for data-oriented parallel and distributed computations. It has been proven to guarantee equity, liveness, and efficiency for a wide range of applications, particularly for iterative computations. Dido consists mainly of an implicitly parallel domain-specific language (DSL) implemented as a source-level transformer. It captures domain semantics at a high level of abstraction and generates parallel stencil code that leverages all ORWL features. The generated code is well-structured and lends itself to different possible optimizations. In this paper, we enhance Dido to handle both Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel grid traversals. We integrate temporal blocking to the Dido code generator in order to reduce the communication overhead and minimize data transfers. To increase data locality and improve intra-node data reuse, we coupled the code generation technique with the polyhedral parallelizer Pluto. The accuracy and portability of the generated code are guaranteed thanks to a parametrized solution. The combination of ORWL features, the code generation pattern and the suggested optimizations, make of Dido a powerful code generation framework for stencil computations in general, and for distributed-memory architectures in particular. We present a wide range of experiments over a number of stencil benchmarks.

Keywords: stencil computations, ordered read-write locks, domain-specific language, polyhedral model, experiments

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
44 Tool for Fast Detection of Java Code Snippets

Authors: Tomáš Bublík, Miroslav Virius


This paper presents general results on the Java source code snippet detection problem. We propose the tool which uses graph and sub graph isomorphism detection. A number of solutions for all of these tasks have been proposed in the literature. However, although that all these solutions are really fast, they compare just the constant static trees. Our solution offers to enter an input sample dynamically with the Scripthon language while preserving an acceptable speed. We used several optimizations to achieve very low number of comparisons during the matching algorithm.

Keywords: AST, Java, tree matching, scripthon source code recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
43 DFT Study of Hoogsteen-Type Base Pairs

Authors: N. Amraoui, D. Hammoutene


We have performed a theoretical study using dispersion-corrected Density Functional Methods to evaluate a variety of artificial nucleobases as candidates for metal-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs. We focus on A-M-T Hoogsteen-type base pair with M=Co(II), Ru(I), Ni(I). All calculations are performed using (ADF 09) program. Metal-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs are studied as drug candidates, their geometry optimizations are performed at ZORA/TZ2P/BLYP-D level. The molecular geometries and different energies as total energies, coordination energies, Pauli interactions, orbital interactions and electrostatic energies are determined.

Keywords: chemistry, biology, density functional method, orbital interactions

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42 Thermal Modelling and Experimental Comparison for a Moving Pantograph Strip

Authors: Nicolas Delcey, Philippe Baucour, Didier Chamagne, Geneviève Wimmer, Auditeau Gérard, Bausseron Thomas, Bouger Odile, Blanvillain Gérard


This paper proposes a thermal study of the catenary/pantograph interface for a train in motion. A 2.5D complex model of the pantograph strip has been defined and created by a coupling between a 1D and a 2D model. Experimental and simulation results are presented and with a comparison allow validating the 2.5D model. Some physical phenomena are described and presented with the help of the model such as the stagger motion thermal effect, particular heats and the effect of the material characteristics. Finally it is possible to predict the critical thermal configuration during a train trip.

Keywords: electro-thermal studies, mathematical optimizations, multi-physical approach, numerical model, pantograph strip wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
41 Behavior of SPEC CPU2006 Based on Optimization Levels

Authors: Faisel Elramalli, Ibrahim Althomali Amjad Sabbagh, Dhananjay Tambe


SPEC CPU benchmarks are used to evaluate the performance of CPUs on computer systems. In our project we are going to use SPEC CPU suite that contains several benchmarks running on two different compilers gcc and icc in different optimizations levels to evaluate the performance of a CPU. The motivation of this project is to find out which compiler and in which optimization level makes the CPU reaches the best performance. The results of that evaluation will help users of these compilers to choose the best compiler and optimization level that perform efficiently for their work. In other words, it will give users the best performance of the CPU while doing their works. This project is interesting since it will provide the method used to measure the performance of CPU and how different optimization levels of compilers can help achieve a higher performance. Moreover, it will give a good understanding of how benchmarks are used to evaluate a CPU performance. For the reader, in reality SPEC CPU benchmarks are used to measure the performance of new released CPUs to be compared to other CPUs.

Keywords: SPEC, CPU, GCC, ICC, copilers

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
40 Optimum Design of Attenuator of Spun-Bond Production System

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Abdullah Bolek, Oktay Yilmaz, Ertan Oznergiz, Hikmet Kocabas, Safak Yilmaz


Nanofibers are effective material which have frequently been investigated to produce high quality air filters. As an environmental approach our aim is to achieve nanofibers by melting. In spun-bond systems extruder, spin-pump, nozzle package and attenuator are used. Molten polymer which flows from extruder is made steady by spin-pump. Regular melt passes through nozzle holes and forms fibers under high pressure. The fibers pulled from nozzle are shrunk to micron size by an attenuator, after solidification they are collected on a conveyor. In this research different designs of attenuator system have been studied and also CFD analysis have been done on them. Afterwards, one of these designs tested and finally some optimizations have been done to reduce pressure loss and increase air velocity.

Keywords: attenuator, nanofiber, spun-bond, extruder

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
39 Efficient Computer-Aided Design-Based Multilevel Optimization of the LS89

Authors: A. Chatel, I. S. Torreguitart, T. Verstraete


The paper deals with a single point optimization of the LS89 turbine using an adjoint optimization and defining the design variables within a CAD system. The advantage of including the CAD model in the design system is that higher level constraints can be imposed on the shape, allowing the optimized model or component to be manufactured. However, CAD-based approaches restrict the design space compared to node-based approaches where every node is free to move. In order to preserve a rich design space, we develop a methodology to refine the CAD model during the optimization and to create the best parameterization to use at each time. This study presents a methodology to progressively refine the design space, which combines parametric effectiveness with a differential evolutionary algorithm in order to create an optimal parameterization. In this manuscript, we show that by doing the parameterization at the CAD level, we can impose higher level constraints on the shape, such as the axial chord length, the trailing edge radius and G2 geometric continuity between the suction side and pressure side at the leading edge. Additionally, the adjoint sensitivities are filtered out and only smooth shapes are produced during the optimization process. The use of algorithmic differentiation for the CAD kernel and grid generator allows computing the grid sensitivities to machine accuracy and avoid the limited arithmetic precision and the truncation error of finite differences. Then, the parametric effectiveness is computed to rate the ability of a set of CAD design parameters to produce the design shape change dictated by the adjoint sensitivities. During the optimization process, the design space is progressively enlarged using the knot insertion algorithm which allows introducing new control points whilst preserving the initial shape. The position of the inserted knots is generally assumed. However, this assumption can hinder the creation of better parameterizations that would allow producing more localized shape changes where the adjoint sensitivities dictate. To address this, we propose using a differential evolutionary algorithm to maximize the parametric effectiveness by optimizing the location of the inserted knots. This allows the optimizer to gradually explore larger design spaces and to use an optimal CAD-based parameterization during the course of the optimization. The method is tested on the LS89 turbine cascade and large aerodynamic improvements in the entropy generation are achieved whilst keeping the exit flow angle fixed. The trailing edge and axial chord length, which are kept fixed as manufacturing constraints. The optimization results show that the multilevel optimizations were more efficient than the single level optimization, even though they used the same number of design variables at the end of the multilevel optimizations. Furthermore, the multilevel optimization where the parameterization is created using the optimal knot positions results in a more efficient strategy to reach a better optimum than the multilevel optimization where the position of the knots is arbitrarily assumed.

Keywords: adjoint, CAD, knots, multilevel, optimization, parametric effectiveness

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38 Investigation of the Mechanism, Régio and Sterioselectivity Using the 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction of Fused 1h-Pyrrole-2,3-Diones with Nitrones: Molecular Electron Density Theory Study

Authors: Ameur Soukaina, Zeroual Abdellah, Mazoir Noureddine


Molecular Electron Density Theory (MEDT) elucidates the regioselectivity of the [4+2] cycloaddition reaction between 3-aroylpyrrolo[1,2-α]quinoxaline-1,2,4(5H)-trione and butyl vinyl ether Regioselectivity and stereoselectivity. The regioselectivity mechanisms of these reactions were investigated by evaluating potential energy surfaces calculated for cycloaddition processes and DFT density-based reactivity indices. These methods have been successfully applied to predict preferred regioisomers for different method alternatives. Reactions were monitored by performing transition state optimizations, calculations of intrinsic reaction coordinates, and activation energies. The observed regioselectivity was rationalized using DFT-based reactivity descriptors such as the Parr function. Solvent effects were also investigated in 1,4-dioxane solvent using a field model for self-consistent reactions. The results were compared with experimental data to find good agreement.

Keywords: cycloaddition, DFT, ELF, MEDT, parr, stereoselectivité

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37 Multi-Objective Exergy Optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle with Cyclohexane as Working Fluid

Authors: Touil Djamal, Fergani Zineb


In this study, an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with Cyclohexane working fluid is proposed for cogeneration in the cement industry. In this regard: first, a parametric study is conducted to evaluate the effects of some key parameters on the system performances. Next, single and multi-objective optimizations are performed to achieve the system optimal design. The optimization considers the exergy efficiency, the cost per exergy unit and the environmental impact of the net produced power as objective functions. Finally, exergy, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental analysis of the cycle is carried out at the optimum operating conditions. The results show that the turbine inlet pressure, the pinch point temperature difference and the heat transfer fluid temperature have significant effects on the performances of the ORC system.

Keywords: organic rankine cycle, multi-objective optimization, exergy, exergoeconomic, exergoenvironmental, multi-objective optimisation, organic rankine cycle, cement plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
36 Transformer Design Optimization Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Zakir Husain


Main objective of a power transformer design optimization problem requires minimizing the total overall cost and/or mass of the winding and core material by satisfying all possible constraints obligatory by the standards and transformer user requirement. The constraints include appropriate limits on winding fill factor, temperature rise, efficiency, no-load current and voltage regulation. The design optimizations tasks are a constrained minimum cost and/or mass solution by optimally setting the parameters, geometry and require magnetic properties of the transformer. In this paper, present the above design problems have been formulated by using genetic algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) on the MATLAB platform. The importance of the presented approach is stems for two main features. First, proposed technique provides reliable and efficient solution for the problem of design optimization with several variables. Second, it guaranteed to obtained solution is global optimum. This paper includes a demonstration of the application of the genetic programming GP technique to transformer design.

Keywords: optimization, power transformer, genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing technique (SA)

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35 Basic Modal Displacements (BMD) for Optimizing the Buildings Subjected to Earthquakes

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Mohsen Khatibinia


In structural optimizations through meta-heuristic algorithms, analyses of structures are performed for many times. For this reason, performing the analyses in a time saving way is precious. The importance of the point is more accentuated in time-history analyses which take much time. To this aim, peak picking methods also known as spectrum analyses are generally utilized. However, such methods do not have the required accuracy either done by square root of sum of squares (SRSS) or complete quadratic combination (CQC) rules. The paper presents an efficient technique for evaluating the dynamic responses during the optimization process with high speed and accuracy. In the method, first by using a static equivalent of the earthquake, an initial design is obtained. Then, the displacements in the modal coordinates are achieved. The displacements are herein called basic modal displacements (MBD). For each new design of the structure, the responses can be derived by well scaling each of the MBD along the time and amplitude and superposing them together using the corresponding modal matrices. To illustrate the efficiency of the method, an optimization problems is studied. The results show that the proposed approach is a suitable replacement for the conventional time history and spectrum analyses in such problems.

Keywords: basic modal displacements, earthquake, optimization, spectrum

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34 A Parallel Cellular Automaton Model of Tumor Growth for Multicore and GPU Programming

Authors: Manuel I. Capel, Antonio Tomeu, Alberto Salguero


Tumor growth from a transformed cancer-cell up to a clinically apparent mass spans through a range of spatial and temporal magnitudes. Through computer simulations, Cellular Automata (CA) can accurately describe the complexity of the development of tumors. Tumor development prognosis can now be made -without making patients undergo through annoying medical examinations or painful invasive procedures- if we develop appropriate CA-based software tools. In silico testing mainly refers to Computational Biology research studies of application to clinical actions in Medicine. To establish sound computer-based models of cellular behavior, certainly reduces costs and saves precious time with respect to carrying out experiments in vitro at labs or in vivo with living cells and organisms. These aim to produce scientifically relevant results compared to traditional in vitro testing, which is slow, expensive, and does not generally have acceptable reproducibility under the same conditions. For speeding up computer simulations of cellular models, specific literature shows recent proposals based on the CA approach that include advanced techniques, such the clever use of supporting efficient data structures when modeling with deterministic stochastic cellular automata. Multiparadigm and multiscale simulation of tumor dynamics is just beginning to be developed by the concerned research community. The use of stochastic cellular automata (SCA), whose parallel programming implementations are open to yield a high computational performance, are of much interest to be explored up to their computational limits. There have been some approaches based on optimizations to advance in multiparadigm models of tumor growth, which mainly pursuit to improve performance of these models through efficient memory accesses guarantee, or considering the dynamic evolution of the memory space (grids, trees,…) that holds crucial data in simulations. In our opinion, the different optimizations mentioned above are not decisive enough to achieve the high performance computing power that cell-behavior simulation programs actually need. The possibility of using multicore and GPU parallelism as a promising multiplatform and framework to develop new programming techniques to speed-up the computation time of simulations is just starting to be explored in the few last years. This paper presents a model that incorporates parallel processing, identifying the synchronization necessary for speeding up tumor growth simulations implemented in Java and C++ programming environments. The speed up improvement that specific parallel syntactic constructs, such as executors (thread pools) in Java, are studied. The new tumor growth parallel model is proved using implementations with Java and C++ languages on two different platforms: chipset Intel core i-X and a HPC cluster of processors at our university. The parallelization of Polesczuk and Enderling model (normally used by researchers in mathematical oncology) proposed here is analyzed with respect to performance gain. We intend to apply the model and overall parallelization technique presented here to solid tumors of specific affiliation such as prostate, breast, or colon. Our final objective is to set up a multiparadigm model capable of modelling angiogenesis, or the growth inhibition induced by chemotaxis, as well as the effect of therapies based on the presence of cytotoxic/cytostatic drugs.

Keywords: cellular automaton, tumor growth model, simulation, multicore and manycore programming, parallel programming, high performance computing, speed up

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33 Theoretical Study of Acetylation of P-Methylaniline Catalyzed by Cu²⁺ Ions

Authors: Silvana Caglieri


Theoretical study of acetylation of p-methylaniline catalyzed by Cu2+ ions from the analysis of intermediate of the reaction was carried out. The study of acetylation of amines is of great interest by the utility of its products of reaction and is one of the most frequently used transformations in organic synthesis as it provides an efficient and inexpensive means for protecting amino groups in a multistep synthetic process. Acetylation of amine is a nucleophilic substitution reaction. This reaction can be catalyzed by Lewis acid, metallic ion. In reaction mechanism, the metallic ion formed a complex with the oxygen of the acetic anhydride carbonyl, facilitating the polarization of the same and the successive addition of amine at the position to form a tetrahedral intermediate, determining step of the rate of the reaction. Experimental work agreed that this reaction takes place with the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate. In the present theoretical work were investigated the structure and energy of the tetrahedral intermediate of the reaction catalyzed by Cu2+ ions. Geometries of all species involved in the acetylation were made and identified. All of the geometry optimizations were performed by the method at the DFT/B3LYP level of theory and the method MP2. Were adopted the 6-31+G* basis sets. Energies were calculated using the Mechanics-UFF method. Following the same procedure it was identified the geometric parameters and energy of reaction intermediate. The calculations show 61.35 kcal/mol of energy for the tetrahedral intermediate and the energy of activation for the reaction was 15.55 kcal/mol.

Keywords: amides, amines, DFT, MP2

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
32 Large-Eddy Simulations for Flow Control

Authors: Reda Mankbadi


There are several technologically-important flow situations in which there is a need to control the outcome of the fluid flow. This could include flow separation, drag, noise, as well as particulate separations, to list only a few. One possible approach is the passive control, in which the design geometry is changed. An alternative approach is the Active Flow Control (AFC) technology in which an actuator is imbedded in the flow field to change the outcome. Examples of AFC are pulsed jets, synthetic jets, plasma actuators, heating and cooling, Etc. In this work will present an overview of the development of this field. Some examples will include: Airfoil Noise Suppression: LES is used to simulate the effect of the synthetic jet actuator on controlling the far field sound of a transitional airfoil. The results show considerable suppression of the noise if the synthetic jet is operated at frequencies. Mixing Enhancement and suppression: Results will be presented to show that imposing acoustic excitations at the nozzle exit can lead to enhancement or reduction of the jet plume mixing. In a vertical takeoff of Aircraft or in Space Launch, we will present results on the effects of water injection on reducing noise, and on protect the structure and pay load from fatigue damage. Other applications will include airfoil-gust interaction and propulsion systems optimizations.

Keywords: aerodynamics, simulations, aeroacoustics, active flow control (AFC), Large-Eddy Simulations (LES)

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
31 Large-Eddy Simulations for Aeronautical Systems

Authors: R. R. Mankbadi


There are several technologically-important flow situations in which there is a need to control the outcome of the fluid flow. This could include flow separation, drag, noise, as well as particulate separations, to list only a few. One possible approach is the passive control, in which the design geometry is changed. An alternative approach is the Active Flow Control (AFC) technology in which an actuator is embedded in the flow field to change the outcome. Examples of AFC are pulsed jets, synthetic jets, plasma actuators, heating, and cooling, etc. In this work will present an overview of the development of this field. Some examples will include Airfoil Noise Suppression: Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) is used to simulate the effect of synthetic jet actuator on controlling the far field sound of a transitional airfoil. The results show considerable suppression of the noise if the synthetic jet is operated at frequencies. Mixing Enhancement and suppression: Results will be presented to show that imposing acoustic excitations at the nozzle exit can lead to enhancement or reduction of the jet plume mixing. In vertical takeoff of Aircrafts or in Space Launch, we will present results on the effects of water injection on reducing noise, and on protecting the structure and payload from fatigue damage. Other applications will include airfoil-gust interaction and propulsion systems optimizations.

Keywords: aeroacoustics, flow control, aerodynamics, large eddy simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
30 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Geometrical Shape of Plate Heat Exchangers on Heat Transfer Efficiency

Authors: Hamed Sanei, Mohammad Bagher Ayani


Optimizations of Plate Heat Exchangers (PHS) have received great attention in the past decade. In this study, heat transfer and pressure drop coefficients are compared for rectangular and circular PHS employing numerical simulations. Plates are designed to have equivalent areas. Simulations were implemented to investigate the efficiency of PHSs considering heat transfer, friction factor and pressure drop. Amount of heat transfer and pressure drop was obtained for different range of Reynolds numbers. These two parameters were compared with aim of F "weighting factor correlation". In this comparison, the minimum amount of F indicates higher efficiency. Results reveal that the F value for rectangular shape is less than circular plate, and hence using rectangular shape of PHS is more efficient than circular one. It was observed that, the amount of friction factor is correlated to the Reynolds numbers, such that friction factor decreased in both rectangular and circular plates with an increase in Reynolds number. Furthermore, such simulations revealed that the amount of heat transfer in rectangular plate is more than circular plate for different range of Reynolds numbers. The difference is more distinct for higher Reynolds number. However, amount of pressure drop in circular plate is less than rectangular plate for the same range of Reynolds numbers which is considered as a negative point for rectangular plate efficiency. It can be concluded that, while rectangular PHSs occupy more space than circular plate, the efficiency of rectangular plate is higher.

Keywords: Chevron corrugated plate heat exchanger, heat transfer, friction factor, Reynolds numbers

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29 Photovoltaic Performance of AgInSe2-Conjugated Polymer Hybrid Systems

Authors: Dinesh Pathaka, Tomas Wagnera, J. M. Nunzib


We investigated blends of MdPVV.PCBM.AIS for photovoltaic application. AgInSe2 powder was synthesized by sealing and heating the stoichiometric constituents in evacuated quartz tube ampule. Fine grinded AIS powder was dispersed in MD-MOPVV and PCBM with and without surfactant. Different concentrations of these particles were suspended in the polymer solutions and spin casted onto ITO glass. Morphological studies have been performed by atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy. The blend layers were also investigated by various techniques like XRD, UV-VIS optical spectroscopy, AFM, PL, after a series of various optimizations with polymers/concentration/deposition/ suspension/surfactants etc. XRD investigation of blend layers shows clear evidence of AIS dispersion in polymers. Diode behavior and cell parameters also revealed it. Bulk heterojunction hybrid photovoltaic device Ag/MoO3/MdPVV.PCBM.AIS/ZnO/ITO was fabricated and tested with standard solar simulator and device characterization system. The best performance and photovoltaic parameters we obtained was an open-circuit voltage of about Voc 0.54 V and a photocurrent of Isc 117 micro A and an efficiency of 0.2 percent using a white light illumination intensity of 23 mW/cm2. Our results are encouraging for further research on the fourth generation inorganic organic hybrid bulk heterojunction photovoltaics for energy. More optimization with spinning rate/thickness/solvents/deposition rates for active layers etc. need to be explored for improved photovoltaic response of these bulk heterojunction devices.

Keywords: thin films, photovoltaic, hybrid systems, heterojunction

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28 Passive Solar-Driven Membrane Distiller for Desalination: Effect of Middle Layer Material and Thickness on Desalination Performance

Authors: Glebert C. Dadol, Camila Flor Y. Lobarbio, Noel Peter B. Tan


Water scarcity is a global problem. One of the promising solutions to this challenge is the use of membrane-based desalination technologies. In this study, a passive solar-driven membrane (PSDM) distillation was employed to test its desalination performance. The PSDM was fabricated using a TiNOX sheet solar absorber, cellulose-based hydrophilic top and bottom layers, and a middle layer. The effects of the middle layer material and thickness on the desalination performance in terms of distillate flow rate, productivity, and salinity were investigated. An air-gap screen mesh (2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm thickness) and a hydrophobic PTFE membrane (0.3 mm thickness) were used as middle-layer materials. Saltwater input (35 g/L NaCl) was used for the PSDM distiller on a rooftop setting at the University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines. The highest distillate flow rate and productivity of 1.08 L/m²-h and 1.47 L/kWh, respectively, were achieved using a 2 mm air-gap middle layer, but it also resulted in a high salinity of 25.20 g/L. Increasing the air gap lowered the salinity but also decreased the flow rate and productivity. The lowest salinity of 1.07 g/L was achieved using 6 mm air gap, but the flow rate and productivity were reduced to 0.08 L/m²-h and 0.17 L/kWh, respectively. The use of a hydrophobic PTFE membrane, on the other hand, did not offer a significant improvement in its performance. A PDSM distiller with a thick air gap as the middle layer can deliver a distillate with low salinity and is preferred over a thin hydrophobic PTFE membrane. Various modifications and optimizations to the distiller can be done to improve its performance further.

Keywords: desalination, membrane distillation, passive solar-driven membrane distiller, solar distillation

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27 Agile Implementation of 'PULL' Principles in a Manufacturing Process Chain for Aerospace Composite Parts

Authors: Torsten Mielitz, Dietmar Schulz, York C. Roth


Market forecasts show a significant increase in the demand for aircraft within the next two decades and production rates will be adapted accordingly. Improvements and optimizations in the industrial system are becoming more important to cope with future challenges in manufacturing and assembly. Highest quality standards have to be met for aerospace parts, whereas cost effective production in industrial systems and methodologies are also a key driver. A look at other industries like e.g., automotive shows well established processes to streamline existing manufacturing systems. In this paper, the implementation of 'PULL' principles in an existing manufacturing process chain for a large scale composite part is presented. A nonlinear extrapolation based on 'Little's Law' showed a risk of a significant increase of parts needed in the process chain to meet future demand. A project has been set up to mitigate the risk whereas the methodology has been changed from a traditional milestone approach in the beginning towards an agile way of working in the end in order to facilitate immediate benefits in the shop-floor. Finally, delivery rates could be increased avoiding more semi-finished parts in the process chain (work in progress & inventory) by the successful implementation of the 'PULL' philosophy in the shop-floor between the work stations. Lessons learned during the running project as well as implementation and operations phases are discussed in order to share best practices.

Keywords: aerospace composite part manufacturing, PULL principles, shop-floor implementation, lessons learned

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
26 Cache Analysis and Software Optimizations for Faster on-Chip Network Simulations

Authors: Khyamling Parane, B. M. Prabhu Prasad, Basavaraj Talawar


Fast simulations are critical in reducing time to market in CMPs and SoCs. Several simulators have been used to evaluate the performance and power consumed by Network-on-Chips. Researchers and designers rely upon these simulators for design space exploration of NoC architectures. Our experiments show that simulating large NoC topologies take hours to several days for completion. To speed up the simulations, it is necessary to investigate and optimize the hotspots in simulator source code. Among several simulators available, we choose Booksim2.0, as it is being extensively used in the NoC community. In this paper, we analyze the cache and memory system behaviour of Booksim2.0 to accurately monitor input dependent performance bottlenecks. Our measurements show that cache and memory usage patterns vary widely based on the input parameters given to Booksim2.0. Based on these measurements, the cache configuration having least misses has been identified. To further reduce the cache misses, we use software optimization techniques such as removal of unused functions, loop interchanging and replacing post-increment operator with pre-increment operator for non-primitive data types. The cache misses were reduced by 18.52%, 5.34% and 3.91% by employing above technology respectively. We also employ thread parallelization and vectorization to improve the overall performance of Booksim2.0. The OpenMP programming model and SIMD are used for parallelizing and vectorizing the more time-consuming portions of Booksim2.0. Speedups of 2.93x and 3.97x were observed for the Mesh topology with 30 × 30 network size by employing thread parallelization and vectorization respectively.

Keywords: cache behaviour, network-on-chip, performance profiling, vectorization

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25 Managing Data from One Hundred Thousand Internet of Things Devices Globally for Mining Insights

Authors: Julian Wise


Newcrest Mining is one of the world’s top five gold and rare earth mining organizations by production, reserves and market capitalization in the world. This paper elaborates on the data acquisition processes employed by Newcrest in collaboration with Fortune 500 listed organization, Insight Enterprises, to standardize machine learning solutions which process data from over a hundred thousand distributed Internet of Things (IoT) devices located at mine sites globally. Through the utilization of software architecture cloud technologies and edge computing, the technological developments enable for standardized processes of machine learning applications to influence the strategic optimization of mineral processing. Target objectives of the machine learning optimizations include time savings on mineral processing, production efficiencies, risk identification, and increased production throughput. The data acquired and utilized for predictive modelling is processed through edge computing by resources collectively stored within a data lake. Being involved in the digital transformation has necessitated the standardization software architecture to manage the machine learning models submitted by vendors, to ensure effective automation and continuous improvements to the mineral process models. Operating at scale, the system processes hundreds of gigabytes of data per day from distributed mine sites across the globe, for the purposes of increased improved worker safety, and production efficiency through big data applications.

Keywords: mineral technology, big data, machine learning operations, data lake

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24 Efficiency of PCR-RFLP for the Identification of Adulteries in Meat Formulation

Authors: Hela Gargouri, Nizar Moalla, Hassen Hadj Kacem


Meat adulteration affecting the safety and quality of food is becoming one of the main concerns of public interest across the world. The drastic consequences on the meat industry highlighted the urgent necessity to control the products' quality and to point out the complexity of both supply and processing circuits. Due to the expansion of this problem, the authentic testing of foods, particularly meat and its products, is deemed crucial to avoid unfair market competition and to protect consumers from fraudulent practices of meat adulteration. The adoption of authentication methods by the food quality-control laboratories is becoming a priority issue. However, in some developing countries, the number of food tests is still insignificant, although a variety of processed and traditional meat products are widely consumed. Little attention has been paid to provide an easy, fast, reproducible, and low-cost molecular test, which could be conducted in a basic laboratory. In the current study, the 359 bp fragment of the cytochrome-b gene was mapped by PCR-RFLP using firstly fresh biological supports (DNA and meat) and then turkey salami as an example of commercial processed meat. This technique has been established through several optimizations, namely: the selection of restriction enzymes. The digestion with BsmAI, SspI, and TaaI succeed to identify the seven included animal species when meat is formed by individual species and when the meat is a mixture of different origin. In this study, the PCR-RFLP technique using universal primer succeed to meet our needs by providing an indirect sequencing method identifying by restriction enzymes the specificities characterizing different species on the same amplicon reducing the number of potential tests.

Keywords: adulteration, animal species, authentication, meat, mtDNA, PCR-RFLP

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23 Analysis of Rockfall Hazard along Himalayan Road Cut Slopes

Authors: Sarada Prasad Pradhan, Vikram Vishal, Tariq Siddique


With a vast area of India comprising of hilly terrain and road cut slopes, landslides and rockfalls are a common phenomenon. However, while landslide studies have received much attention in the past in India, very little literature and analysis is available regarding rockfall hazard of many rockfall prone areas, specifically in Uttarakhand Himalaya, India. The subsequent lack of knowledge and understanding of the rockfall phenomenon as well as frequent incidences of rockfall led fatalities urge the necessity of conducting site-specific rockfall studies to highlight the importance of addressing this issue as well as to provide data for safe design of preventive structures. The present study has been conducted across 10 rockfall prone road cut slopes for a distance of 15 km starting from Devprayag, India along National Highway 58 (NH-58). In order to make a qualitative assessment of Rockfall Hazard posed by these slopes, Rockfall Hazard Rating using standards for Indian Rockmass has been conducted at 10 locations under different slope conditions. Moreover, to accurately predict the characteristics of the possible rockfall phenomenon, numerical simulation was carried out to calculate the maximum bounce heights, total kinetic energies, translational velocities and trajectories of the falling rockmass blocks when simulated on each of these slopes according to real-life conditions. As it was observed that varying slope geometry had more fatal impacts on Rockfall hazard than size of rock masses, several optimizations have been suggested for each slope regarding location of barriers and modification of slope geometries in order to minimize damage by falling rocks. This study can be extremely useful in emphasizing the significance of rockfall studies and construction of mitigative barriers and structures along NH-58 around Devprayag.

Keywords: rockfall, slope stability, rockmass, hazard

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22 The Effects of Cost-Sharing Contracts on the Costs and Operations of E-Commerce Supply Chains

Authors: Sahani Rathnasiri, Pritee Ray, Sardar M. N. Isalm, Carlos A. Vega-Mejia


This study develops a cooperative game theory-based cost-sharing contract model for a business to consumer (B2C) e-commerce supply chain to minimize the overall supply chain costs and the individual costs within an information asymmetry scenario. The objective of this study is to address the issues of strategic interactions among the key players of the e-commerce supply chain operation, which impedes the optimal operational outcomes. Game theory has been included in the field of supply chain management to resolve strategic decision-making issues; however, most of the studies are limited only to two-echelons of the supply chains. Multi-echelon supply chain optimizations based on game-theoretic models are less explored in the previous literature. This study adopts a cooperative game model to focus on the common payoff of operations and addresses the issues of information asymmetry and coordination of a three-echelon e-commerce supply chain. The cost-sharing contract model integrates operational features such as production, inventory management and distribution with the contract related constraints. The outcomes of the model highlight the importance of maintaining lower operational costs by all players to obtain benefits from the cost-sharing contract. Further, the cost-sharing contract ensures true cost revelation, and hence eliminates the information asymmetry issues among the players. Comparing the results of the contract model with the de-centralized e-commerce supply chain operation further emphasizes that the cost-sharing contract derives Pareto-improved outcomes and minimizes the costs of overall e-commerce supply chain operation.

Keywords: cooperative game theory, cost-sharing contract, e-commerce supply chain, information asymmetry

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21 Desalination Performance of a Passive Solar-Driven Membrane Distiller: Effect of Middle Layer Material and Thickness

Authors: Glebert C. Dadol, Pamela Mae L. Ucab, Camila Flor Y. Lobarbio, Noel Peter B. Tan


Water scarcity is a global problem and membrane-based desalination technologies are one of the promising solutions to this problem. In this study, a passive solar-driven membrane distiller was fabricated and tested for its desalination performance. The distiller was composed of a TiNOX plate solar absorber, cellulose-based upper and lower hydrophilic layers, a hydrophobic middle layer, and aluminum heatsinks. The effect of the middle layer material and thickness on the desalination performance was investigated in terms of distillate productivity and salinity. The materials used for the middle layer were a screen mesh (2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm thickness) to generate an air gap, a PTFE membrane (0.3 mm thickness)), and a combination of the screen mesh and the PTFE membrane (2.3 mm total thickness). Salt water (35 g/L NaCl) was desalinated using the distiller at a rooftop setting at the University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines. The highest distillate productivity of 1.08 L/m2-h was achieved using a 2-mm screen mesh (air gap) but it also resulted in a high distillate salinity of 25.20 g/L. Increasing the thickness of the air gap lowered the distillate salinity but also decreased the distillate productivity. The lowest salinity of 1.07 g/L was achieved using a 6-mm air gap but the productivity was reduced to 0.08 L/m2-h. The use of the hydrophobic PTFE membrane increased the productivity (0.44 L/m2-h) compared to a 6-mm air gap but produced a distillate with high salinity (16.68 g/L). When using a combination of the screen mesh and the PTFE membrane, the productivity was 0.13 L/m2-h and a distillate salinity of 1.61 g/L. The distiller with a thick air gap as the middle layer can deliver a distillate with low salinity and is preferred over a thin hydrophobic PTFE membrane. The use of a combination of the air gap and PTFE membrane slightly increased the productivity with comparable distillate salinity. Modifications and optimizations to the distiller can be done to improve further its performance.

Keywords: desalination, membrane distillation, passive solar-driven membrane distiller, solar distillation

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20 Laboratory Scale Purification of Water from Copper Waste

Authors: Mumtaz Khan, Adeel Shahid, Waqas Khan


Heavy metals presence in water streams is a big danger for aquatic life and ultimately effects human health. Removal of copper (Cu) by ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake from synthetic solution in batch conditions was studied. Different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial solution pH, agitation rate, initial Cu concentration, biosorbent concentration, and biosorbent particle size has been studied to quantify the Cu biosorption. The rate of adsorption of metal ions was very fast at the beginning and became slow after reaching the saturation point, followed by a slower active metabolic uptake of metal ions into the cells. Up to a certain point, (pH=4, concentration of Cu = ~ 640 mg/l, agitation rate = ~ 400 rpm, biosorbent concentration = ~ 0.5g, 3g, 3g for ispaghula husk, maize fiber and maize oil cake, respectively) increasing the pH, concentration of Cu, agitation rate, and biosorbent concentration, increased the biosorption rate; however the sorption capacity increased by decreasing the particle size. At optimized experimental parameters, the maximum Cu biosorption by ispaghula husk, maize fibre and maize oil cake were 86.7%, 59.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Moreover, the results of the kinetics studies demonstrated that the biosorption of copper on ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The results of adsorption were fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model represented the sorption process better than Freundlich, and R² value ~ 0.978. Optimizations of physical and environmental parameters revealed, ispaghula husk as more potent copper biosorbent than maize fibre, and maize oil cake. The sorbent is cheap and available easily, so this study can be applied to remove Cu impurities on pilot and industrial scale after certain modifications.

Keywords: biosorption, copper, ispaghula husk, maize fibre, maize oil cake, purification

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19 Model-Based Approach as Support for Product Industrialization: Application to an Optical Sensor

Authors: Frederic Schenker, Jonathan J. Hendriks, Gianluca Nicchiotti


In a product industrialization perspective, the end-product shall always be at the peak of technological advancement and developed in the shortest time possible. Thus, the constant growth of complexity and a shorter time-to-market calls for important changes on both the technical and business level. Undeniably, the common understanding of the system is beclouded by its complexity which leads to the communication gap between the engineers and the sale department. This communication link is therefore important to maintain and increase the information exchange between departments to ensure a punctual and flawless delivery to the end customer. This evolution brings engineers to reason with more hindsight and plan ahead. In this sense, they use new viewpoints to represent the data and to express the model deliverables in an understandable way that the different stakeholder may identify their needs and ideas. This article focuses on the usage of Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) in a perspective of system industrialization and reconnect the engineering with the sales team. The modeling method used and presented in this paper concentrates on displaying as closely as possible the needs of the customer. Firstly, by providing a technical solution to the sales team to help them elaborate commercial offers without omitting technicalities. Secondly, the model simulates between a vast number of possibilities across a wide range of components. It becomes a dynamic tool for powerful analysis and optimizations. Thus, the model is no longer a technical tool for the engineers, but a way to maintain and solidify the communication between departments using different views of the model. The MBSE contribution to cost optimization during New Product Introduction (NPI) activities is made explicit through the illustration of a case study describing the support provided by system models to architectural choices during the industrialization of a novel optical sensor.

Keywords: analytical model, architecture comparison, MBSE, product industrialization, SysML, system thinking

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