Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Hajar Bouksir

21 Trophic Ecology of Sarotherodon Melanotheron Heudelotii and Tilapia Guineensis from the Banc D'Arguin National Park, Mauritania

Authors: Néné Gallé Kide, Mamadou Dia, Lemhaba Ould Yarba, Youssouf Kone, Fatimetou Mint Khalil, Hajar Bouksir, Ghislane Salhi, Younès Saoud

Abstract:

The diet of Sarotherodon melanotheron and Tilapia guineensis were investigated in the National Park of Banc d'Arguin (PNBA) from September 2012 to October 2013. A total of 499 individuals ranging in size between 219 and 400 mm total length of S. melanotheron (253 males and 246 females), and 280 individuals of T.guineensis (229 males and 51 females) ranged between 180 and 424mm total length. We used for studying the feeding habits of both two species the frequency of occurrence method. The coefficient of emptiness was 40.88% for S. melanotheron and 38.57% for T. guineensis. Both two species were herbivorous and very close feedings. Their diet consists of Seagrass, green, red, blue, and brown algae, diatoms, gastropods, bivalves, Crustaceans, and mud. The Seagrass and green algae were prey preference of these two species. The diet feeding showed that the composition varies slightly depending on the season and size of individuals.

Keywords: national park, Cichlidae, trophic ecology, Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania

Procedia PDF Downloads 626
20 A Study in the Formation of a Term: Sahaba

Authors: Abdul Rahman Chamseddine

Abstract:

The Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, the Sahaba, are regarded as the first link between him and later believers who did not know him or learn from him directly. This makes the Sahaba a link in the chain between God and the ummah (community). Apart from their role in spreading the Prophet’s teachings, they came to be regarded as role models, representing the Islamic ideal of life as prescribed by the Prophet himself. According to Hadith, the Prophet had promised some Sahaba unqualified admission to paradise. It is commonly agreed that the Sahaba have the following attributes in common: God is well pleased with them; they will surely go to paradise; they are perfectly trustworthy; and they are the authorities from whom Muslims can learn all matters related to their religion. No other generation of Muslims has received the attention received by the Companions of the Prophet. In spite of the importance of the Sahaba in Islam, we still know comparatively little about them. There are at least two reasons for this. First, there is the overall scarcity of information surviving from the early period. At the death of the Prophet, it is said, there were more than 100,000 Companions. As we shall see, this is a complex issue, involving the definition of the term Sahaba. However, only few Companions of the Prophet are known to us. Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, who wrote in the fifteenth century A.D., was only able to collect facts about 11,000 of them (including those whose status as Sahaba was disputed). Ibn Sa‘d, Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr and Ibn al-Athir, all of whom lived earlier than Ibn Hajar, included in their respective works fewer lives of Sahaba than he did. If we consider Ibn Hajar’s Isaba as the most complete biographical account of the Sahaba that remains available, we have information, presumably, on approximately one tenth of them. The remaining nine tenths are apparently lost from the historical record. Second, discussion of the Sahaba tends to focus on those considered the most important among them such as ‘Uthman, ‘Ali and Mu‘awiya, while others, who together number in the thousands, are less well-known. This paper will try to study the origins of the term Sahaba that became exclusive to the Companions of the Prophet and not a synonym of the word companions in general.

Keywords: Transmission, Islamic History, Hadith, Muhammad, companions, Sahaba

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
19 Handshake Algorithm for Minimum Spanning Tree Construction

Authors: Nassiri Khalid, El Hibaoui Abdelaaziz et Hajar Moha

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce and analyse a probabilistic distributed algorithm for a construction of a minimum spanning tree on network. This algorithm is based on the handshake concept. Firstly, each network node is considered as a sub-spanning tree. And at each round of the execution of our algorithm, a sub-spanning trees are merged. The execution continues until all sub-spanning trees are merged into one. We analyze this algorithm by a stochastic process.

Keywords: Matching, Probabilistic Analysis, spanning tree, distributed algorithm, Handshake Algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
18 Intelligent and Optimized Placement for CPLD Devices

Authors: Abdelkader Hadjoudja, Hajar Bouazza

Abstract:

The PLD/CPLD devices are widely used for logic synthesis since several decades. Based on sum of product terms (PTs) architecture, the PLD/CPLD offer a high degree of flexibility to support various application requirements. They are suitable for large combinational logic, finite state machines as well as intensive I/O designs. CPLDs offer very predictable timing characteristics and are therefore ideal for critical control applications. This paper describes how the logic synthesis techniques, such as 1) XOR detection, 2) logic doubling, 3) complement of a Boolean function are combined, applied and used to optimize the CPLDs devices architecture that is based on PAL-like macrocells. Our goal is to use these techniques for minimizing the number of macrocells required to implement a circuit and minimize the delay of mapped circuit.

Keywords: Optimization, CPLD, doubling, XOR

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
17 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Leukemia, Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, Optical Emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
16 Effect of Preloading on Long-Term Settlement of Closed Landfills: A Numerical Analysis

Authors: Hadi Khabbaz, Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hajar Share Isfahani

Abstract:

In recent years, by developing cities and increasing population, reconstructing on closed landfill sites in some regions is unavoidable. Long-term settlement is one of the major concerns associated with reconstruction on landfills after closure. The purpose of this research is evaluating the effect of preloading in various patterns of height and time on long-term settlements of closed landfills. In this regard, five scenarios of surcharge from 1 to 3 m high within 3, 4.5 and 6 months of preloading time have been modeled using PLAXIS 2D software. Moreover, the numerical results have been compared to those obtained from analytical methods, and a good agreement has been achieved. The findings indicate that there is a linear relationship between settlement and surcharge height. Although, long-term settlement decreased by applying a longer and higher preloading, the time of preloading was found to be a more effective factor compared to preloading height.

Keywords: Landfill, PLAXIS 2D, preloading, long-term settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
15 Determination of Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil from Flood Affected Area

Authors: Siti Hajar Ya’acob, Nor Sayzwani Sukri, Farah Khaliz Kedri, Musfiroh Jani, Noor Syuhadah Subki, Zulhazman Hamzah

Abstract:

In mid-December 2014, the biggest flood event occurred in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia especially at Dabong area, Kelantan. As a consequent of flood disaster, the heavy metals concentration in soil may changes and become harmful to the environment due to the pollution that deposited in soil. This study was carried out to determine the heavy metal concentration from flood affected area. Sample have been collected and analysed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), and Arsenic (As) were chosen for the heavy metals concentration. The result indicated that the heavy metal concentration did not exceed the limit. In-situ parameters also were carried out, were the results showed the range of soil pH (6.5-6.8), temperature (25°C – 26.5°C), and moisture content (1-2), respectively. The results from this study can be used as a base data to improve the soil quality and for consideration of future land use activities.

Keywords: Flood, Soil, heavy metal, AAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
14 Health Status and Psychology Wellbeing of Street Children in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: Sabri Sulaiman, Siti Hajar Abu Bakar Ah, Haris Abd Wahab

Abstract:

Street children is a global phenomenon and declared as a social problem by social researcher and scholars across the world. The insecure street environment exposes street children into various risk factors. One of them is the health and psychological problem. The objective of this study is to assess the health problem and psychological wellbeing of street children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The cross-sectional study involved 303 street children in Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur. The study confirmed that the majority (95.7%) of street children who participated in the study have a health problem. The findings also demonstrated that the majority of them have issues related to their psychological wellbeing. The inputs from this study are instrumental for the suggestion of specific intervention to improve the health and psychology wellbeing of street children in Malaysia. Agencies which are responsible for the street children well-being can utilise the inputs to framing and improving the social care programmes for the children.

Keywords: Homeless, health status, Street children, psychology wellbeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
13 Parental Restriction and Children’s Appetitive Traits: A Study Among Children Aged 5-11 Years Old in Dubai Private Schools

Authors: Behnaz Farahani, Hajar Aman Key Yekani, Yusra Mushtaq, Hamed Abdi

Abstract:

This study explores associations between parental restriction and children's appetitive traits, putting to test the hypothesis that parental 'restriction' is associated with having a child with stronger food approach tendencies (food enjoyment (FE) and food over-responsiveness (FR)). The participants, from 55 nationalities, targeting 1081 parents of 5- to 11-year-old children from 7 private schools in Dubai, UAE, who completed self-reported questionnaires over the 2011-2012 school year. The questionnaire has been a tailored amalgamation of CEBQ and CFQ in order to measure the children’s appetitive traits and parental restriction, respectively. The findings of this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis confirmed the hypothesis in that 'parental restriction' was positively associated with child food responsiveness (r, 0.183), food enjoyment (r, 0.102). To conclude, as far as the figures depict, the parents controlling their children’s food intake would seemingly a reverse impact on their eating behaviour in the short term.

Keywords: Children, parental restriction, eating behaviour, schools in Dubai

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
12 Assessment of Chemical and Physical Properties of Surface Water Resources in Flood Affected Area

Authors: Siti Hajar Ya’acob, Nor Sayzwani Sukri, Farah Khaliz Kedri, Rozidaini Mohd Ghazi, Nik Raihan Nik Yusoff, Aweng A/L Eh Rak

Abstract:

Flood event that occurred in mid-December 2014 in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia has driven attention from the public nationwide. Apart from loss and damage of properties and belongings, the massive flood event has introduced environmental disturbances on surface water resources in such flood affected area. A study has been conducted to measure the physical and chemical composition of Galas River and Pergau River prior to identification the flood impact towards environmental deterioration in surrounding area. Samples that have been collected were analyzed in-situ using YSI portable instrument and also in the laboratory for acid digestion and heavy metals analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that range of temperature (0C), DO (mg/L), Ec (µs/cm), TDS (mg/L), turbidity (NTU), pH, and salinity were 25.05-26.65, 1.51-5.85, 0.032-0.054, 0.022-0.035, 23.2-76.4, 3.46-7.31, and 0.01-0.02 respectively. The results from this study could be used as a primary database to evaluate the status of water quality of the respective river after the massive flood.

Keywords: Flood, Heavy Metals, AAS, river

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
11 Physicochemical Properties of Rambutan Seed Oil (RSO)

Authors: Nadya Hajar, Naemaa Mohamad, Nurul Azlin Tokiman, Nursabrina Munawar, Noor Hasvenda Abd Rahim

Abstract:

Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) fruit is abundantly present in Malaysia during their season of the year. Its short shelf life at ambient temperature has contributed to fruit wastage. Thus, the initiative of producing canned Rambutan is an innovation that makes Rambutan fruit available throughout the year. The canned Rambutan industry leaves large amount of Rambutan seed. This study focused on utilization of Rambutan seed as a valuable product which is Rambutan Seed Oil (RSO). The RSO was extracted using Soxhlet Extraction Method for 8 hours. The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of RSO: melting point (°C), Refractive Index (RI), Total Carotene Content (TCC), water activity (Aw), acid value, peroxide value and saponification value. The results showed: 38.00±1.00 – 48.83±1.61°C melting point, 1.46±0.00 RI, 1.18±0.06mg/kg TCC, 0.4721±0.0176 Aw, 1.2162±0.1520mg KOH/g acid value, 9.6000±0.4000g/g peroxide value and 146.8040±18.0182mg KOH/g saponification value, respectively. According to the results, RSO showed high industrial potential as cocoa butter replacement in chocolates and cosmetics production.

Keywords: Cocoa butter replacer, Rambutan, Rambutan seed, Rambutan seed oil (RSO)

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
10 Effect of Using Different Packaging Materials on Quality of Minimally Process (Fresh-Cut) Banana (Musa acuminata balbisiana) Cultivar 'Nipah'

Authors: Rosnah Shamsudin, Nur Allisha Othman, Zaulia Othman, Siti Hajar Othman

Abstract:

Mitigating short storage life of fruit like banana uses minimally process or known as fresh cut can contribute to the growing demand especially in South East Asian countries. The effect of different types of packaging material on fresh-cut Nipah (Musa acuminata balbisiana) were studied. Fresh cut banana cultivar (cv) Nipah are packed in polypropylene plastic (PP), low density polypropylene plastic (LDPE), polymer plastic film (shrink wrap) and polypropylene container as control for 12 days at low temperature (4ᵒC). Quality of physical and chemical evaluation such as colour, texture, pH, TA, TSS, and vitamin C were examined every 2 days interval for 12 days at 4ᵒC. Result shows that the PP is the most suitable packaging for banana cv Nipah because it can reduce respiration and physicochemical quality changes of banana cv Nipah. Different types of packaging significantly affected quality of fresh-cut banana cv Nipah. PP bag was the most suitable packaging to maintain quality and prolong storage life of fresh-cut banana cv Nipah for 12 days at 4ᵒC.

Keywords: respiration, physicochemical, LDPE, shrink wrap, browning

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
9 Detection of PCD-Related Transcription Factors for Improving Salt Tolerance in Plant

Authors: A. Bahieldin, A. Atef, S. Edris, N. O. Gadalla, S. M. Hassan, M. A. Al-Kordy, A. M. Ramadan, A. S. M. Al- Hajar, F. M. El-Domyati

Abstract:

The idea of this work is based on a natural exciting phenomenon suggesting that suppression of genes related to the program cell death (or PCD) mechanism might help the plant cells to efficiently tolerate abiotic stresses. The scope of this work was the detection of PCD-related transcription factors (TFs) that might also be related to salt stress tolerance in plant. Two model plants, e.g., tobacco and Arabidopsis, were utilized in order to investigate this phenomenon. Occurrence of PCD was first proven by Evans blue staining and DNA laddering after tobacco leaf discs were treated with oxalic acid (OA) treatment (20 mM) for 24 h. A number of 31 TFs up regulated after 2 h and co-expressed with genes harboring PCD-related domains were detected via RNA-Seq analysis and annotation. These TFs were knocked down via virus induced gene silencing (VIGS), an RNA interference (RNAi) approach, and tested for their influence on triggering PCD machinery. Then, Arabidopsis SALK knocked out T-DNA insertion mutants in selected TFs analogs to those in tobacco were tested under salt stress (up to 250 mM NaCl) in order to detect the influence of different TFs on conferring salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Involvement of a number of candidate abiotic-stress related TFs was investigated.

Keywords: Transcription Factors, RNA-Seq, VIGS, PCD

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
8 Effectiveness of Public Speaking Extracurricular in Gontor in Raising Leaders of the Advanced Global World's Needs

Authors: Ummi Sholihah Pertiwi Abidin, Khusnul Hajar Nuansari

Abstract:

Human resource is one of the most important components that can not be separated from communication fields, either in a large community like a mass or narrow ones such as an institution, office, group and even family. Human resource is an asset which is often used as a tool to achieve certain goals. Therefore, development of human resources is essential for improving skills and character of a person especially at the time that has entered globalization era. People are required to be able to compete both in the local and international arena, no matter what. This paper raised topic related to human resource development solution by a unique educational leadership and communication skill improvement through a linguistic approach. Here the authors want to go by form of public speaking method applied in Modern Islamic Boarding School Darussalam Gontor as the extracurricular activity that is using three languages, they are: Indonesian as the mother language or the nation language of the students, Arabic and English as the second language and Gontor’s mean to supply its students to be able to conquer the globalization needs. This implementation produced the establishment of great leaders through confidence growing to speak in public by adjusting the listener context. In linguistic term, it will help enhancing verbal and nonverbal communication skills and so forth in owning a lot of vocabulary.

Keywords: Leadership, Language, Public Speaking, Gontor

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
7 2D Numerical Modeling for Induced Current Distribution in Soil under Lightning Impulse Discharge

Authors: Fawwaz Eniola Fajingbesi, Nur Shahida Midia, Elsheikh M. A. Elsheikh, Siti Hajar Yusoff

Abstract:

Empirical analysis of lightning related phenomena in real time is extremely dangerous due to the relatively high electric discharge involved. Hence, design and optimization of efficient grounding systems depending on real time empirical methods are impeded. Using numerical methods, the dynamics of complex systems could be modeled hence solved as sets of linear and non-linear systems . In this work, the induced current distribution as lightning strike traverses the soil have been numerically modeled in a 2D axial-symmetry and solved using finite element method (FEM) in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 AC/DC module. Stratified and non- stratified electrode system were considered in the solved model and soil conductivity (σ) varied between 10 – 58 mS/m. The result discussed therein were the electric field distribution, current distribution and soil ionization phenomena. It can be concluded that the electric field and current distribution is influenced by the injected electric potential and the non-linearity in soil conductivity. The result from numerical calculation also agrees with previously laboratory scale empirical results.

Keywords: Grounding Systems, numerical model, current distribution, lightning discharge, soil conductivity, soil ionization

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
6 Applying Cationic Porphyrin Derivative 5, 10-Dihexyl-15, 20bis Porphyrin, as Transfection Reagent for Gene Delivery into Mammalian Cells

Authors: Hajar Hosseini Khorami

Abstract:

Porphyrins are organic, aromatic compounds found in heme, cytochrome, cobalamin, chlorophyll , and many other natural products with essential roles in biological processes that their cationic forms have been used as groups of favorable non-viral vectors recently. Cationic porphyrins are self-chromogenic reagents with a high capacity for modifications, great interaction with DNA and protection of DNA from nuclease during delivery of it into a cell with low toxicity. In order to have high efficient gene transfection into the cell while causing low toxicity, genetically manipulations of the non-viral vector, cationic porphyrin, would be useful. In this study newly modified cationic porphyrin derivative, 5, 10-dihexyl-15, 20bis (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin was applied. Cytotoxicity of synthesized cationic porphyrin on Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) cells was evaluated by using MTT assay. This cationic derivative is dose-dependent, with low cytotoxicity at the ranges from 100 μM to 0.01μM. It was uptake by cells at high concentration. Using direct non-viral gene transfection method and different concentration of cationic porphyrin were tested on transfection of CHO cells by applying derived transfection reagent with X-tremeGENE HP DNA as a positive control. However, no transfection observed by porphyrin derivative and the parameters tested except for positive control. Results of this study suggested that applying different protocol, and also trying other concentration of cationic porphyrins and DNA for forming a strong complex would increase the possibility of efficient gene transfection by using cationic porphyrins.

Keywords: Gene Delivery, cationic porphyrins, non-viral vectors, transfection reagents

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
5 Financial Markets Integration between Morocco and France: Implications on International Portfolio Diversification

Authors: Abdelmounaim Lahrech, Hajar Bousfiha

Abstract:

This paper examines equity market integration between Morocco and France and its consequent implications on international portfolio diversification. In the absence of stock market linkages, Morocco can act as a diversification destination to European investors, allowing higher returns at a comparable level of risk in developed markets. In contrast, this attractiveness is limited if both financial markets show significant linkage. The research empirically measures financial market’s integration in by capturing the conditional correlation between the two markets using the Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic (GARCH) model. Then, the research uses the Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) model of Engle (2002) to track the correlations. The research findings show that there is no important increase over the years in the correlation between the Moroccan and the French equity markets, even though France is considered Morocco’s first trading partner. Failing to prove evidence of the stock index linkage between the two countries, the volatility series of each market were assumed to change over time separately. Yet, the study reveals that despite the important historical and economic linkages between Morocco and France, there is no evidence that equity markets follow. The small correlations and their stationarity over time show that over the 10 years studied, correlations were fluctuating around a stable mean with no significant change at their level. Different explanations can be attributed to the absence of market linkage between the two equity markets.

Keywords: Morocco, equity market linkage, DCC GARCH, international portfolio diversification, France

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
4 Level of Physical Activity and Physical Fitness, and Attitudes towards Physical Activity among Senior Medical Students of Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman

Authors: Deepali Jaju, Sanjay Jaju, Hajar Al Rajaibi, Kawla Al Toubi, Saeed Al Jaadi

Abstract:

Background: The available evidence in Oman on lack of physical activity call for immediate intervention. Physical activity counseling by doctors to their patients is influenced by their attitudes and personal physical fitness. To our best knowledge, the physical activity status of Omani medical students has not been addressed before. These future doctors will have a critical role in improving physical activity in patients and thus their overall health. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the physical activity level, physical fitness level, and attitudes towards physical activity among Sultan Qaboos University senior medical students. Methods: In this cross-sectional study (N=110; males 55), physical activity level was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ ) short form and attitudes towards physical activity using a fifty-four-items Kenyon questionnaire. The physical fitness level was assessed by estimating maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) using Chester step test. Results: Female students reported more sitting time more than 7hr/day (85.5%) compared to male students (40%; p < 0.05). The IPAQ revealed moderate level of physical activity in 58% of students. Students showed a high positive attitude towards physical activity for health and fitness and low attitude for physical activity as tension and risk. Both female and male students had a similar level and attitude towards physical activity. Physical fitness level was excellent (VO₂max > 55ml O₂/kg/min) in 11% of students, good (VO₂max>44-54ml O₂/kg/min) in 49% and average to below-average in 40%. Objectively measured physical fitness level, subjectively reported physical activity level or attitudes towards physical activity were not correlated. Conclusion: Omani medical students have a positive attitude towards physical activity but moderate physical activity level. Longer sitting time in females need further evaluation. Efforts are required to understand reasons for present physical activity level and to promote good physical activity among medical students by creating more awareness and facilities.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, medical students, Chester step test, Kenyon scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
3 Diversification of Indonesian Terasi Shrimp (Acetes indicus) Powder as Alternative and Sustainable Food for the Double Burden of Malnutrition

Authors: Galuh Asri Bestari, Hajar Shofiyya

Abstract:

Double burden of malnutrition (DBM) has been a global problem in these last decades occurs in both developed and developing countries. Overweight in adults and stunting among preschool children have dramatically increased and become the main problems of malnutrition that should be solved immediately since they are directly related with the health status and productivity. Reformulation of food product by using the local sea resources called terasi shrimp (Acetes indicus) has a potential possibility in facing the DBM. A study was carried out in Indonesia to determine the acceptability of terasi shrimp powder through sensory evaluation. Terasi shrimps were processed into powder form through sun drying and pounding methods. The powder form was directly added in food as alternative seasonings and tested among stunted and normal preschool children. Meanwhile, a further processing method is given to the shrimp powder tested in overweight and normal-weighed adults. The shrimp powder was mixed with sago flour and formed into balls, then steamed for 15-20 minutes, and finally served as alternative snacks. Based on the sensory evaluation, the shrimp powder has a good acceptance in taste (54%), shape (60%), and color properties (63%), while the shrimp balls has a good acceptance in size (65%), shape (50%), color (48%), taste (40%), and texture (36%). Terasi shrimp powder can be stored for a month in room temperature. In addition, carried out chemical analysis revealed that terasi shrimp (Acetes indicus) has higher percentage of protein, calcium, and iron than other animal sources, but conversely contains zero sodium and very low percentage of fat. Terasi shrimp’s shell also contains a substance called chitosan which acts by forming gels in the intestinal tract to entrap lipids, thus interfering with their absorption. After going through some processing methods, the shrimp powder and balls did not show any significant changes in their nutrient contents. So that, terasi shrimp powder is good to be consumed not only by overweight adults, but also by children to support their optimum growth. Intervention of terasi shrimp powder should be implemented step by step from national up to global governance program to face the DBM.

Keywords: Alternative Food, sensory evaluation, Acetes indicus, double burden of malnutrition

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
2 Fabrication of Carbon Nanoparticles and Graphene Using Pulsed Laser Ablation

Authors: Hajar Sadeghi, Davoud Dorranian, Elmira Solati

Abstract:

Carbon nanostructures in various forms were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in different liquid environment. The beam of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength at 7-ns pulse width is employed to irradiate the solid target in water, acetone, alcohol, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Then the effect of the liquid environment on the characteristic of carbon nanostructures produced by laser ablation was investigated. The optical properties of the carbon nanostructures were examined at room temperature by UV–Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The crystalline structure of the carbon nanostructures was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of samples was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was employed to investigate the form of carbon nanostructures. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the quality of carbon nanostructures. Results show that different carbon nanostructures such as nanoparticles and few-layer graphene were formed in various liquid environments. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra of samples reveal that the intensity of absorption peak of nanoparticles in alcohol is higher than the other liquid environments due to the larger number of nanoparticles in this environment. The red shift of the absorption peak of the sample in acetone confirms that produced carbon nanoparticles in this liquid are averagely larger than the other medium. The difference in the intensity and shape of the absorption peak indicated the effect of the liquid environment in producing the nanoparticles. The XRD pattern of the sample in water indicates an amorphous structure due to existence the graphene sheets. X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the degree of crystallinity of sample produced in CTAB is higher than the other liquid environments. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the generated carbon materials in water are graphene sheet and in the other liquid environments are graphene sheet and spherical nanostructures. According to the TEM images, we have the larger amount of carbon nanoparticles in the alcohol environment. FE-SEM micrographs indicate that in this liquids sheet like structures are formed however in acetone, produced sheets are adhered and these layers overlap with each other. According to the FE-SEM micrographs, the surface morphology of the sample in CTAB was coarser than that without surfactant. From Raman spectra, it can be concluded the distinct shape, width, and position of the graphene peaks and corresponding graphite source.

Keywords: Graphene, carbon nanostructures, Graphite, pulsed laser ablation

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1 Impaired Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4-Mediated Dilation of Mesenteric Arteries in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

Authors: Ammar Boudaka, Maryam Al-Suleimani, Hajar BaOmar, Intisar Al-Lawati, Fahad Zadjali

Abstract:

Background: Hypertension is increasingly becoming a matter of medical and public health importance. The maintenance of normal blood pressure requires a balance between cardiac output and total peripheral resistance. The endothelium, through the release of vasodilating factors, plays an important role in the control of total peripheral resistance and hence blood pressure homeostasis. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) is a mechanosensitive non-selective cation channel that is expressed on the endothelium and contributes to endothelium-mediated vasodilation. So far, no data are available about the morphological and functional status of this channel in hypertensive cases. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether there is any difference in the morphological and functional features of TRPV4 in the mesenteric artery of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Methods: Functional feature of TRPV4 in four experimental animal groups: young and adult Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY-Y and WKY-A), young and adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-Y and SHR-A), was studied by adding 5 µM 4αPDD (TRPV4 agonist) to mesenteric arteries mounted in a four-chamber wire myograph and pre-contracted with 4 µM phenylephrine. The 4αPDD-induced response was investigated in the presence and absence of 1 µM HC067047 (TRPV4 antagonist), 100 µM L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), and endothelium. The morphological distribution of TRPV4 in the wall of rat mesenteric arteries was investigated by immunostaining. Real-time PCR was used in order to investigate mRNA expression level of TRPV4 in the mesenteric arteries of the four groups. The collected data were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. with n equal to the number of animals used (one vessel was taken from each rat). To determine the level of significance, statistical comparisons were performed using the student’s t-test and considered to be significantly different at p<0.05. Results: 4αPDD induced a relaxation response in the mesenteric arterial preparations (WKY-Y: 85.98% ± 4.18; n = 5) that was markedly inhibited by HC067047 (18.30% ± 2.86; n= 5; p<0.05), endothelium removal (19.93% ± 1.50; n = 5; p<0.05) and L-NAME (28.18% ± 3.09; n = 5; p<0.05). The 4αPDD-induced relaxation was significantly lower in SHR-Y compared to WKY-Y (SHR-Y: 70.96% ± 3.65; n = 6, WKY-Y: 85.98% ± 4.18; n = 5-6, p<0.05. Moreover, the 4αPDD-induced response was significantly lower in WKY-A than WKY-Y (WKY-A: 75.58 ± 1.30; n = 5, WKY-Y: 85.98% ± 4.18; n = 5, p<0.05). Immunostaining study showed immunofluorescent signal confined to the endothelial layer of the mesenteric arteries. The expression of TRPV4 mRNA in SHR-Y was significantly lower than in WKY-Y (SHR-Y; 0.67RU ± 0.34; n = 4, WKY-Y: 2.34RU ± 0.15; n = 4, p<0.05). Furthermore, TRPV4 mRNA expression in WKY-A was lower than its expression in WKY-Y (WKY-A: 0.62RU ± 0.37; n = 4, WKY-Y: 2.34RU ± 0.15; n = 4, p<0.05). Conclusion: Stimulation of TRPV4, which is expressed on the endothelium of rat mesenteric artery, triggers an endothelium-mediated relaxation response that markedly decreases with hypertension and growing up changes due to downregulation of TRPV4 expression.

Keywords: Hypertension, mesenteric artery, endothelium, TRPV4

Procedia PDF Downloads 182