Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Hakeem Olujide

13 The Use of Geographic Information System for Selecting Landfill Sites in Osogbo

Authors: Nureni Amoo, Sunday Aroge, Oluranti Akintola, Hakeem Olujide, Ibrahim Alabi


This study investigated the optimum landfill site in Osogbo so as to identify suitable solid waste dumpsite for proper waste management in the capital city. Despite an increase in alternative techniques for disposing of waste, landfilling remains the primary means of waste disposal. These changes in attitudes in many parts of the world have been supported by changes in laws and policies regarding the environment and waste disposal. Selecting the most suitable site for landfill can avoid any ecological and socio-economic effects. The increase in industrial and economic development, along with the increase of population growth in Osogbo town, generates a tremendous amount of solid waste within the region. Factors such as the scarcity of land, the lifespan of the landfill, and environmental considerations warrant that the scientific and fundamental studies are carried out in determining the suitability of a landfill site. The analysis of spatial data and consideration of regulations and accepted criteria are part of the important elements in the site selection. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision-making method using geographic information system (GIS) with the integration of the fuzzy logic multi-criteria decision making (FMCDM) technique for landfill suitability site evaluation. By using the fuzzy logic method (classification of suitable areas in the range of 0 to 1 scale), the superposing of the information layers related to drainage, soil, land use/land cover, slope, land use, and geology maps were performed in the study. Based on the result obtained in this study, five (5) potential sites are suitable for the construction of a landfill are proposed, two of which belong to the most suitable zone, and the existing waste disposal site belonged to the unsuitable zone.

Keywords: fuzzy logic multi-criteria decision making, geographic information system, landfill, suitable site, waste disposal

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12 Utilizing Spatial Uncertainty of On-The-Go Measurements to Design Adaptive Sampling of Soil Electrical Conductivity in a Rice Field

Authors: Ismaila Olabisi Ogundiji, Hakeem Mayowa Olujide, Qasim Usamot


The main reasons for site-specific management for agricultural inputs are to increase the profitability of crop production, to protect the environment and to improve products’ quality. Information about the variability of different soil attributes within a field is highly essential for the decision-making process. Lack of fast and accurate acquisition of soil characteristics remains one of the biggest limitations of precision agriculture due to being expensive and time-consuming. Adaptive sampling has been proven as an accurate and affordable sampling technique for planning within a field for site-specific management of agricultural inputs. This study employed spatial uncertainty of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) estimates to identify adaptive re-survey areas in the field. The original dataset was grouped into validation and calibration groups where the calibration group was sub-grouped into three sets of different measurements pass intervals. A conditional simulation was performed on the field ECa to evaluate the ECa spatial uncertainty estimates by the use of the geostatistical technique. The grouping of high-uncertainty areas for each set was done using image segmentation in MATLAB, then, high and low area value-separate was identified. Finally, an adaptive re-survey was carried out on those areas of high-uncertainty. Adding adaptive re-surveying significantly minimized the time required for resampling whole field and resulted in ECa with minimal error. For the most spacious transect, the root mean square error (RMSE) yielded from an initial crude sampling survey was minimized after an adaptive re-survey, which was close to that value of the ECa yielded with an all-field re-survey. The estimated sampling time for the adaptive re-survey was found to be 45% lesser than that of all-field re-survey. The results indicate that designing adaptive sampling through spatial uncertainty models significantly mitigates sampling cost, and there was still conformity in the accuracy of the observations.

Keywords: soil electrical conductivity, adaptive sampling, conditional simulation, spatial uncertainty, site-specific management

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11 A Critical Appraisal of Illegal Immigrants in Maldives: An Overview

Authors: Md. Zahidul Islam, Mohamed Shujau Abdul Hakeem


Illegal immigrants’ problem is a big problem all over the world including Maldives. Nowadays, it is turned into a major problem for Maldives. Many illegal immigrants are staying in Maldives from different countries such as Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Philippines and Sri Lanka. The aim of this article is to highlight the present situation of illegal immigrant in Maldives. At the same time, this article also tries to explain the legal protection of illegal immigrant. The research will adopt qualitative methods of research. The qualitative method involves doctrinal. As a doctrinal research, author used secondary sources. As secondary sources, the author used journal articles, newspapers and other useful materials to help the purpose of this research. Government agencies have to more concern to solve this problem.

Keywords: critical appraisal, illegal immigrants, Maldives, overview

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10 Crystallization Fouling from Potable Water in Heat Exchangers and Evaporators

Authors: Amthal Al-Gailani, Olujide Sanni, Thibaut Charpentier, Anne Neville


Formation of inorganic scale on heat transfer surfaces is a serious problem encountered in industrial, commercial, and domestic heat exchangers and systems. Several industries use potable/groundwater sources such as rivers, lakes, and oceans to use water as a working fluid in heat exchangers and steamers. As potable/surface water contains diverse salt ionic species, the scaling kinetics and deposit morphology are expected to be different from those found in artificially hardened solutions. In this work, scale formation on the heat transfer surfaces from potable water has been studied using a once-through open flow cell under atmospheric pressure. The surface scaling mechanism and deposit morphology are investigated at high surface temperature. Thus the water evaporation process has to be considered. The effect of surface temperature, flow rate, and inhibitor deployment on the thermal resistance and morphology of the scale have been investigated. The study findings show how an increase in surface temperature enhances the crystallization reaction kinetics on the surface. There is an increase in the amount of scale and the resistance to heat transfer. The fluid flow rate also increases the fouling resistance and the thickness of the scale layer.

Keywords: fouling, heat exchanger, thermal resistance, crystallization, potable water

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9 Toxicity of Cry1ac Bacillus thuringiensis against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) on Artificial Diet under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Tahammal Hussain, Khuram Zia, Mumammad Jalal Arif, Megha Parajulee, Abdul Hakeem


The Bioassay on neonate, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) were conducted against Bacillus thuringiensis proteins Cry1Ac. Cry1Ac was incorporated into an artificial diet and was serially diluted with distilled water and then mixed with diet at an appropriate temperature of diet. Toxins incorporated prepared diet was poured into Petri-dishes. For controls, distilled water was mixed with the diet. Five toxin doses 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 ug / ml and one control were used for each instars of H. armigera 20 larvae were used in each replication and each treatment is replicated four times. LC50 of Cry1Ac against neonate, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of H. armigera were 0.34, 0.81 and 1.46 ug / ml. So Cry1Ac is more effective against neonate larvae of H .armigera as compared to 2nd and 3rd instar larvae under laboratory conditions.

Keywords: B. thuringiensis, Cry1Ac, H. armigera, toxicity

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8 Intellectual Women: The Continuing Struggle between Marriage and Personal Dreams in Margaret Drabble's a Summer Bird-Cage and The Millstone

Authors: Ashwag Abdul-Hakeem Al-Thubaiti


This study aims at analysing women's hesitant attitudes towards marriage in Margaret Drabble's novels, A Summer-Bird-Cage (1964) and The Millstone (1965), to prove that these ambivalent feelings are due to their search for autonomy. The heroines' radical outlook on independence is only meant to hide their conflict regarding sex-experience and fear of intimacy, a fear that has been enhanced by their rejection of the expression of faith that considers marriage a sacred bond and instead focus on their own identity and dissolve any bond that may affect their independence. To achieve their autonomy, they have to depend on themselves financially and focus on their aspirational goals. This sharp division between the two worlds, the family life and the personal success attributes negatively to their lives and leads to a self-identity crisis. Drabble tends to solve this struggle by awakening their maternal instinct. Once they respect their physical needs and appreciate their role as it is assigned to them by nature and society, they reach a balanced identity.

Keywords: autonomy, marriage, maternity, women

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7 Comparative Study Between Continuous Versus Pulsed Ultrasound in Knee Osteoarthritis

Authors: Karim Mohamed Fawzy Ghuiba, Alaa Aldeen Abd Al Hakeem Balbaa, Shams Elbaz


Objectives: To compare between the effects continuous and pulsed ultrasound on pain and function in patient with knee osteoarthritis. Design: Randomized-Single blinded Study. Participants: 6 patients with knee osteoarthritis with mean age 53.66±3.61years, Altman Grade II or III. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; Group A received continuous ultrasound and Group B received pulsed ultrasound. Outcome measures: Effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound were evaluated by pain threshold assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and function assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) scores. Results: There was no significant decrease in VAS and WOMAC scores in patients treated with pulsed or continuous ultrasound; and there were no significant differences between both groups. Conclusion: there is no difference between the effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound in pain relief or functional outcome in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Keywords: knee osteoarthritis, pulsed ultrasound, ultrasound therapy, continuous ultrasound

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6 Finite Element Simulation of Embankment Bumps at Bridge Approaches, Comparison Study

Authors: F. A. Hassona, M. D. Hashem, R. I. Melek, B. M. Hakeem


A differential settlement at the end of a bridge near the interface between the abutment and the embankment is a persistent problem for highway agencies. The differential settlement produces the common ‘bump at the end of the bridge’. Reduction in steering response, distraction to the driver, added risk and expense to maintenance operation, and reduction in a transportation agency’s public image are all undesirable effects of these uneven and irregular transitions. This paper attempts to simulate the bump at the end of the bridge using PLAXIS finite element 2D program. PLAXIS was used to simulate a laboratory model called Bridge to Embankment Simulator of Transition (B.E.S.T.) device which was built by others to investigate this problem. A total of six numerical simulations were conducted using hardening- soil model with rational assumptions of missing soil parameters to estimate the bump at the end of the bridge. The results show good agreements between the numerical and the laboratory models. Important factors influencing bumps at bridge ends were also addressed in light of the model results.

Keywords: bridge approach slabs, bridge bump, hardening-soil, PLAXIS 2D, settlement

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5 Effect of Nano/Micro Alumina Matrix on Alumina-Cubic Boron Nitride Composites Consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: A. S. Hakeem, B. Ahmed, M. Ehsan, A. Ibrahim, H. M. Irshad, T. Laoui


Alumina (Al2O3) - cubic boron nitride (cBN) ceramic composites were sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using α-Al2O3 particle sizes; 150 µm, 150 nm and cBN particle size of 42 µm. Alumina-cBN composites containing 10, 20 and 30wt% cBN with and without Ni coated were sintering at an elevated temperature of 1400°C at a constant uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa. The effect of matrix particle size, cBN and Ni content on mechanical properties and thermal properties, i.e., thermal conductivity, diffusivity, expansion, densification, phase transformation, microstructure, hardness and toughness of the Al2O3-cBN/(Ni) composites under specific sintering conditions were investigated. The highest relative densification of 150 nm-Al2O3 containing 30wt% cBN (Ni coated) composite was 99% at TSPS = 1400°C. In case of 150 µm- Al2O3 compositions, the phase transformation of cBN to hBN were observed, and the relative densification decreased. Thermal conductivity depicts maximum value in case of 150 nm- Al2O3-30wt% cBN-Ni composition. The Vickers hardness of this composition at TSPS = 1400°C also showed the highest value of 29 GPa.

Keywords: alumina composite, cubic boron nitride, mechanical properties, phase transformation, Spark plasma sintering

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4 Pilot Scale Sub-Surface Constructed Wetland: Evaluation of Performance of Bed Vegetated with Water Hyacinth in the Treatment of Domestic Sewage

Authors: Abdul-Hakeem Olatunji Abiola, A. E. Adeniran, A. O. Ajimo, A. B. Lamilisa


Introduction: Conventional wastewater treatment technology has been found to fail in developing countries because they are expensive to construct, operate and maintain. Constructed wetlands are nowadays considered as a low-cost alternative for effective wastewater treatment, especially where suitable land can be available. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the constructed wetland vegetated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) plant for the treatment of wastewater. Methodology: The sub-surface flow wetland used for this study was an experimental scale constructed wetland consisting of four beds A, B, C, and D. Beds A, B, and D were vegetated while bed C which was used as a control was non-vegetated. This present study presents the results from bed B vegetated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and control bed C which was non-vegetated. The influent of the experimental scale wetland has been pre-treated with sedimentation, screening and anaerobic chamber before feeding into the experimental scale wetland. Results: pH and conductivity level were more reduced, colour of effluent was more improved, nitrate, iron, phosphate, and chromium were more removed, and dissolved oxygen was more improved in the water hyacinth bed than the control bed. While manganese, nickel, cyanuric acid, and copper were more removed from the control bed than the water hyacinth bed. Conclusion: The performance of the experimental scale constructed wetland bed planted with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is better than that of the control bed. It is therefore recommended that plain bed without any plant should not be encouraged.

Keywords: constructed experimental scale wetland, domestic sewage, treatment, water hyacinth

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3 A Systematic Review of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Return to Work after Surgical vs. Non-surgical Midshaft Humerus Fracture

Authors: Jamal Alasiri, Naif Hakeem, Saoud Almaslmani


Background: Patients with humeral shaft fractures have two different treatment options. Surgical therapy has lesser risks of non-union, mal-union, and re-intervention than non-surgical therapy. These positive clinical outcomes of the surgical approach make it a preferable treatment option despite the risks of radial nerve palsy and additional surgery-related risk. We aimed to evaluate patients’ outcomes and return to work after surgical vs. non-surgical management of shaft humeral fracture. Methods: We used databases, including PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, from 2010 to January 2022 to search for potential randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing the patients’ related outcome measures and return to work between surgical and non-surgical management of humerus fracture. Results: After carefully evaluating 1352 articles, we included three RCTs (232 patients) and one cohort study (39 patients). The surgical intervention used plate/nail fixation, while the non-surgical intervention used a splint or brace procedure to manage shaft humeral fracture. The pooled DASH effects of all three RCTs at six (M.D: -7.5 [-13.20, -1.89], P: 0.009) I2:44%) and 12 months (M.D: -1.32 [-3.82, 1.17], p:0.29, I2: 0%) were higher in patients treated surgically than in non-surgical procedures. The pooled constant Murley score at six (M.D: 7.945[2.77,13.10], P: 0.003) I2: 0%) and 12 months (M.D: 1.78 [-1.52, 5.09], P: 0.29, I2: 0%) were higher in patients who received non-surgical than surgical therapy. However, pooled analysis for patients returning to work for both groups remained inconclusive. Conclusion: Altogether, we found no significant evidence supporting the clinical benefits of surgical over non-surgical therapy. Thus, the non-surgical approach remains the preferred therapeutic choice for managing shaft humeral fractures due to its lesser side effects.

Keywords: shaft humeral fracture, surgical treatment, Patient-related outcomes, return to work, DASH

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2 Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from the Intestines of Slaughtered Goat and Cattle

Authors: Latifat Afolake Ogunfolabo, Hakeem Babafemi Ogunfolabo


The gastrointestinal tract is densely populated with micro-organism which closely and intensively interacts with the host and ingested feed. Food borne infections are some of the major international challenges that lead to high mortality and also, antimicrobial resistance, which has been classified as a serious threat by World Health Organization. Samples of slaughtered cattle and goats intestines were collected and standard culture methods were used for bacteria isolation and identification. Minimum inhibitory concentration of commonly used antibiotic using modification of the disk diffusion method was carried out on isolates. The samples cultured were all positive to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (95% and 90%), Escherichia coli (85%), Salmonella typhi (70% and 60%), Staphylococcus aureus (75%and 100%), Micrococcus luteus (55% and35%), Bacillus macerans (60% and 5%), Bacillus cereus (25% and 20%), Clostridium perfringens (20% and 5%), Micrococcus varians (20% and 5%), Bacillus subtilis (25% and 5%), Streptococcus faecalis (40% and 25%) and Streptococcus faecium (15% and 10%) in goat and cattle respectively. Also, Proteus mirabilis (40%), Micrococcus luteus (35%), Proteus vulgaris (30%), Klebsiella aerogenes(15%) were isolated from cattle. The total coliform (13.55 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 1.77) and (20.30 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 1.27) counts were significantly higher than the total bacteria count (8.3 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 1.41) and (16.60 x10⁵cfu/gm ±0.49) for goat and cattle respectively. Selected Bacteria count of isolates showed that Staphylococcus aureus had the highest significant value (6.9 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.57) and (16.80 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.57) Escherichia coli (4.60 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.42) and (7.05 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.64) while the lowest significant value was obtained in Salmonella/Shigella (1.7 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.00) and (1.5 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.00) for goat and cattle respectively. Susceptibility of bacteria isolated from slaughtered goat and cattle intestine to commonly used antibiotics showed that the highest statistical significant value for zone of inhibition for goat was obtained for Ciprofloxacin (30.00 ± 2.25, 23.75 ± 2.49, 17.17 ± 1.40) followed by Augmentin (28.33 ± 1.22, 21. 83 ± 2.44, 16.67 ± 1.49), Erythromycin (27.75 ±1.48, 20.25 ± 1.29, 16.67 ± 1.26) while the lowest values were obtained for Ofloxacin (27.17 ± 1.89, 21.42 ± 2.19, 16.83 ± 1.26) respectively and values obtained for cattle are Ciprofloxacin (30.64 ± 1.6, 25.79 ± 1.76, 8.07 ± 11.49) followed by Augmentin (28.29 ± 1.33, 22.64 ± 1.82, 17.43 ± 1.55) Ofloxacin (26.57 ± 2.02, 20.79 ± 2.75, 16.21 ± 1.19) while the lowest values were obtained for Erythromycin (26.64 ± 1.49, 20.29 ± 1.49, 16.29 ± 1.33) at different dilution factor (10⁻¹, 10⁻², 10⁻³) respectively. The isolates from goat and cattle were all susceptible to Augmentin at the three different dilution factors. Some goat isolates are intermediate to Ciprofloxacin and Erythromycin at 10⁻² and 10⁻³, while resistance to Ciprofloxacin at 10⁻³ dilution factor. Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin at the dilution factors of 10⁻³ and 10⁻¹ for some cattle isolate and resistance were observed for Ofloxacin and Erythromycin at dilution of 10⁻³. These results indicate the susceptibilities and the antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotic.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, bacteria, cattle, goat, identification

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1 The Effect of Positional Release Technique versus Kinesio Tape on Iliocostalis lumborum in Back Myofascial Pain Syndrome

Authors: Shams Khaled Abdelrahman Abdallah Elbaz, Alaa Aldeen Abd Al Hakeem Balbaa


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Positional Release Technique versus Kinesio Tape on pain level, pressure pain threshold level and functional disability in patients with back myofascial pain syndrome at iliocostalis lumborum. Backgrounds/significance: Myofascial Pain Syndrome is a common muscular pain syndrome that arises from trigger points which are hyperirritable, painful and tender points within a taut band of skeletal muscle. In more recent literature, about 75% of patients with musculoskeletal pain presenting to a community medical centres suffer from myofascial pain syndrome.Iliocostalis lumborum are most likely to develop active trigger points. Subjects: Thirty patients diagnosed as back myofascial pain syndrome with active trigger points in iliocostalis lumborum muscle bilaterally had participated in this study. Methods and materials: Patients were randomly distributed into two groups. The first group consisted of 15 patients (8 males and 7 females) with mean age 30.6 (±3.08) years, they received positional release technique which was applied 3 times per session, 3/week every other day for 2 weeks. The second group consisted of 15 patients(5 males, 10 females) with a mean age 30.4 (±3.35) years, they received kinesio tape which was applied and changed every 3 days with one day off for a total 3 times in 2 weeks. Both techniques were applied over trigger points of the iliocostalis lumborum bilaterally. Patients were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment program for Pain intensity (Visual analogue scale), pressure pain threshold (digital pressure algometry), and functional disability (The Oswestry Disability Index). Analyses: Repeated measures MANOVA was used to detect differences within and between groups pre and post treatment. Then the univariate ANOVA test was conducted for the analysis of each dependant variable within and between groups. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS. with significance level set at p<0.05 throughout all analyses. Results: The results revealed that there was no significant difference between positional release technique and kinesio tape technique on pain level, pressure pain threshold and functional activities (p > 0.05). Both groups of patients showed significant improvement in all the measured variables (p < 0.05) evident by significant reduction of both pain intensity and functional disability as well as significant increase of pressure pain threshold Conclusions : Both positional release technique and kinesio taping technique are effective in reducing pain level, improving pressure pain threshold and improving function in treating patients who suffering from back myofascial pain syndrome at iliocostalis lumborum. As there was no statistically significant difference was proven between both of them.

Keywords: positional release technique, kinesio tape, myofascial pain syndrome, Iliocostalis lumborum

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