Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Harrison Lau Lik Nang

34 Synthesis of Biolubricant Base Stock from Palm Methyl Ester

Authors: Nur Sulihatimarsyila Abd Wafti, Harrison Lik Nang Lau, Nabilah Kamaliah Mustaffa, Nur Azreena Idris

Abstract:

The use of biolubricant has gained its popularity over the last decade. Base stock produced using methyl ester and trimethylolethane (TME) can be potentially used for biolubricant production due to its biodegradability, non-toxicity and good thermal stability. The synthesis of biolubricant base stock e.g. triester (TE) via transesterification of palm methyl ester and TME in the presence of sodium methoxide as the catalyst was conducted. Factors influencing the reaction conditions were investigated including reaction time, temperature and pressure. The palm-based biolubricant base stock produced was analysed for its monoester (ME), diester (DE) and TE contents using gas chromatography as well as its lubricating properties such as viscosity, viscosity index, oxidation stability, and density. The resulting base stock containing 90 wt% TE was successfully synthesized.

Keywords: biolubricant, methyl ester, triester transesterification, lubricating properties

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33 Involvement in Community Planning: The Case Study of Bang Nang Li Community, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai, Vilasinee Jintalikhitdee, Mathinee Khongsatid, Nattapol Pourprasert

Abstract:

This paper studied the participation of people of the five villages of Bang Nang Li Community in Ampawa District, Samut Songkram Province, in designing community planning. The population was 2,755 villagers from the 5 villages with 349 people sampled. The level of involvement was measured by using Likert Five Scale for: preparing readiness of local people in the community, providing information for community and self analysis and learning, designing goals and directions for community development, designing strategic plans for community projects, and operating according to the plans. All process items reported a medium level of involvement except the item of preparing readiness for local people that presented the highest mean score. A test of a correlation between personal factors and level of involvement in designing the community planning unveiled no correlation between gender, age and career. Contrarily, the findings revealed that the villagers’ educational level and community membership status had a correlation with their level of involvement in designing the community planning.

Keywords: community development, community planning, people participation, educational level

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32 Pair Interaction in Transition-Metal Nanoparticles

Authors: Nikolay E. Dubinin

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Pair-interaction approximations allow to consider a different states of condensed matter from a single position. At the same time, description of an effective pair interaction in transition metal is a hard task since the d-electron contribution to the potential energy in this case is non-pairwise in principle. There are a number of models for transition-metal effective pair potentials. Here we use the Wills-Harrison (WH) approach to calculate pair potentials for Fe, Co, and Ni in crystalline, liquid, and nano states. Last is especially interesting since nano particles of pure transition metals immobilized on the dielectric matrices are widely used in different fields of advanced technologies: as carriers and transmitters of information, as an effective catalytic materials, etc. It is found that the minimum of the pair potential is deeper and oscillations are stronger in nano crystalline state in comparison with the liquid and crystalline states for all metals under consideration.

Keywords: effective pair potential, nanocrystalline state, transition metal, Wills-Harrison approach

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31 Potential of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Algae Cultivation for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Nur Azreena Idris, Soh Kheang Loh, Harrison Lau Lik Nang, Yuen May Choo, Eminour Muzalina Mustafa, Vijaysri Vello, Cheng Yau Tan, Siew Moi Phang

Abstract:

It is estimated that about 0.65-0.67 m3 of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is generated when one tonne of fresh fruit bunches is processed. Owning to the high content of nutrients in POME, it has high potential as a medium for microalgae growth. This study attempted determining the growth rate, biomass productivity and biochemical composition of microalgae (Chlorella sp.) grown in different POME concentrations i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 25% and 50% at outdoor conditions using a 200-mL capacity high rate algae pond (HRAP) and 2 closed photobioreactors (PBRs) i.e. annular and flat panel. The strain, Chlorella sp. grown on 12.5% of POME in flat panel PBR exhibited the highest specific growth rate of 0.32/day and biomass productivity (27.1 mg/L/day) followed by those in HRAP and annular PBR. It further showed that a good growth of Chlorella sp. in 12.5% of POME could sufficiently reduce the nutrients of POME such as phosphate (PO4), nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The extracted algal oil from POME culture showed that the saturated fatty acids decreased while polyunsaturated fatty acids increased compared to those cultured in standard culture medium (Bold’s Basal medium). The biochemical compositions of the algae grown in flat panel PBR were the highest with lipid, protein and carbohydrate productivity of 17.91 mg/L/day, 34.65 mg/L/day and 21.44 mg/L/day, respectively. The microalgae cultivation in diluted POME had not only shown potential as biodiesel feedstock based on the fatty acids profile but also the ability to reduce pollutants e.g. PO4, NO3, NO2 and COD in biological wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, photobioreactors, biomass productivity, specific growth rate

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30 Harrison’s Stolen: Addressing Aboriginal and Indigenous Islanders Human Rights

Authors: M. Shukry

Abstract:

According to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, every human being is entitled to rights in life that should be respected by others and protected by the state and community. Such rights are inherent regardless of colour, ethnicity, gender, religion or otherwise, and it is expected that all humans alike have the right to live without discrimination of any sort. However, that has not been the case with Aborigines in Australia. Over a long period of time, the governments of the State and the Territories and the Australian Commonwealth denied the Aboriginal and Indigenous inhabitants of the Torres Strait Islands such rights. Past Australian governments set policies and laws that enabled them to forcefully remove Indigenous children from their parents, which resulted in creating lost generations living the trauma of the loss of cultural identity, alienation and even their own selfhood. Intending to reduce that population of natives and their Aboriginal culture while, on the other hand, assimilate them into mainstream society, they gave themselves the right to remove them from their families with no hope of return. That practice has led to tragic consequences due to the trauma that has affected those children, an experience that is depicted by Jane Harrison in her play Stolen. The drama is the outcome of a six-year project on lost children and which was first performed in 1997 in Melbourne. Five actors only appear on the stage, playing the role of all the different characters, whether the main protagonists or the remaining cast, present or non-present ones as voices. The play outlines the life of five children who have been taken from their parents at an early age, entailing a disastrous negative impact that differs from one to the other. Unknown to each other, what connects between them is being put in a children’s home. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the play’s text in light of the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights, using it as a lens that reflects the atrocities practiced against the Aborigines. It highlights how such practices formed an outrageous violation of those natives’ rights as human beings. Harrison’s dramatic technique in conveying the children’s experiences is through a non-linear structure, fluctuating between past and present that are linked together within each of the five characters, reflecting their suffering and pain to create an emotional link between them and the audience. Her dramatic handling of the issue by fusing tragedy with humour as well as symbolism is a successful technique in revealing the traumatic memory of those children and their present life. The play has made a difference in commencing to address the problem of the right of all children to be with their families, which renders the real meaning of having a home and an identity as people.

Keywords: aboriginal, audience, Australia, children, culture, drama, home, human rights, identity, Indigenous, Jane Harrison, memory, scenic effects, setting, stage, stage directions, Stolen, trauma

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29 Stakeholder Engagement to Address Urban Health Systems Gaps for Migrants

Authors: A. Chandra, M. Arthur, L. Mize, A. Pomeroy-Stevens

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Background: Lower and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Asia face rapid urbanization resulting in both economic opportunities (the urban advantage) and emerging health challenges. Urban health risks are magnified in informal settlements and include infectious disease outbreaks, inadequate access to health services, and poor air quality. Over the coming years, urban spaces in Asia will face accelerating public health risks related to migration, climate change, and environmental health. These challenges are complex and require multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder solutions. The Building Health Cities (BHC) program is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to work with smart city initiatives in the Asia region. BHC approaches urban health challenges by addressing policies, planning, and services through a health equity lens, with a particular focus on informal settlements and migrant communities. The program works to develop data-driven decision-making, build inclusivity through stakeholder engagement, and facilitate the uptake of appropriate technology. Methodology: The BHC program has partnered with the smart city initiatives of Indore in India, Makassar in Indonesia, and Da Nang in Vietnam. Implementing partners support municipalities to improve health delivery and equity using two key approaches: political economy analysis and participatory systems mapping. Political economy analyses evaluate barriers to collective action, including corruption, security, accountability, and incentives. Systems mapping evaluates community health challenges using a cross-sectoral approach, analyzing the impact of economic, environmental, transport, security, health system, and built environment factors. The mapping exercise draws on the experience and expertise of a diverse cohort of stakeholders, including government officials, municipal service providers, and civil society organizations. Results: Systems mapping and political economy analyses identified significant barriers for health care in migrant populations. In Makassar, migrants are unable to obtain the necessary card that entitles them to subsidized health services. This finding is being used to engage with municipal governments to mitigate the barriers that limit migrant enrollment in the public social health insurance scheme. In Indore, the project identified poor drainage of storm and wastewater in migrant settlements as a cause of poor health. Unsafe and inadequate infrastructure placed residents of these settlements at risk for both waterborne diseases and injuries. The program also evaluated the capacity of urban primary health centers serving migrant communities, identifying challenges related to their hours of service and shortages of health workers. In Da Nang, the systems mapping process has only recently begun, with the formal partnership launched in December 2019. Conclusion: This paper explores lessons learned from BHC’s systems mapping, political economy analyses, and stakeholder engagement approaches. The paper shares progress related to the health of migrants in informal settlements. Case studies feature barriers identified and mitigating steps, including governance actions, taken by local stakeholders in partner cities. The paper includes an update on ongoing progress from Indore and Makassar and experience from the first six months of program implementation from Da Nang.

Keywords: informal settlements, migration, stakeholder engagement mapping, urban health

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28 An Assistive Robotic Arm for Defence and Rescue Application

Authors: J. Harrison Kurunathan, R. Jayaparvathy

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"Assistive Robotics" is the field that deals with the study of robots that helps in human motion and also empowers human abilities by interfacing the robotic systems to be manipulated by human motion. The proposed model is a robotic arm that works as a haptic interface on the basis on accelerometers and DC motors that will function with respect to the movement of the human muscle. The proposed model would effectively work as a haptic interface that would reduce human effort in the field of defense and rescue. This can be used in very critical conditions like fire accidents to avoid causalities.

Keywords: accelerometers, haptic interface, servo motors, signal processing

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27 Enhanced Phytoremediation Using Endophytic Microbes

Authors: Raymond Oriebe Anyasi, Harrison Atagana

Abstract:

The use of a plant in the detoxification of several toxin is been known to be enhanced by various microbial endophytes which have been reported to be contained in plants growing in any contaminated soil. Plants in their natural state are mostly colonized by endophytes which in the process forms symbiotic associations with the host plants. These benefits that the endophytes offer to the plants include amongst others to: Enhance plants growth through the production of various phytohormones; increase in the resistance of environmental stresses; produce important bioactive metabolites; help in the fixing of nitrogen in the plants organelles; help in the metal translocation and accumulation in plants; assist in the production of enzymes involves the degradation of organic contaminants. Therefore recognizing these natural processes of the microbes will enable the understanding of the effective mechanism for enhanced phytoremediation. The aim of this study was to survey the progressiveness in the study involving endophyte-assisted phytoremediation of contaminants; highlighting various pollutants, the plants used, the endophytes studied as well as the type of interaction between the plants and the microbes so as to proffer a better future prospect for the technology.

Keywords: phytoremediation, endophytes, microbes, pollution, environmental management, plants

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26 Experimental Set-Up for Investigation of Fault Diagnosis of a Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Maamar Ali Saud Al Tobi, Geraint Bevan, K. P. Ramachandran, Peter Wallace, David Harrison

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Centrifugal pumps are complex machines which can experience different types of fault. Condition monitoring can be used in centrifugal pump fault detection through vibration analysis for mechanical and hydraulic forces. Vibration analysis methods have the potential to be combined with artificial intelligence systems where an automatic diagnostic method can be approached. An automatic fault diagnosis approach could be a good option to minimize human error and to provide a precise machine fault classification. This work aims to introduce an approach to centrifugal pump fault diagnosis based on artificial intelligence and genetic algorithm systems. An overview of the future works, research methodology and proposed experimental setup is presented and discussed. The expected results and outcomes based on the experimental work are illustrated.

Keywords: centrifugal pump setup, vibration analysis, artificial intelligence, genetic algorithm

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25 The Impact of Shared Culture, Trust and Information Exchange on Satisfaction and Financial Performance: Moderating Effects of Supply Chain Dependence

Authors: Hung Nguyen, Norma Harrison

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This paper examines the role supply chain dependence as contingency factors which affect the effectiveness of different critical factors (in terms trust, information exchange and shared culture) in delivering supply chain satisfaction and financial performance. Using the data of 468 manufacturing firms in the Global Manufacturing Research Group, this study shows that supply chain dependence strengthens the positive relationship between shared culture & vision and supply chain satisfaction while dampens the relationship between trust and satisfaction. The study also demonstrates the direct positive effect of satisfaction on financial performance. Supply chain managers were advised to emphasize on the alignments of common understanding, codes, languages, common shared vision and similar cultures.

Keywords: information exchange, shared culture, satisfaction, supply chain dependence

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24 Belt Conveyor Dynamics in Transient Operation for Speed Control

Authors: D. He, Y. Pang, G. Lodewijks

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Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are significantly important since the poor dynamics might result in risks. In this paper, the potential risks in transient operation will be analyzed. An existing finite element model will be applied to build a conveyor model, and simulations will be carried out to analyze the conveyor dynamics. In order to realize the soft speed regulation, Harrison’s sinusoid acceleration profile will be applied, and Lodewijks estimator will be built to approximate the required acceleration time. A long inclined belt conveyor will be studied with two major simulations. The conveyor dynamics will be given.

Keywords: belt conveyor , speed control, transient operation, dynamics

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23 Musical Culture of Sea Gypsies in Bulon Archipelago

Authors: Rewadee Ungpho

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The research on the musical culture of Sea Gypsies in Bulon archipelago, Satun Province, is considered as an anthropology research. Research objectives were to study the history and information culture and also to find the basis information for the restoration and preservation of the music culture of Sea Gypsies who live in Bulon archipelago. Findings of the research are as follows: 1) Musical characteristics of Sea Gypsies in Bulon archipelago is still traditional. It does not mix with any external musical influence such as musical instruments, language, and other musical characteristics. There are various kind of songs which can play a complete melody and rhythm, including a total of 8 songs as follows; Lagu-Ayam-Dide, Lagu-Sitipayong, Lagu-Bulong-pute, Lagu-Chemamat, Laguduwo, Lagu-Ma-I-nang, Lagu-Mana-Ikan. 2) The roles of culture/music in Bulon archipelago correlate with Urak Lawoi society. They use music in the ceremony of votive offering, in the floating ceremony held in Lipe Island and in various festivals. Therefore, music is a spiritual sacrifice and a spiritual instrument that conveys an Urak Lawoi, which makes the Urak Lawoi still unique and has a sense of ethnic identity. 3) The inheritance of Urak Lawoi music is still being made in a traditional way, as an oral tradition with no record. The teaching and learning must be one on one, and it required length of time to practice and accumulate the knowledge. Due to above mentioned reasons, a few people attend in the inheritance. Those who are interested may not be able to practice constantly. As a result, there is only a few, or even none, descendants left.

Keywords: sea gypsy, music, Bulon archipelago, ethnomusicology

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22 The Effects of Soil Parameters on Efficiency of Essential Oil from Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith in Thailand

Authors: Worakrit Worananthakij, Kamonchanok Doungtadum, Nattagan Mingkwan, Supatsorn Chupong

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Natural products from herb have been used in different aspects of life as a result of their various biological activities. Generally, plant growth and production of secondary compounds largely depend on environmental conditions. To better understand this correlation, study on biological activity and soil parameter is necessary. This research aims to study the soil parameters which affect the efficiency of the antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from the Zingiber zerumbet in three areas of Thailand, including Min Buri district, Bangkok province; Muang district, Chiang Mai province and Kaeng Sanam Nang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province. The soil samples in each area were collected and analyzed in the laboratory. The essential oil of Z. zerumbet in each province was extracted and tested for antioxidant activity by hydrodistillation method and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) assay, respectively. The results showed that, the soil parameters such as pH, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus elements and exchange of cations of soil specimen from Nakhon Ratchasima province were the highest (P<0.05) (6.10 ±0.03, 0.15 ± 0.04 percent of total nitrogen, 16.67 ± 0.46 mg/L, 3.35 ± 0.65 mg/kg and 12.87 ± 0.11 cmol/kg, respectively). In addition, IC50 (Inhibition Concentrtion of antioxidant at 50%) of Z. zerumbet essential oil collected from Nakhon Ratchasima showed the highest value (P<0.05) (1,400 µg/mL). In conclusion, the soil parameters are once important factor for the efficiency of essential oils extract from Z. zerumbet.

Keywords: antioxidant, essential oil, herb, soil parameter, Zingiber zerumbet

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21 An Exploration of the Place of Buddhism in the Tham Luang Cave Rescue and Its Aftermath

Authors: Hamish de Nett

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On 23rd June 2018, twelve young footballers from the Wild Boar Academy and their coach went to explore the Tham Luang cave in the Doi Nang Non mountain range in Chiang Rai Province, Northern Thailand. Whilst they were inside the cave, monsoon rains hit, and the complex became partially flooded. In the following days, Thai Navy SEALs and an international team of expert divers assembled at the cave complex in order to rescue the boys. Although it was only marginally reported in the Western press, Buddhism and ritual activities played a major role in the rescue and its aftermath. This paper utilises numerous news articles and books written by reporters who covered the cave rescue to uncover what the place of Buddhism was in the Tham Luang cave rescue. This paper initially sets out the development of Thai Buddhism and the Thai nation state, paying particular note to the tension in Thai Buddhism between Buddhism as it is popularly practised and normative, state-favoured Buddhism. Secondly, this paper demonstrates that, during the Tham Luang cave rescue, Buddhism helped people cope with the disaster, provided an explanation for its occurrence, and allowed bystanders some efficacy in the process. Thirdly, this paper discusses how Buddhism helped people to give thanks after the rescue, achieve reconciliation, and gain closure. Finally, this paper analyses how the government and the political sphere utilised Buddhism during the rescue. The conclusion reached is that the Buddhism practiced during the Tham Luang cave rescue and its aftermath is representative of the wider tension between popular Buddhism and normative state-favoured Buddhism that is currently present within Thai Buddhism and has been for centuries.

Keywords: cave rescue, contemporary Buddhism, lived religion, Thai Buddhism, Tham Luang cave rescue

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20 Promotion of Public Participation in Community Planning, Bang Nang Li Sub-District, Amphawa District, Samutsongkhram Province

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai, Wilasinee Jintalikitdee, Matinee Kongsatit, Natapol Puaprasert

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The study on promotion of public participation in community planning is a qualitative research. The data collection tools included participating observation, in-depth interview and focus group of executives of sub-district administrative organizations, sub-district headmen, community leaders of 5 villages, including civil society forums for exchanging ideas of village members. The study results revealed that key promotions of public participation in community planning were as follows: 1) Perception on public authorities’ information: Public relations should be set and information on community planning, key principles of local people participation should be prepared. Collaboration with community leaders in each village via sub-district administrative organizations should be established. 2) Discussion: In civil society forums, village members should brainstorm their opinions towards community development, village development, quality of life, current situation and problems to be revolved. 3) Participation: Members of each village should jointly participate, with community leaders, in setting sub-district development policies and community development projects. 4) Collaboration: To achieve goals, communities of each member should participate in project implementation and activities of community plans. 5) People power promotion: In each stage of communication planning, community leaders, village committees, local people should jointly set directions of village development and make decisions. This will enhance their joint learning and create community driving power. Community will become strong leading to sustainable self-reliance.

Keywords: people participation, community plans, community development, community driving power

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19 The Development of Digital Commerce in Community Enterprise Products to Promote the Distribution of Samut Songkhram Province

Authors: Natcha Wattanaprapa, Alongkorn Taengtong, Phachaya Chaiwchan

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This study investigates and promotes the distribution of community enterprise products of Samut Songkhram province by using e-commerce web technology to help distribute the products. This study also aims to develop the information system to be able to operate on multiple platforms and promote the easy usability on smartphones to increase the efficiency and promote the distribution of community enterprise products of Samut Songkhram province in three areas including Baan Saraphi learning center, the learning center of Bang Noi Floating market as well as Bang Nang Li learning center. The main structure consists of spreading the knowledge regarding the tourist attraction in the area of community enterprise, e-commerce system of community enterprise products, and Chatbot. The researcher developed the system into an application form using the software package to create and manage the content on the internet. Connect management system (CMS) word press was used for managing web pages. Add-on CMS word press was used for creating the system of Chatbot, and the database of PHP My Admin was used as the database management system. The evaluation by the experts and users in 5 aspects, including the system efficiency, the accuracy in the operation of the system, the convenience and ease of use of the system, the design, and the promotion of product distribution in Samut Songkhram province by using questionnaires revealed that the result of evaluation in the promotion of product distribution in Samut Songkhram province was the highest with the mean of 4.20. When evaluating the efficiency of the developed system, it was found that the result of system efficiency was the highest level with a mean of 4.10.

Keywords: community enterprise, digital commerce, promotion of product distribution, Samut Songkhram province

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18 Development of High Quality Refractory Bricks from Fireclays for Industrial Applications

Authors: David E. Esezobor, Friday I. Apeh, Harrison O. Onovo, Ademola A. Agbeleye

Abstract:

Available indigenous refractory bricks in Nigeria can only be used in the lining of furnaces for melting of cast iron operating at less than 1,400°C or in preheating furnaces due to their low refractoriness less than 1,500°C. The bricks crack and shatter on heating at 1350 to 1450°C. In this paper, a simple and adaptable technology of manufacturing high-quality refractory bricks from selected Nigerian clays for furnace linings was developed. Fireclays from Onibode, Owode-Ketu in Ogun State and Kwoi in Kaduna State were crushed, ground, and sieved into various grain sizes using standard techniques. The pulverized clays were blended with alumina in various mix ratios and indurated in the furnace at 900 – 16000C. Their chemical, microstructure and mineralogical properties were characterized using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction spectrometry respectively. The mineralogical and spectrochemical analyses suggested that the clays are of siliceous alumino-silicate and acidic in nature. The appropriate blending of fireclays with alumina provided the tremendous improvement in the refractoriness of the bricks and other acceptable service properties comparable with imported refractory bricks. The change in microstructure from pseudo-hexagonal grains to equiaxed grains of well – ordered sequence of structural layers could be responsible for the improved properties.

Keywords: alumina, furnace, industry, manufacturing, refractoriness

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17 Applying EzRAD Method for SNPs Discovery in Population Genetics of Freshwater and Marine Fish in the South of Vietnam

Authors: Quyen Vu Dang Ha, Oanh Truong Thi, Thuoc Tran Linh, Kent Carpenter, Thinh Doan Vu, Binh Dang Thuy

Abstract:

Enzyme restriction site associated DNA (EzRAD) has recently emerged as a promising genomic approach for exploring fish genetic diversity on a genome-wide scale. This is a simplified method for genomic genotyping in non-model organisms and applied for SNPs discovery in the population genetics of freshwater and marine fish in the South of Vietnam. The observations of regional-scale differentiation of commercial freshwater fish (smallscale croakers Boesemania microlepis) and marine fish (emperor Lethrinus lentjan) are clarified. Samples were collected along Hau River and coastal area in the south and center Vietnam. 52 DNA samples from Tra Vinh, An Giang Province for Boesemania microlepis and 34 DNA samples of Lethrinus lentjan from Phu Quoc, Nha Trang, Da Nang Province were used to prepare EzRAD libraries from genomic DNA digested with MboI and Sau3AI. A pooled sample of regional EzRAD libraries was sequenced using the HiSeq 2500 Illumina platform. For Boesemania microlepis, the small scale population different from upstream to downstream of Hau river were detected, An Giang population exhibited less genetic diversity (SNPs per individual from 14 to 926), in comparison to Tra Vinh population (from 11 to 2172). For Lethrinus lentjan, the result showed the minor difference between populations in the Northern and the Southern Mekong River. The numbers of contigs and SNPs vary from 1315 to 2455 and from 7122 to 8594, respectively (P ≤ 0.01). The current preliminary study reveals regional scale population disconnection probably reflecting environmental changing. Additional sampling and EzRad libraries need to be implemented for resource management in the Mekong Delta.

Keywords: Boesemania microlepis, EzRAD, Lethrinus lentjan, SNPs

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16 Measuring the Effect of Co-Composting Oil Sludge with Pig, Cow, Horse And Poultry Manures on the Degradation in Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations

Authors: Ubani Onyedikachi, Atagana Harrison Ifeanyichukwu, Thantsha Mapitsi Silvester

Abstract:

Components of oil sludge (PAHs) are known cytotoxic, mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic compounds also bacteria and fungi have been found to degrade PAHs to innocuous compounds. This study is aimed at measuring the effect of pig, cow, horse and poultry manures on the degradation in selected PAHs present in oil sludge. Soil spiked with oil sludge was co-composted differently with each manure in a ratio of 2:1 (w/w) spiked soil: manure and wood-chips in a ratio of 2:1 (w/v) spiked soil: wood-chips. Control was set up similar as the one above but without manure. The mixtures were incubated for 10 months at room temperature. Compost piles were turned weekly and moisture level was maintained at between 50% and 70%. Moisture level, pH, temperature, CO2 evolution and oxygen consumption were measured monthly and the ash content at the end of experimentation. Highest temperature reached was 27.5 °C in all compost heaps, pH ranged from 5.5 to 7.8 and CO2 evolution was highest in poultry manure at 18.78μg/dwt/day. Microbial growth and activities were enhanced; bacteria identified were Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Staphylococcus species. Percentage reduction in PAHs was measured using automated soxhlet extractor with Dichloromethane coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results from PAH measurements showed reduction between 77% and 99%. Co-composting of spiked soils with animal manures enhanced the reduction in PAHs.

Keywords: animal manures, bioremediation, co-composting, oil refinery sludge, PAHs

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15 Innovation and Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Uganda Microdata

Authors: Milton Ayoki, Edward Bbaale

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This paper analyses the relationship between innovation and employment at firm level with the objective of understanding the contribution of the different innovation strategies in fostering employment growth in Uganda. We use National Innovation Survey (micro-data of 705 Ugandan firms) for the period 2011-2014 and follow closely Harrison et al. (2014) structured approach, and relate employment growth to process innovations and to the growth of sales separately due to innovative and unchanged products. We find positive effects of product innovation on employment at firm level, while process innovation has no discernable impact on employment. Although there is evidence to suggest displacement of labour in some cases where firms only introduce new process, this effect is compensated by growth in employment from new products, which for most firms are introduced simultaneously with new process. Results suggest that source of innovation as well as size of innovating firms or end users of innovation matter for job growth. Innovation that develops from within the firm itself (user) and involving larger firms has greater impact on employment than that developed from outside or coming from within smaller firms. In addition, innovative firms are one and half times more likely to survive in the innovation driven economy environment than those that do not innovate. These results have important implications for policymakers and stakeholders in innovation ecosystem. Supporting policies need to be correctly tailored since the impacts depend on the innovation strategy (type) and characteristics and sector of the innovative firms (small, large, industry, etc.). Policies to spur investment, particularly in innovative sectors and firms with high growth potential would have long lasting effects on job creation. JEL Classification: D24, J0, J20, L20, O30.

Keywords: employment, process innovation, product innovation, Sub-Saharan Africa

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14 Assessing the Feasibility of Commercial Meat Rabbit Production in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana

Authors: Nana Segu Acquaah-Harrison, James Osei Mensah, Richard Aidoo, David Amponsah, Amy Buah, Gilbert Aboagye

Abstract:

The study aimed at assessing the feasibility of commercial meat rabbit production in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. Structured and unstructured questionnaires were utilized in obtaining information from two hundred meat consumers and 15 meat rabbit farmers. Data were analyzed using Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR)/Profitability Index (PI) technique, percentages and chi-square contingency test. The study found that the current demand for rabbit meat is low (36%). The desirable nutritional attributes of rabbit meat and other socio economic factors of meat consumers make the potential demand for rabbit meat high (69%). It was estimated that GH¢5,292 (approximately $ 2672) was needed as a start-up capital for a 40-doe unit meat rabbit farm in Kumasi Metropolis. The cost of breeding animals, housing and equipment formed 12.47%, 53.97% and 24.87% respectively of the initial estimated capital. A Net Present Value of GH¢ 5,910.75 (approximately $ 2984) was obtained at the end of the fifth year, with an internal rate return and profitability index of 70% and 1.12 respectively. The major constraints identified in meat rabbit production were low price of rabbit meat, shortage of fodder, pest and diseases, high cost of capital, high cost of operating materials and veterinary care. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that meat rabbit production is feasible in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. The study recommends embarking on mass advertisement; farmer association and adapting to new technologies in the production process will help to enhance productivity.

Keywords: feasibility, commercial meat rabbit, production, Kumasi, Ghana

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13 Designing Product-Service-System Applied to Reusable Packaging Solutions: A Strategic Design Tool

Authors: Yuan Long, Fabrizio Ceschin, David Harrison

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Environmental sustainability is under the threat of excessive single-use plastic packaging waste, and current waste management fails to address this issue. Therefore, it has led to a reidentification of the alternative, which can curb the packaging waste without reducing social needs. Reusable packaging represents a circular approach to close the loop of consumption in which packaging can stay longer in the system to satisfy social needs. However, the implementation of reusable packaging is fragmented and lacks systematic approaches. The product-service system (PSS) is widely regarded as a sustainable business model innovation for embracing circular consumption. As a result, applying PSS to reusable packaging solutions will be promising to address the packaging waste issue. This paper aims at filling the knowledge gap relating to apply PSS to reusable packaging solutions and provide a strategic design tool that could support packaging professionals to design reusable packaging solutions. The methodology of this paper is case studies and workshops to provide a design tool. The respondents are packaging professionals who are packaging consultants, NGO professionals, and entrepreneurs. 57 cases collected show that 15 archetypal models operate in the market. Subsequently, a polarity diagram is developed to embrace those 15 archetypal models, and a total number of 24 experts were invited for the workshop to evaluate the design tool. This research finally provides a strategic design tool to support packaging professionals to design reusable packaging solutions. The application of the tool is to support the understanding of the reusable packaging solutions, analyzing the markets, identifying new opportunities, and generate new business models. The implication of this research is to provide insights for academics and businesses in terms of tackling single-use packaging waste and build a foundation for further development of the reusable packaging solution tool.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, product-service system, reusable packaging, design tool

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12 Effect of Mannitol on in Vitro Conservation of Local and Exotic Taro-Genotypes (Colocasia Esculenta Var Esculenta)

Authors: Benjamin Bonsu Bruce, Marian Dorcas Quain David Appiah-Kubi, Gertrude Osei-Diko, Harrison Kwame Dapaah

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Taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] is a major staple food and remains a significant crop to many cultural and agricultural customs worldwide. In Ghana, taro is mostly propagated using vegetative material, which is conserved in field collection and recycled from their farms to establish new fields. However, this practice promotes the accumulation of systemic pathogens. Prior exposure to pests and subsequent expression of disease symptoms can also be a huge constraint to sustainable conservation and utilization of taro genetic resources. In vitro, slow growth is one of the most promising techniques to be utilized for conservation. The objective of this study was to find a medium-term in vitro conservation protocol for local and exotic taro genotypes. The medium-term conservation study was conducted using actively growing shoots obtained from in vitro cultures. Explants were cultured to full strength in complete Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with Mannitol at different concentrations (0g/l, 20g/l, 25g/l, and 30g/l). Another medium that was tested as an additional treatment is the White’s medium. The highest number of shoots (6.33) and leaves (22.67) occurred on medium containing 20 and 25g/l mannitol in genotype SAO 006 as compared to other genotypes, whereas 30g/l mannitol was the best to restrict growth for the entire 6 months period in terms of shoot height (22.50cm). The study reveals that mannitol supplemented culture media could reduce the growth of Colocasia plantlets, especially in stem height. Culture growth following 6 months of conservation, showed that healthy shoot cultures of Taro were obtained after 6 months of storage in a medium containing 20gl⁻¹ and 25gl⁻¹ mannitol.

Keywords: complete murashige, skoog medium, culture conditions, mannitol, slow growth conservation

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11 The Consistency of Gerhard Kittel’s “Christian” Antisemitism in His "Die Judenfrage" and "Meine Verteidigung"

Authors: Catherine Harrison

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Faced with arrest, imprisonment and the denazification process in 1945, Tübingen University’s Professor of Theology, Gerhard Kittel, refused to abandon the “Christian” antisemitism which he had first expounded in his Die Judenfrage [The Jewish Question] (1933 and 1934). At the heart of this paper is a critical engagement with Die Judenfrage, the first in English. Putting Die Judenfrage into dialogue with Kittel’s 1946, Meine Verteidigung [My Defence] (1945-6) exposes the remarkable consistency of Kittel’s idiosyncratic but closely argued Christian theology of antisemitism. Girdling his career as a foremost theologian, antisemite and enthusiastic supporter of Hitler and the NSDAP, the consistency between Die Judenfrage and Meine Verteidigung attests Kittel’s consistent and authentic, intellectual position. In both texts, he claims to be advancing Christian, as opposed to “vulgar” or racial, antisemitism. Yet, in the thirteen years which divide them, Kittel had mediated contact with Nazi illuminati Rudolph Hess, Alfred Rosenberg, Winnifred Wagner, Josef Goebbels and Baldur von Schirach, through his publications in various antisemitic journals. The paper argues: Die Judenfrage, as both a text and as a theme, is axiomatic to Kittel’s defence statement; and that Die Judenfrage constitutes the template of Kittel’s arcane, personal “Christian” antisemitism of which Meine Verteidigung is a faithful impression. Both are constructed on the same theologically chimeric and abstruse hypotheses regarding Volk, Spätjudentum [late Judaism] and Heilgeschichte [salvation history]. Problematising these and other definitional vagaries that make up Kittel’s “Christian” antisemitism highlight the remarkable theoretical consistency between Die Judenfrage and Meine Verteidigung. It is concluded that a deadly synergy of Nazi racial antisemitism and the New Testament antisemitism shaped Kittel’s judgement to the degree that, despite the slipstream of concentration camp footage which was shaking the foundations of post-war German academia, Meine Verteidigung is a simple restatement of the antisemitsm conveyed in Die Judenfrage.

Keywords: Gerhard Kittel, Third Reich theology, the Jewish Question, Nazi antisemitism

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10 Towards an Eastern Philosophy of Religion: on the Contradictory Identity of Philosophy and Religion

Authors: Carlo Cogliati

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The study of the relationship of philosophical reason with the religious domain has been very much a concern for many of the Western philosophical and theological traditions. In this essay, I will suggest a proposal for an Eastern philosophy of religion based on Nishida’s contradictory identity of the two: philosophy soku hi (is, and yes is not) religion. This will pose a challenge to the traditional Western contents and methods of the discipline. This paper aims to serve three purposes. First, I will critically assess Charlesworth’s typology of the relation between philosophy and religion in the West: philosophy as/for/against/about/after religion. I will also engage Harrison’s call for a global philosophy of religion(s) and argue that, although it expands the scope and the range of the questions to address, it is still Western in its method. Second, I will present Nishida’s logic of absolutely contradictory self-identity as the instrument to transcend the dichotomous pair of identity and contradiction: ‘A is A’ and ‘A is not A’. I will then explain how this ‘concrete’ logic of the East, as opposed to the ‘formal’ logic of the West, exhibits at best the bilateral dynamic relation between philosophy and religion. Even as Nishida argues for the non-separability of the two, he is also aware and committed to their mutual non-reducibility. Finally, I will outline the resulting new relation between God and creatures. Nishida in his philosophy soku hi religion replaces the traditional Western dualistic concept of God with the Eastern non-dualistic understanding of God as “neither transcendent nor immanent, and at the same time both transcendent and immanent.” God is therefore a self-identity of contradiction, nowhere and yet everywhere present in the world of creatures. God as absolute being is also absolute nothingness: the world of creatures is the expression of God’s absolute self-negation. The overreaching goal of this essay is to offer an alternative to traditional Western approaches to philosophy of religion based on Nishida’s logic of absolutely contradictory self-identity, as an example of philosophical and religious counter(influence). The resulting relationship between philosophy and religion calls for a revision of traditional concepts and methods. The outcome is not to reformulate the Eastern predilection to not sharply distinguish philosophical thought from religious enlightenment rather to bring together philosophy and religion in the place of identity and difference.

Keywords: basho, Nishida Kitaro, shukyotetsugaku, soku hi, zettai mujunteki jikodoitsu no ronri

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9 Predicting Radioactive Waste Glass Viscosity, Density and Dissolution with Machine Learning

Authors: Joseph Lillington, Tom Gout, Mike Harrison, Ian Farnan

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The vitrification of high-level nuclear waste within borosilicate glass and its incorporation within a multi-barrier repository deep underground is widely accepted as the preferred disposal method. However, for this to happen, any safety case will require validation that the initially localized radionuclides will not be considerably released into the near/far-field. Therefore, accurate mechanistic models are necessary to predict glass dissolution, and these should be robust to a variety of incorporated waste species and leaching test conditions, particularly given substantial variations across international waste-streams. Here, machine learning is used to predict glass material properties (viscosity, density) and glass leaching model parameters from large-scale industrial data. A variety of different machine learning algorithms have been compared to assess performance. Density was predicted solely from composition, whereas viscosity additionally considered temperature. To predict suitable glass leaching model parameters, a large simulated dataset was created by coupling MATLAB and the chemical reactive-transport code HYTEC, considering the state-of-the-art GRAAL model (glass reactivity in allowance of the alteration layer). The trained models were then subsequently applied to the large-scale industrial, experimental data to identify potentially appropriate model parameters. Results indicate that ensemble methods can accurately predict viscosity as a function of temperature and composition across all three industrial datasets. Glass density prediction shows reliable learning performance with predictions primarily being within the experimental uncertainty of the test data. Furthermore, machine learning can predict glass dissolution model parameters behavior, demonstrating potential value in GRAAL model development and in assessing suitable model parameters for large-scale industrial glass dissolution data.

Keywords: machine learning, predictive modelling, pattern recognition, radioactive waste glass

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8 Identification of Candidate Congenital Heart Defects Biomarkers by Applying a Random Forest Approach on DNA Methylation Data

Authors: Kan Yu, Khui Hung Lee, Eben Afrifa-Yamoah, Jing Guo, Katrina Harrison, Jack Goldblatt, Nicholas Pachter, Jitian Xiao, Guicheng Brad Zhang

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Background and Significance of the Study: Congenital Heart Defects (CHDs) are the most common malformation at birth and one of the leading causes of infant death. Although the exact etiology remains a significant challenge, epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects. At present, no existing DNA methylation biomarkers are used for early detection of CHDs. The existing CHD diagnostic techniques are time-consuming and costly and can only be used to diagnose CHDs after an infant was born. The present study employed a machine learning technique to analyse genome-wide methylation data in children with and without CHDs with the aim to find methylation biomarkers for CHDs. Methods: The Illumina Human Methylation EPIC BeadChip was used to screen the genome‐wide DNA methylation profiles of 24 infants diagnosed with congenital heart defects and 24 healthy infants without congenital heart defects. Primary pre-processing was conducted by using RnBeads and limma packages. The methylation levels of top 600 genes with the lowest p-value were selected and further investigated by using a random forest approach. ROC curves were used to analyse the sensitivity and specificity of each biomarker in both training and test sample sets. The functionalities of selected genes with high sensitivity and specificity were then assessed in molecular processes. Major Findings of the Study: Three genes (MIR663, FGF3, and FAM64A) were identified from both training and validating data by random forests with an average sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 95%. GO analyses for the top 600 genes showed that these putative differentially methylated genes were primarily associated with regulation of lipid metabolic process, protein-containing complex localization, and Notch signalling pathway. The present findings highlight that aberrant DNA methylation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects.

Keywords: biomarker, congenital heart defects, DNA methylation, random forest

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7 The Role of Agroforestry Practices in Climate Change Mitigation in Western Kenya

Authors: Humphrey Agevi, Harrison Tsingalia, Richard Onwonga, Shem Kuyah

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Most of the world ecosystems have been affected by the effects of climate change. Efforts have been made to mitigate against climate change effects. While most studies have been done in forest ecosystems and pure plant plantations, trees on farms including agroforestry have only received attention recently. Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural lands make an important contribution to climate change mitigation but are not systematically accounted for in the global carbon budgets. This study sought to: (i) determine tree diversity in different agroforestry practices; (ii) determine tree biomass in different agroforestry practices. Study area was determined according to the Land degradation surveillance framework (LSDF). Two study sites were established. At each of the site, a 5km x 10km block was established on a map using Google maps and satellite images. Way points were then uploaded in a GPS helped locate the blocks on the ground. In each of the blocks, Nine (8) sentinel clusters measuring 1km x 1km were randomized. Randomization was done in a common spreadsheet program and later be downloaded to a Global Positioning System (GPS) so that during surveys the researchers were able to navigate to the sampling points. In each of the sentinel cluster, two farm boundaries were randomly identified for convenience and to avoid bias. This led to 16 farms in Kakamega South and 16 farms in Kakamega North totalling to 32 farms in Kakamega Site. Species diversity was determined using Shannon wiener index. Tree biomass was determined using allometric equation. Two agroforestry practices were found; homegarden and hedgerow. Species diversity ranged from 0.25-2.7 with a mean of 1.8 ± 0.10. Species diversity in homegarden ranged from 1-2.7 with a mean of 1.98± 0.14. Hedgerow species diversity ranged from 0.25-2.52 with a mean of 1.74± 0.11. Total Aboveground Biomass (AGB) determined was 13.96±0.37 Mgha-1. Homegarden with the highest abundance of trees had higher above ground biomass (AGB) compared to hedgerow agroforestry. This study is timely as carbon budgets in the agroforestry can be incorporated in the global carbon budgets and improve the accuracy of national reporting of greenhouse gases.

Keywords: agroforestry, allometric equations, biomass, climate change

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6 Motivation of Doctors and its Impact on the Quality of Working Life

Authors: E. V. Fakhrutdinova, K. R. Maksimova, P. B. Chursin

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At the present stage of the society progress the health care is an integral part of both the economic system and social, while in the second case the medicine is a major component of a number of basic and necessary social programs. Since the foundation of the health system are highly qualified health professionals, it is logical proposition that increase of doctor`s professionalism improves the effectiveness of the system as a whole. Professionalism of the doctor is a collection of many components, essential role played by such personal-psychological factors as honesty, willingness and desire to help people, and motivation. A number of researchers consider motivation as an expression of basic human needs that have passed through the “filter” which is a worldview and values learned in the process of socialization by the individual, to commit certain actions designed to achieve the expected result. From this point of view a number of researchers propose the following classification of highly skilled employee’s needs: 1. the need for confirmation the competence (setting goals that meet the professionalism and receipt of positive emotions in their decision), 2. The need for independence (the ability to make their own choices in contentious situations arising in the process carry out specialist functions), 3. The need for ownership (in the case of health care workers, to the profession and accordingly, high in the eyes of the public status of the doctor). Nevertheless, it is important to understand that in a market economy a significant motivator for physicians (both legal and natural persons) is to maximize its own profits. In the case of health professionals duality motivational structure creates an additional contrast, as in the public mind the image of the ideal physician; usually a altruistically minded person thinking is not primarily about their own benefit, and to assist others. In this context, the question of the real motivation of health workers deserves special attention. The survey conducted by the American researcher Harrison Terni for the magazine "Med Tech" in 2010 revealed the opinion of more than 200 medical students starting courses, and the primary motivation in a profession choice is "desire to help people", only 15% said that they want become a doctor, "to earn a lot". From the point of view of most of the classical theories of motivation this trend can be called positive, as intangible incentives are more effective. However, it is likely that over time the opinion of the respondents may change in the direction of mercantile motives. Thus, it is logical to assume that well-designed system of motivation of doctor`s labor should be based on motivational foundations laid during training in higher education.

Keywords: motivation, quality of working life, health system, personal-psychological factors, motivational structure

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5 Leadership Education for Law Enforcement Mid-Level Managers: The Mediating Role of Effectiveness of Training on Transformational and Authentic Leadership Traits

Authors: Kevin Baxter, Ron Grove, James Pitney, John Harrison, Ozlem Gumus

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The purpose of this research is to determine the mediating effect of effectiveness of the training provided by Northwestern University’s School of Police Staff and Command (SPSC), on the ability of law enforcement mid-level managers to learn transformational and authentic leadership traits. This study will also evaluate the leadership styles, of course, graduates compared to non-attendees using a static group comparison design. The Louisiana State Police pay approximately $40,000 in salary, tuition, housing, and meals for each state police lieutenant attending the 10-week program of the SPSC. This school lists the development of transformational leaders as an increasing element. Additionally, the SPSC curriculum addresses all four components of authentic leadership - self-awareness, transparency, ethical/moral, and balanced processing. Upon return to law enforcement in roles of mid-level management, there are questions as to whether or not students revert to an “autocratic” leadership style. Insufficient evidence exists to support claims for the effectiveness of management training or leadership development. Though it is widely recognized that transformational styles are beneficial to law enforcement, there is little evidence that suggests police leadership styles are changing. Police organizations continue to hold to a more transactional style (i.e., most senior police leaders remain autocrats). Additionally, research in the application of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership related to police organizations is minimal. The population of the study is law enforcement mid-level managers from various states within the United States who completed leadership training presented by the SPSC. The sample will be composed of 66 active law enforcement mid-level managers (lieutenants and captains) who have graduated from SPSC and 65 active law enforcement mid-level managers (lieutenants and captains) who have not attended SPSC. Participants will answer demographics questions, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, and the Kirkpatrick Hybrid Evaluation Survey. Analysis from descriptive statistics, group comparison, one-way MANCOVA, and the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model survey will be used to determine training effectiveness in the four levels of reaction, learning, behavior, and results. Independent variables are SPSC graduates (two groups: upper and lower) and no-SPSC attendees, and dependent variables are transformational and authentic leadership scores. SPSC graduates are expected to have higher MLQ scores for transformational leadership traits and higher ALQ scores for authentic leadership traits than SPSC non-attendees. We also expect the graduates to rate the efficacy of SPSC leadership training as high. This study will validate (or invalidate) the benefits, costs, and resources required for leadership development from a nationally recognized police leadership program, and it will also help fill the gap in the literature that exists between law enforcement professional development and transformational and authentic leadership styles.

Keywords: training effectiveness, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, law enforcement mid-level manager

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