Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: Hind Benouakrim

46 The Relational Approach under the Angle of the CSR

Authors: Fatima El Kandoussi, Hind Benouakrim, Afafe El Amrani El Hassani

Abstract:

CSR in the relational approach is imposed today as a matter of concerns lighthouses in the academic environment and managerial. This study presents the issues of the CSR dimension in the field of relationship marketing. This exploratory research was conducted with two groups of Moroccan enterprises having the label of the CSR /CGEM. It presents a better understanding of the approaches taken by the companies interviewed in a CSR and contributed to understand the reasons that lead them to adopt the process of CSR and also allows explaining how these enterprises maintain their relationship with the most important customers in a context of CSR.

Keywords: relationship marketing, CSR, stakeholders, business

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
45 Anti-Inflammatory Studies of Grewia crenata Leaves Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: A. N. Ukwuani, M. G. Abubakar, S. W. Hassan

Abstract:

Grewia crenata is used locally in the treatment of fractured bones, wound healing and inflammatory conditions. The anti-inflammatory activity of hydromethanolic extract of G. crenata leaves was investigated using egg albumin induced-hind paw oedema model in albino rat. The extract produced a time-dependent inhibition of egg albumin induced-hind paw oedema at 30th minutes up to 150th minutes in all the groups compared to the control. Significant reduction (p<0.05) of hind paw oedema was observed 150 minutes after egg albumin injection. The percentage inhibition produced by the extract at 200 mg/kg (22.1%) was comparable to that produced by 10 mg/kg indomethacin (24.9%) at the 150th minutes of post-egg albumin injection. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and glycosides. The results obtained in this study suggest that Grewia crenata can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agent and validates its use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

Keywords: Grewia crenata, anti-inflammatory, hind paw, oedema

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44 Functional Mortality of Anopheles stephensi, the Urban Malaria Vector as Induced by the Sublethal Exposure to Deltamethrin

Authors: P. Aarumugam, N. Krishnamoorthy, K. Gunasekaran

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The mosquitoes with loss of minimum three legs especially the hind legs have the negative impact on the survival hood of mosquitoes. Three days old unfed adult female laboratory strain was selected in each generation against sublethal dosages (0.004%, 0.005%, 0.007% and 0.01%) of deltamethrin upto 40 generations. Impregnated papers with acetone were used for control. Every fourth generation, survived mosquitoes were observed for functional mortality. Hind legs lost were significantly (P< 0.05) higher in treated than the controls up to generation 24, thereafter no significant lost. In contrary, no significant forelegs lost among exposed mosquitoes. Middle legs lost were also not significant in the exposed mosquitoes except first generation (F1). The field strain (Chennai) did not show any significant loss of legs (fore or mid or hind) compared to the control. The selection pressure on mosquito population influences strong natural selection to develop various adaptive mechanisms.

Keywords: Anopheles stephensi, deltamethrin, functional mortality, synthetic pyrethroids

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43 Influence of Dietary Inclusion of Butyric Acids, Calcium Formate, Organic Acids and Its Salts on Rabbits Productive Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality

Authors: V. Viliene, A. Raceviciute-Stupeliene, V. Sasyte, V. Slausgalvis, R. Gruzauskas, J. Al-Saifi

Abstract:

Animal nutritionists and scientists have searched for alternative measures to improve the production. One of such alternative is use of organic acids as feed additive in animal nutrition. The study was conducted to investigate the impact of butyric acids, calcium formate, organic acids, and its salts (BCOS) additives on rabbit’s productive performance, carcass traits and meat quality. The study was conducted with 14 Californian breed rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to two treatment groups (seven rabbits per each treatment group). The dietary treatments were 1) control diet, 2) diet supplemented with a mixture BCOS - 2 kg/t of feed. Growth performance characteristics (body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality) were evaluated. Rabbits were slaughtered; carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated. Samples loin and hind leg meat were analysed to determine carcass characteristics, pH and colour measurements, cholesterol, and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content in loin and hind leg meat. Differences between treatments were significant for body weight (1.30 vs. 1.36 kg; P<0.05), daily weight gain (16.60 vs. 17.85 g; P<0.05), and daily feed intake (78.25 vs. 80.58 g; P<0.05) for control and experimental group respectively for the entire experimental period (from 28–77 days old). No significant differences were found in feed conversion ratio and mortality. The feed additives insertion in the diets did not significantly influence the carcass yield or the proportions of the various carcass parts and organs. Differences between treatments were significant for pH value after 48h in loin (5.86 vs. 5.74; P<0.05), hind leg meat (6.62 vs. 6.65; P<0.05), more intense colour b* of loin (5.57 vs. 6.06; P<0.05), less intense colour a* (14.99 vs. 13.15; P<0.05) in hind leg meat. Cholesterol content in hind leg meat decreased by 17.67 mg/100g compared to control group (P<0.05). After storage for three months, MDA concentration decreased in loin and hind leg meat by 0.3 μmol/kg and 0.26 μmol/kg respectively compared to that of the control group (P<0.05). The results of this study suggest that BCOS could potentially be used in rabbit nutrition with consequent benefits on the rabbits’ productivity and nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.

Keywords: butyric acids, Ca formate, meat quality, organic acids salts, rabbits, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
42 The Evaluation of Superiority of Foot Local Anesthesia Method in Dairy Cows

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage

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Background: Nowadays, bovine limb interventions, especially any claw surgeries, raises selection of the most qualified and appropriate local anesthesia technique applicable for any superficial or deep interventions of the limbs. Currently, two local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA), as well as Nerve Blocks, have been routine to apply. However, the lack of studies investigating the quality and duration as well as quantity and onset of full (complete) local anesthesia, is noticeable. Therefore, the aim of our study was comparing the onset and quality of both IVRA and our modified NBA at the hind limb of dairy cows. For this abstract, only the onset of full local anesthesia would be consider. Materials and Methods: For that reason, we used six healthy non pregnant non lactating Holestein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design. Those cows divided into two groups to receive IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. For IVRA, 20 ml procaine without epinephrine was injected into the vein digitalis dorsalis communis III and for our modified four-point NBA, 10-15 ml procaine without epinephrine preneurally to the nerves, superficial and deep peroneal as well as lateral and medial branches of metatarsal nerves. For pain stimulation, electrical stimulator Grass S48 was applied. Results: The results of electrical stimuli revealed the faster onset of full local anesthesia (p < 0.05) by application of our modified NBA in comparison to IVRA about 10 minutes. Conclusion and discussion: Despite of available references showing faster onset of foot local anesthesia of IVRA, our study demonstrated that our modified four point NBA not only can be well known as a standard foot local anesthesia method applicable to desensitize the hind limb of dairy cows, but also, selection of this modified validated local anesthesia method can lead to have a faster start of complete desensitization of distal hind limb that is remarkable in any bovine limb interventions under time constraint.

Keywords: IVRA, four point NBA, dairy cow, hind limb, full onset

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41 Association of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene (HindIII rs320) Polymorphisms with Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia Secondary to Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Meryem Abi-Ayad, Biagio Arcidiacono, Eusebio Chiefari, Daniela Foti, Mohamed Benyoucef, Antonio Brunetti

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Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme for lipid metabolism; its genetic polymorphism can be a candidate for modulating lipids parameters in metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to determine whether lipoproteins lipase polymorphisMetS (LPL-HindIII) could be associated with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (secondary to metabolism syndrome). The polymorphism Hind III (rs320) was assessed by PCR-RFLP in 51 MetS patients and 17 healthy controls from the hospital in Tlemcen. The logistic regression analyses showed no significant association with Hind III genotype and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1,5g/l or TG lower treatment) (P=0,455), metabolic syndrome (P=0,455), hypertension (P=0,802) and type 2 diabetes (P=0,144). In terms of plasma biomarkers, although not statistically significant, there was a difference in TG levels (P > 0,05), which was lowest among carriers of the homogenous mutant allele (H-). In this study, there was no association between the rare allele (H-) and disease protection, and between the frequent allele (H+) and disease prevalence (hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes).

Keywords: moderate secondary hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, lipids, polymorphism lipoprotein lipase, HindIII(rs320)

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40 The Preventive Effect of Date Palm (Phoenixdactylifera) Seed and Fruit Hydroalcoholic Extracts on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Male Rat's Hind Paw

Authors: Siavash Azarbani

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Background and Objective: The side effects of NSAIDS drugs have caused the increasing interest of scientists in herbal medicines as an alternative treatment. In this study, the effect of anti-inflammatory of seed and fruit of date palm hydroalcoholic extracts, due to having antioxidants, was studied. Materials and Methods: In this study, the extracts of date palm seed and fruit were prepared by the maceration method in 70% alcohol. Eighty male rats Wistar, divided into 10 groups of eight in each, 4 groups received different doses (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of seed extract, and 4 other groups different doses (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of fruits extract of the palm, and the positive control aspirin (300mg/kg) and the negative control group saline (5ml/kg) via injection intraperitoneally. Half an hour later, all animals received 100 µl of 1% carrageenan into the rats' hind paw subcutaneous. The changes in rats' paw edema were measured by a plethysmometer every hour for five hours. Results: The effect of all of the doses of date palm seed extract on edema was less than aspirin (P<0.05). But there was no significant difference between the group that received 400 and 600 mg/kg of date palm fruit extract when compared with the aspirin group. The dose 400 mg/kg of fruit extract showed the most anti-inflammatory effect, and it was assigned as the best dose. Conclusion: It is likely that with further studies on different models of animals and also the human model, the palm fruit extract could be used for pain treatment.

Keywords: palm, inflammatory, extract, hydroalcoholic

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39 Enhancement of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Solubility via Solid Dispersion Technique

Authors: Tamer M. Shehata, Heba S. Elsewedy, Mashel Al Dosary, Alaa Elshehry, Mohamed A. Khedr, Maged E. Mohamed

Abstract:

Objective: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) is a well-known herbicide widely used as a weed killer. Recently, 2,4-D was rediscovered as a new anti-inflammatory agent through in silico as well as in-vivo experiments. However, poor solubility of 2,4-D could represent a problems during pharmaceutical development in addition to lower bioavailability. Solid dispersion (SD) refers to a group of solid products consisting of at least two different components, usually a hydrophobic drug and hydrophilic matrix. It is well known technique for enhancing drug solubility. Therefore, selecting SD as a tool for enhancing 2,4-D could be of great interest to the formulator. Method: In our project, several polymers were investigated (such as PEG, HPMC, citric acid and others) in addition to drug polymer ratios and its effect on solubility. Evaluation of drug polymer interaction was investigated through both Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Finally, in-vivo evaluation was performed for the best selected preparation through inflammatory response of rat induce hind paw. Results: Results indicated that, citric acid 2,4-D and in ratio of 0.75 : 1 showed modified the dissolution profile of the drug. The FTIR resltes indicated no significant chemical interaction, however DSC showed shifting of the drug melting point. Finally, Carragenan induced rat hind paw edema showed significant reduction of the drug solid dispersion in comparison to the pure drug, indicating rapid and complete absorption of the drug in solid dispersion form. Conclusion: Solid dispersion technology can be utilized efficiently to enhance the solubility of 2,4-D.

Keywords: solid dispersion, 2, 4-D solubility, carragenan induced edema

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38 Assessment of the Electrical, Mechanical, and Thermal Nociceptive Thresholds for Stimulation and Pain Measurements at the Bovine Hind Limb

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage

Abstract:

Background: Three nociceptive thresholds of thermal, electrical, and mechanical thresholds commonly use to evaluate the local anesthesia in many species, for instance, cow, horse, cat, dog, rabbit, and so on. Due to the lack of investigations to evaluate and/or validate such those nociceptive thresholds, our plan was the comparison of two-foot local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA) and our modified four-point Nerve Block Anesthesia (NBA). Materials and Methods: Eight healthy nonpregnant nondairy Holstein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design were selected for this study. All cows divided into two different groups to receive two local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. Three thermal, electrical, and mechanical force and pinpricks were applied to evaluate the quality of local anesthesia methods before and after local anesthesia application. Results: The statistical evaluation demonstrated that our four-point NBA has a qualification to select as a standard foot local anesthesia. However, the recorded results of our study revealed no significant difference between two groups of local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and modified four-point NBA related to quality and duration of anesthesia stimulated by electrical, mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli. Conclusion and discussion: All three nociceptive threshold stimuli of electrical, mechanical and heat nociceptive thresholds can be applied to measure and evaluate the efficacy of foot local anesthesia of dairy cows. However, our study revealed no superiority of those three nociceptive methods to evaluate the duration and quality of bovine foot local anesthesia methods. Veterinarians to investigate the duration and quality of their selected anesthesia method can use any of those heat, mechanical, and electrical methods.

Keywords: mechanical, thermal, electrical threshold, IVRA, NBA, hind limb, dairy cow

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37 Expression of Somatostatin and Neuropeptide Y in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Hind Paw Incision in Rats

Authors: Anshu Bahl, Saroj Kaler, Shivani Gupta, S B Ray

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Background: Somatostatin is an endogenous regulatory neuropeptide. Somatostatin and its analogues play an important role in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Neuropeptide Y is extensively distributed in the mammalian nervous system. NPY has an important role in blood pressure, circadian rhythm, obesity, appetite and memory. The purpose was to investigate somatostatin and NPY expression in dorsal root ganglia during pain. The plantar incision model in rats is similar to postoperative pain in humans. Methods: 24 adult male Sprague dawley rats were distributed randomly into two groups – Control (n=6) and incision (n=18) groups. Using Hargreaves apparatus, thermal hyperalgesia behavioural test for nociception was done under basal condition and after surgical incision in right hind paw at different time periods (day 1, 3 and 5). The plantar incision was performed as per standard protocol. Perfusion was done using 4% paraformaldehyde followed by extraction of dorsal root ganglia at L4 level. The tissue was processed for immunohistochemical localisation for somatostatin and neuropeptide Y. Results: Post incisional groups (day 1, 3 and 5) exhibited significant decrease of paw withdrawal latency as compared to control groups. Somatostatin expression was noted under basal conditions. It decreased on day 1, but again gradually increased on day 3 and further on day five post incision. The expression of Neuropeptide Y was noted in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia under basal conditions. Compared to control group, expression of neuropeptide Y decreased on day one after incision, but again gradually increased on day 3. Maximum expression was noted on day five post incision. Conclusion: Decrease in paw withdrawal latency indicated nociception, particularly on day 1. In comparison to control, somatostatin and NPY expression was decreased on day one post incision. This could be correlated with increased axoplasmic flow towards the spinal cord. Somatostatin and NPY expression was maximum on day five post incision. This could be due to decreased migration from the site of synthesis towards the spinal cord.

Keywords: dorsal root ganglia, neuropeptide y, postoperative pain, somatostatin

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36 Simultaneous Determination of Cefazolin and Cefotaxime in Urine by HPLC

Authors: Rafika Bibi, Khaled Khaladi, Hind Mokran, Mohamed Salah Boukhechem

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A high performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection at 264nm was developed and validate for quantitative determination and separation of cefazolin and cefotaxime in urine, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer pH4,2(15 :85) (v/v) pumped through ODB 250× 4,6 mm, 5um column at a flow rate of 1ml/min, loop of 20ul. In this condition, the validation of this technique showed that it is linear in a range of 0,01 to 10ug/ml with a good correlation coefficient ( R>0,9997), retention time of cefotaxime, cefazolin was 9.0, 10.1 respectively, the statistical evaluation of the method was examined by means of within day (n=6) and day to day (n=5) and was found to be satisfactory with high accuracy and precision.

Keywords: cefazolin, cefotaxime, HPLC, bioscience, biochemistry, pharmaceutical

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
35 Determination of Benzatropine in Hair by GC/MS after Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE)

Authors: Abdulsallam A. Bakdash, Aiyshah M. Alshehri, Hind M. Alenzi

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Benzatropine (benztropine) is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease or involuntary movements due to the side effects of certain psychiatric drugs. We report in this study, results of a procedure for the determination of benzatropine in hair using LLE, once with methanol and second with phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), followed by filtration and then re-extraction with dichloromethane. A GC/MS method was developed and validated for this determination using selected ion monitoring (SIM) detection without derivatization. Linearity established over the concentration range 0.1-20.0 ng/mg hair, and the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99. Recoveries were 52.2% and 21.1% using methanol and phosphate buffer extraction, respectively. Detection limits of benzatropine in hair were between 0.65 and 3.0 ng/mg hair, while the accuracy were 10.4% and 18.5% (RSD), respectively. We also applied this method to the analysis of soaked hair samples and demonstrated that the LLE using methanol meets the requirement for the analysis of benzatropine in hair.

Keywords: hair analysis, benzatropine, liquid-liquid extraction, GC/MS

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34 Use RP-HPLC To Investigate Factors Influencing Sorghum Protein Extraction

Authors: Khaled Khaladi, Rafika Bibi, Hind Mokrane, Boubekeur Nadjemi

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Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important cereal crop grown in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia due to its drought tolerance. Sorghum grain has protein content varying from 6 to 18%, with an average of 11%, Sorghum proteins can be broadly classified into prolamin and non-prolamin proteins. Kafirins, the major storage proteins, are classified as prolamins, and as such, they contain high levels of proline and glutamine and are soluble in non-polar solvents such as aqueous alcohols. Kafirins account for 77 to 82% of the protein in the endosperm, whereas non-prolamin proteins (namely, albumins, globulins, and glutelins) make up about 30% of the proteins. To optimize the extraction of sorghum proteins, several variables were examined: detergent type and concentration, reducing agent type and concentration, and buffer pH and concentration. Samples were quantified and characterized by RP-HPLC.

Keywords: sorghum, protein extraction, detergent, food science

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33 Exploring Transitions between Communal- and Market-Based Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Benbya Hind, Belbaly Nassim

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Markets and communities are often cast as alternative forms of knowledge sharing, but an open question is how and why people dynamically transition between them. To study these transitions, we design a technology that allows geographically distributed participants to either buy knowledge (using virtual points) or request it for free. We use a data-driven, inductive approach, studying 550 members in over 5000 interactions, during nine months. Because the technology offered participants choices between market or community forms, we can document both individual and collective transitions that emerge as people cycle between these forms. Our inductive analysis revealed that uncertainties endemic to knowledge sharing were the impetus for these transitions. Communities evoke uncertainties about knowledge sharing’s costs and benefits, which markets resolve by quantifying explicit prices. However, if people manipulate markets, they create uncertainties about the validity of those prices, allowing communities to reemerge to establish certainty via identity-based validation.

Keywords: knowledge sharing, communities, information technology design, transitions, markets

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32 Reproductive Behavior of Caspian Red Deer (Cervus Elaphus Maral) in Wildlife Refuge of Semeskande, Sari

Authors: Behrang Ekrami, Amin Tamadon

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Caspian red deer or maral (Cervus elaphus maral) is a ruminant from the family of Cervidae. Maintenance and protection of maral requires knowing the behavioral, physiological, environmental characteristics and factors harmful to this species. In this article, reproductive and behavioral traits of this species in both sexes are presented based on observations and the available records of protected deer in Wildlife Refuge of Semeskande, Sari (one of the sites that preserve the maral in the Free Zones of Hyrcanian forest) from 2006 to 2011. Hart characteristics including sexual behavior, apparent changes during reproductive season and reproductive physiology; and hind characteristics including of ovulation, reproductive cycle, mating, pregnancy and parturition, have been evaluated. Identification of maral reproductive characteristics in Wildlife Refuge of Semeskande, Sari is one of the most important information requirements to preserve and breed this species and will open up new routes for performing new methods of reproduction of this species in Iran wildlife parks or other refuge areas.

Keywords: caspian red deer, reproduction, behavior, Iran

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31 Towards a Distributed Computation Platform Tailored for Educational Process Discovery and Analysis

Authors: Awatef Hicheur Cairns, Billel Gueni, Hind Hafdi, Christian Joubert, Nasser Khelifa

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Given the ever changing needs of the job markets, education and training centers are increasingly held accountable for student success. Therefore, education and training centers have to focus on ways to streamline their offers and educational processes in order to achieve the highest level of quality in curriculum contents and managerial decisions. Educational process mining is an emerging field in the educational data mining (EDM) discipline, concerned with developing methods to discover, analyze and provide a visual representation of complete educational processes. In this paper, we present our distributed computation platform which allows different education centers and institutions to load their data and access to advanced data mining and process mining services. To achieve this, we present also a comparative study of the different clustering techniques developed in the context of process mining to partition efficiently educational traces. Our goal is to find the best strategy for distributing heavy analysis computations on many processing nodes of our platform.

Keywords: educational process mining, distributed process mining, clustering, distributed platform, educational data mining, ProM

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30 Acute Intraperitoneal Toxicity of Sesbania grandiflora (Katuray) Methanolic Flower Extract in Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Levylee Bautista, Dawn Grace Santos, Aishwarya Veluchamy, Jesusa Santos, Ghafoor Haque, Jr. I, Rodolfo Rafael

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Sesbania grandiflora is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments. Assessment of its toxic properties is hence crucial when considering public health protection because exposure to plant extracts may pose adverse effects on consumers. This study aimed to investigate the acute intraperitoneal toxicity of S. grandiflora flower methanolic extract (SGFME) in Swiss albino mice. Four different concentrations (11.25, 22.5, 40, and 90 mg/kg) of SGFME were administered intraperitoneally and immediate behavioral and clinical signs were observed. All concentrations of SGFME-treated mice exhibited gasping and faster respiratory rate, writhing, reddening and fanning of the ears, paralysis of the hind leg, and mortality. Such reactions may be attributed to the histamine and saponin content of S. grandiflora. Results of this study suggests that intraperitoneal administration of SGFME produced significant adverse effect in mice, therefore, caution should be exercised in using it as herbal remedy since there is little control over its quality.

Keywords: acute toxicity test, histamine, medicinal plants, Sesbania grandiflora

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29 Hemostasis Poly Vinyl Alcohol Gauze Coated with Chitosan Encapsulated with Polymer and Drug

Authors: Abhishekkumar Ramasamy, Parameshwari

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Chitosan is the deacyelitated derivative of chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer just after cellulose. Without doubt, its biomedical usages have gained more importance among the vast variety of chitosan applications owing to its good biocompatibility and biodegradability. In recent years, particular interest has been devoted to chitosan hydrogels as a promising alternative in competition with conventional sutures or bioadhesives. Different parameters such as acid type and concentration, and degree of deacetylation (DD%) of chitosan, were altered to modify hydrogel properties including viscosity, pH, cohesive strength, and tissue bioadhesiveness. In the current work, we have investigated the effectiveness of chitosan hydrogel encapsulated with tanexamic acid to stop bleeding. Chitosan film was obtained with solubilization of chitosan powder in aqueous acidic media. In vivo experiments have been conducted on rat and rabbit models that provide a convenient way to evaluate the efficacy of prepared samples. The arteries vein was punctured on the hind limb of the rat and the gauze was been applied on the punchered area. Bioadhesive strength as well as irritant effects were discussed. Samples with higher degree of deacetylation, including Chs-16 and Chs-19 that were dissolved in lactic media showed best sealing effect.

Keywords: chitosan, biocomaptibility, biodegradability, bioadhersive, deacetylation

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28 Schiff Bases of Isatin and Admantane-1-Carbohydrazide: Synthesis, Characterization, and Anticonvulsant Activity

Authors: Hind O. Osman, Tilal Elsaman, Bashir A. Yousef, Esraa Elhadi, Aimun A. E. Ahmed, Eyman Mohamed Eltayib, Malik Suliman Mohamed, Magdi Awadalla Mohamed

Abstract:

Epilepsy is the most common neurological condition and cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. In the present study, the molecular hybridization tool was adopted to obtain six Schiff bases of isatin and adamantane-1-carbohydrazide (18–23). Then, their anticonvulsant activity was evaluated using a pentylenetetrazole- (PTZ-) induced seizure model using phenobarbitone as a positive control. Our findings showed that compounds 18–23 provided significant protection against PTZ-induced seizure, and maximum activities were associated with compound 23. Moreover, all investigated compounds increased the latency of induced convulsion and reduced the duration of epilepsy, with compound 23 being the best. Interestingly, most of the synthesized molecules showed a reduction in neurological symptoms and severity of the seizure. Molecular docking studies suggest GABA-A receptor as a potential target, and in silico ADME screening revealed that the pharmaceutical properties of compound 23 are within the specified limit. Thus, compound 23 was identified as a promising candidate that warrants further drug discovery processes.

Keywords: isatin and adamantane, anticonvulsant activity, PTZ-induced seizure, molecular docking

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27 Tibyan Automated Arabic Correction Using Machine-Learning in Detecting Syntactical Mistakes

Authors: Ashwag O. Maghraby, Nida N. Khan, Hosnia A. Ahmed, Ghufran N. Brohi, Hind F. Assouli, Jawaher S. Melibari

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The Arabic language is one of the most important languages. Learning it is so important for many people around the world because of its religious and economic importance and the real challenge lies in practicing it without grammatical or syntactical mistakes. This research focused on detecting and correcting the syntactic mistakes of Arabic syntax according to their position in the sentence and focused on two of the main syntactical rules in Arabic: Dual and Plural. It analyzes each sentence in the text, using Stanford CoreNLP morphological analyzer and machine-learning approach in order to detect the syntactical mistakes and then correct it. A prototype of the proposed system was implemented and evaluated. It uses support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to detect Arabic grammatical errors and correct them using the rule-based approach. The prototype system has a far accuracy 81%. In general, it shows a set of useful grammatical suggestions that the user may forget about while writing due to lack of familiarity with grammar or as a result of the speed of writing such as alerting the user when using a plural term to indicate one person.

Keywords: Arabic language acquisition and learning, natural language processing, morphological analyzer, part-of-speech

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26 The Effect of Excess Sulphur on Najdi Sheep

Authors: Fatima Al-Humaid

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This research work was done to investigate the cause of paralysis in Najdi lambs born in certain farms where the drinking water and diet contained high concentrations of sulphur. The drinking water in these farms was obtained from deep bore wells drilled in the farm. The lambs developed paralysis of the hind limbs at the age of 4-6 weeks and their condition deteriorated continuously until they finally died. The appetite and suckling ability remained good throughout the course of the disease but when the lambs were completely unable to move and reach for the udder, feed and water they died. Postmortem examination of the brain of paralyzed lambs showed that it was liquefied. When the brain was examined histologically, a liquefactive necrosis was seen in the form of cavities in the nervous tissue. Similar histologic picture was seen in the spinal cord of the affected lambs. Analysis for the mineral content of the fodder showed that the concentration of sulphur was 21.6 3.4 g/kg DM which is considered very high for the nutrition of sheep. Analysis for the concentration of copper and selenium in the feed showed that the concentrations of both were normal. This excluded diseases such as swayback which is caused by copper deficiency and white muscle disease, which caused by selenium deficiency. Both of these two last diseases are characterized by paralysis of lambs.

Keywords: brain histology, sulphur poisoning, Najdi sheep, veterinary medicine

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25 Conception of a Regulated, Dynamic and Intelligent Sewerage in Ostrevent

Authors: Rabaa Tlili Yaakoubi, Hind Nakouri, Olivier Blanpain

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The current tools for real time management of sewer systems are based on two software tools: the software of weather forecast and the software of hydraulic simulation. The use of the first ones is an important cause of imprecision and uncertainty, the use of the second requires temporal important steps of decision because of their need in times of calculation. This way of proceeding fact that the obtained results are generally different from those waited. The major idea of the CARDIO project is to change the basic paradigm by approaching the problem by the "automatic" face rather than by that "hydrology". The objective is to make possible the realization of a large number of simulations at very short times (a few seconds) allowing to take place weather forecasts by using directly the real time meditative pluviometric data. The aim is to reach a system where the decision-making is realized from reliable data and where the correction of the error is permanent. A first model of control laws was realized and tested with different return-period rainfalls. The gains obtained in rejecting volume vary from 40 to 100%. The development of a new algorithm was then used to optimize calculation time and thus to overcome the subsequent combinatorial problem in our first approach. Finally, this new algorithm was tested with 16- year-rainfall series. The obtained gains are 60% of total volume rejected to the natural environment and of 80 % in the number of discharges.

Keywords: RTC, paradigm, optimization, automation

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24 Structural and Optical Properties of RF-Sputtered ZnS and Zn(S,O) Thin Films

Authors: Ould Mohamed Cheikh, Mounir Chaik, Hind El Aakib, Mohamed Aggour, Abdelkader Outzourhit

Abstract:

Zinc sulfide [ZnS] and oxygenated zinc sulfide Zn(O,S) thin films were deposited on glass substrates, by reactive cathodic radio-frequency (RF) sputtering. The substrates power and percentage of oxygen were varied in the range of 100W to 250W and from 5% to 20% respectively. The structural, morphological and optical properties of these thin films were investigated. The optical properties (mainly the refractive index, absorption coefficient and optical band gap) were examined by optical transmission measurements in the ultraviolet-visible-near Infrared wavelength range. XRD analysis indicated that all sputtered ZnS films were a single phase with a preferential orientation along the (111) plane of zinc blend (ZB). The crystallite size was in the range of 19.5 nm to 48.5 nm, the crystallite size varied with RF power reaching a maximum at 200 W. The Zn(O,S) films, on the other hand, were amorphous. UV-Visible, measurements showed that the ZnS film had more than 80% transmittance in the visible wavelength region while that of Zn(O,S is 85%. Moreover, it was observed that the band gap energy of the ZnS films increases slightly from 3.4 to 3.52 eV as the RF power was increased. The optical band gap of Zn(O,S), on the other hand, decreased from 4.2 to 3.89 eV as the oxygen partial pressure is increased in the sputtering atmosphere at a fixed RF-power. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed smooth surfaces for both type of films. The X-ray reflectometry measurements on the ZnS films showed that the density of the films (3.9 g/cm3) is close that of bulk ZnS.

Keywords: thin films Zn(O, S) properties, Zn(O, S) by Rf-sputtering, ZnS for solar cells, thin films for renewable energy

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23 Response of Newzealand Rabbits to Drinking Water Treated with PolyDADMAC

Authors: Amna Beshir Medani Ahmed, Samia Mohammed Ali El Badwi, Ahmed El Amin Mohammed

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This work has been managed to yield toxicity information on water treatment agents in the Sudan namely polyDADMAC, using New Zealand rabbits at multiple daily oral doses for a period of 10 weeks. Thirty-three heads of New Zealand rabbits were divided into 11 groups, each of three. Group 1 animals were the undosed controls. Test groups of either species were given polyDADMAC at similar dose rates of 0.5, 2.5, 4.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight respectively for groups 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 and 11. Clinical signs were closely observed with postmortem and histopathological examinations. Chemical investigations included enzymatic concentrations of ALP, GOT, CK, GPT and LDH together with hematological changes in Hb, PCV, RBCs and WBCs. Mortalities occurred to variable degrees irrespective of the dose level. On polyDADMAC challenge, the test species showed clinical signs of dullness, loss of weight, anorexia, diarrhea, difficulty in respiration, hind limb paralysis and recumbency. Notably oral dosing with polyDADMAC caused lung emphysema, hepatic and renal dysfunctions, irregularity in enzymatic activities and serum metabolites, sloughing of intestinal epithelium, decreased electrolytes in serum, and splenic haemosiderosis. On evaluation of the above results, polyDADMAC was considered toxic to New Zealand rabbits at all dose rates tried. Practical implications of the results were highlighted and suggestions for future work were put forward.

Keywords: polydiallyldiethylaluminiumchloride (polyDADMAC), nubian goats, toxicity of drinking water, treatment of drinking water using chemicals

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22 Bioactivities and Phytochemical Studies of Petroleum Ether Extract of Pleiogynium timorense Bark

Authors: Gehan F. Abdel Raoof, Ataa A. Said, Khaled Y. Mohamed, Hala M. Mohammed

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Pleiogynium timorense(DC.) Leenh is one of the therapeutically active plants belonging to the family Anacardiaceae. The bark of Pleiogynium timorense needs further studies to investigate its phytochemical and biological activities. This work was carried out to investigate the chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of Pleiogynium timorense bark as well as to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing test and carrageen hind paw oedema models in rats, respectively. The results showed that twenty one compounds in the unsaponifiable fraction were identified representing 92.54 % of the total beak area, the major compounds were 1-Heptene (35.32%), Butylated hydroxy toluene (19.42%) and phytol (12.53%), whereas fifteen compounds were identified in the fatty acid methyl esters fraction representing 94.15% of the total identified peak area. The major compounds were 9-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester (35.34%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (29.32%). Moreover, petroleum ether extract showed a significant reduction in pain and inflammation in a dose dependent manner. This study aims to be the first step toward the use of petroleum ether extract of Pleiogynium timorense bark as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug.

Keywords: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, bark, petroleum ether extract, Pleiogynium timorense

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21 Analgesic and Anti-inflammatoryactivities of Camel Thorn in Experimental Animals

Authors: Abdelkader H. El Debani, Huda Gargoum, Awad G. Abdellatif

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The aim of this study is to investigate analgesic and the anti-inflammatory effects Camel Thorn Extract (CTE) in rodents. Male albino mice weighing 20-25 gm. were divided into different groups each of 8 mice. The control was given normal saline i. p., the first group was given normal saline i. p. the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, groups received different doses of CTE (330, 660, and 1300 mg/kg) respectively and the 6th group received 5mg/kg of morphine i. p. All groups (except the control group) were given acetic acid 40 min after receiving the different treatment. The number of writhes was recorded 5 min after acetic acid injection for 15 min and the % of inhibition of writhing were calculated. Different groups of rats weighing 180- 220 gm., were divided into three groups each of 5 rats. At the beginning, the volumes of the right and left paw in animals were measured by using of the plethysmometer. The 1st group was given 660 mg /kg i. p. of CTE, the 2nd group received indomethacin (5 mg/kg i. p.). One hour later, edema was induced by sub planter injection of 0.1 ml of 1 % freshly prepared suspension of carrageenan into the right hind paws of the rats. The volume of the injected paws and contra-lateral paws were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours using plethysmometer. The volume of the left paw of the rat was subtracted from the volume of the right paw of the same animal. Our results showed that 330,660 and 1300 mg/kg produced 14, 49 and 84%of inhibition of writhes, indicating that CTE has a strong analgesic activity. Our data also showed that the % of inhibition of edema at 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min was 14,51,71,61, and 56% in the animals given camel thorn extract whereas these figures in animals given endomethacin were 14, 24, 54, 52, and 54%. These results indicate that camel thorn has anti-inflammatory activities. The mechanism of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities needs further investigations.

Keywords: camel thorn, imdomethacin, morphine, pharmaceutical medicine

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20 Comparison of Phynotypic Traits of Three Arabian Horse Strains

Authors: Saria Almarzook, Monika Reissmann, Gudrun Brockmann

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Due to its history, occurrence in different ecosystems and diverse using, the modern horse (Equus caballus) shows large variability in size, appearance, behavior and habits. At all times, breeders try to create groups (breeds, strains) representing high homology but showing clear differences in comparison to other groups. A great interest of analyzing phenotypic and genetic traits looking for real diversity and genetic uniqueness existents for Arabian horses in Syria. 90 Arabian horses from governmental research center of Arabian horses in Damascus were included. The horses represent three strains (Kahlawi, Saklawi, Hamdani) originated from different geographical zones. They were raised on the same farm, under stable conditions. Twelve phenotypic traits were measured: wither height (WH), croup width (CW), croup height (CH), neck girth (NG), thorax girth (TG), chest girth (ChG), chest depth (ChD), chest width (ChW), back line length (BLL), body length (BL), fore cannon length (FCL) and hind cannon length (HCL). The horses were divided into groups according to age (less than 2 years, 2-4 years, 4-9 years, over 9 years) and to sex (male, female). The statistical analyzes show that age has significant influence of WH while the strain has only a very limited effect. On CW, NG, BLL, FCL and HCL, there is only a significant influence of sex. Age has significant effect on CH and BL. All sources of classes have a significant effect on TG, ChG, ChD and ChW. Strain has a significant effect on the BL. These results provide first information for real biodiversity in and between the strains and can be used to develop the breeding work in the Arabian horse breed.

Keywords: Arabian horse, phenotypic traits, strains, Syria

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19 Role of Inflammatory Markers in Arthritic Rats Treated with Ethanolic Bark Extract of Albizia procera

Authors: M. Sangeetha, D. Chamundeeswari, C. Saravanababu, C. Rose, V. Gopal

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, progressive, systemic inflammatory disorder affecting the synovial joints and typically producing symmetrical arthritis that leads to joint destruction, which is responsible for the deformity and disability. Despite improvements in the treatment of RA over the past decade, there still is a need for new therapeutic agents that are efficacious, less expensive, and free of severe adverse reactions. The present study aimed to investigate role of inflammatory markers in arthritic rats treated with ethanolic bark extract of Albizia procera. The protective effect of ethanolic bark extract of Albizia procera against complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats. Arthritis was induced by an intradermal injection of 0.1 ml FCA in the foot pad of left hind limb of rats. ETBE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt./p.o) and the reference drug diclofenac (25 mg/kg b.wt./p.o) were administered to arthritic rats. Paw volume was measured for all the animals before inducing arthritis and thereafter once in seven days by using plethysmometer for 42 days. Gene expression of inflammatory markers such as IL-1β and IL-10 were investigated in paw tissues. Up regulation of IL-1β and Down regulation IL-10 were observed in CFA injected rats when compared to normal rats. ETBE attenuated these alterations dose dependently when compared to the vehicle treated rats. These results provide insights into the mechanism of anti-arthritic activity, and unravel potential therapeutic use of Albizia procera in arthritis.

Keywords: CFA-Complete Freund’s adjuvant, ETBE – ethanolic bark extract, IL- interleukins, RA-rheumatoid arthritis

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18 Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Electroacupuncture Analgesia on Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice

Authors: Jun Yang, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

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Chronic inflammatory pain results from peripheral tissue injury or local inflammation to increase the release of protons, histamines, adenosine triphosphate, and several proinflammatory cytokines. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in fibromyalgia, neuropathic, and inflammatory pain; however, its exact mechanisms in chronic inflammatory pain are still unclear. We investigate the analgesic effect of EA by injecting complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in the hind paw of mice to induce chronic inflammatory pain ( > 14 d). Our results showed that EA significantly reduced chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the chronic inflammatory pain model. Chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was also abolished in TRPV1−/− mice. TRPV1 increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) at 2 weeks after CFA injection. The expression levels of downstream molecules such as pPKA, pPI3K, and pPKC increased, as did those of pERK, pp38, and pJNK. Transcription factors (pCREB and pNFκB) and nociceptive ion channels (Nav1.7 and Nav1.8) were involved in this process. Inflammatory mediators such as GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein), S100B, and RAGE (Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) were also involved. The expression levels of these molecules were reduced in EA (electroacupuncture) and TRPV1−/−mice but not in the sham EA group. The present study demonstrated that EA or TRPV1 gene deletion reduced chronic inflammatory pain through TRPV1 and related molecules. In addition, our data provided evidence to support the clinical use of EA for treating chronic inflammatory pain.

Keywords: auricular electric-stimulation, epileptic seizures, anti-inflammation, electroacupuncture

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17 A Robust System for Foot Arch Type Classification from Static Foot Pressure Distribution Data Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

Authors: R. Periyasamy, Deepak Joshi, Sneh Anand

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Foot posture assessment is important to evaluate foot type, causing gait and postural defects in all age groups. Although different methods are used for classification of foot arch type in clinical/research examination, there is no clear approach for selecting the most appropriate measurement system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a system for evaluation of foot type as clinical decision-making aids for diagnosis of flat and normal arch based on the Arch Index (AI) and foot pressure distribution parameter - Power Ratio (PR) data. The accuracy of the system was evaluated for 27 subjects with age ranging from 24 to 65 years. Foot area measurements (hind foot, mid foot, and forefoot) were acquired simultaneously from foot pressure intensity image using portable PedoPowerGraph system and analysis of the image in frequency domain to obtain foot pressure distribution parameter - PR data. From our results, we obtain 100% classification accuracy of normal and flat foot by using the linear discriminant analysis method. We observe there is no misclassification of foot types because of incorporating foot pressure distribution data instead of only arch index (AI). We found that the mid-foot pressure distribution ratio data and arch index (AI) value are well correlated to foot arch type based on visual analysis. Therefore, this paper suggests that the proposed system is accurate and easy to determine foot arch type from arch index (AI), as well as incorporating mid-foot pressure distribution ratio data instead of physical area of contact. Hence, such computational tool based system can help the clinicians for assessment of foot structure and cross-check their diagnosis of flat foot from mid-foot pressure distribution.

Keywords: arch index, computational tool, static foot pressure intensity image, foot pressure distribution, linear discriminant analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 430