Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Hélène Knoerr

24 Learning to Learn: A Course on Language Learning Strategies

Authors: Hélène Knoerr


In an increasingly global world, more and more international students attend academic courses and programs in a second or foreign language, and local students register in language learning classes in order to improve their employability. These students need to quickly become proficient in the new language. How can we, as administrators, curriculum developers and teachers, make sure that they have the tools they need in order to develop their language skills in an academic context? This paper will describe the development and implementation of a new course, Learning to learn, as part of the Major in French/English as a Second Language at the University of Ottawa. This academic program was recently completely overhauled in order to reflect the current approaches in language learning (more specifically, the action-oriented approach as embodied in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, and the concept of life-long autonomous learning). The course itself is based on research on language learning strategies, with a particular focus on the characteristics of the “good language learner”. We will present the methodological and pedagogical foundations, describe the course objectives and learning outcomes, the language learning strategies, and the classroom activities. The paper will conclude with students’ feedback and suggest avenues for further exploration.

Keywords: curriculum development, language learning, learning strategies, second language

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23 Monitoring of 53 Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Occurrence in Effluents, Sludges, and Surface Waters Upstream and Downstream of 7 Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: Azziz Assoumani, Francois Lestremau, Celine Ferret, Benedicte Lepot, Morgane Salomon, Helene Budzinski, Marie-Helene Devier, Pierre Labadie, Karyn Le Menach, Patrick Pardon, Laure Wiest, Emmanuelle Vulliet, Pierre-Francois Staub


Seven French wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were monitored for 53 contaminants of emerging concern within a nation-wide monitoring campaign in surface waters, which took place in 2018. The overall objective of the 2018 campaign was to provide the exercise of prioritization of emerging substances, which is being carried out in 2021, with monitoring data. This exercise should make it possible to update the list of relevant substances to be monitored (SPAS) as part of future water framework directive monitoring programmes, which will be implemented in the next water body management cycle (2022). One sampling campaign was performed in October 2018 in the seven WWTP, where affluent and sludge samples were collected. Surface water samples were collected in September 2018 at three to five sites upstream and downstream the point of effluent discharge of each WWTP. The contaminants (36 biocides and 17 surfactants, selected by the Prioritization Experts Committee) were determined in the seven WWTP effluent and sludge samples and in surface water samples by liquid or gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, depending on the contaminant. Nine surfactants and three biocides were quantified at least in one WWTP effluent sample. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acids (LAS) and fipronil were quantified in all samples; the LAS were quantified at the highest median concentrations. Twelve surfactants and 13 biocides were quantified in at least one sludge sample. The LAS and didecyldimethylammonium were quantified in all samples and at the highest median concentrations. Higher concentration levels of the substances quantified in WWTP effluent samples were observed in the surface water samples collected downstream the effluents discharge points, compared with the samples collected upstream, suggesting a contribution of the WWTP effluents in the contamination of surface waters.

Keywords: contaminants of emerging concern, effluent, monitoring, river water, sludge

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22 Innovative Biomonitoring in Port Ecosystem: Lessons and Perspectives from the QUAMPO Project

Authors: Benedicte Madon, Marion Pillet, Justine Castrec, Quentin Fonatine, Pierre Lejeune, Michel Marengo, Helene Thomas


Biodiversity in port ecosystems faces many anthropic pressures from port activities. The maritime industry and port areas have been under scrutiny regarding their environmental impacts. In the port value chain, port managers need to implement actions to fulfil environmental certifications and European Directive requirements. This paper seeks to highlight the lessons learned and opportunities through the QUAMPO project to move towards port biodiversity restoration in Corsica using innovative biomonitoring in the goal of obtaining green certification.

Keywords: biomonitoring, port, water quality, invertebrate, corsica, biomarker, trace elements, HAP, PCB, certification

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21 Towards Better Quality in Healthcare and Operations Management: A Developmental Literature Review

Authors: Marc Dorval, Marie-Hélène Jobin


This work presents the various perspectives, dimensions, components and definitions given to quality in the operations management (OM) and healthcare services (HCS) literature in time, highlighting gaps and learning opportunities between the two disciplines through a thorough search into their rich and distinct body of knowledge. Greater and new insights about the general nature of quality are obtained with findings such as in OM, quality has been approached in six fairly distinct paradigms (excellence, value, conformity to specifications, attributes, satisfaction and meeting or exceeding customer expectations), whereas in HCS, two approaches are prominent (Donabedian’s structure, process and outcomes model and Lohr and Schroeder’s circumscribed definition). The two disciplines views on quality seem to have progressed much in parallel with little cross-learning from each other. This work then proposes an encompassing definition of quality as a lever and suggests further research and development avenues for a better use of the concept of quality by academics and practitioners alike toward the goals of greater organizational performance and improved management in healthcare and possibly other service domains.

Keywords: healthcare, management, operations, quality, services

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20 Segmentation of Gray Scale Images of Dropwise Condensation on Textured Surfaces

Authors: Helene Martin, Solmaz Boroomandi Barati, Jean-Charles Pinoli, Stephane Valette, Yann Gavet


In the present work we developed an image processing algorithm to measure water droplets characteristics during dropwise condensation on pillared surfaces. The main problem in this process is the similarity between shape and size of water droplets and the pillars. The developed method divides droplets into four main groups based on their size and applies the corresponding algorithm to segment each group. These algorithms generate binary images of droplets based on both their geometrical and intensity properties. The information related to droplets evolution during time including mean radius and drops number per unit area are then extracted from the binary images. The developed image processing algorithm is verified using manual detection and applied to two different sets of images corresponding to two kinds of pillared surfaces.

Keywords: dropwise condensation, textured surface, image processing, watershed

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19 U11 Functionalised Luminescent Gold Nanoclusters for Pancreatic Tumor Cells Labelling

Authors: Regina M. Chiechio, Rémi Leguevél, Helene Solhi, Marie Madeleine Gueguen, Stephanie Dutertre, Xavier, Jean-Pierre Bazureau, Olivier Mignen, Pascale Even-Hernandez, Paolo Musumeci, Maria Jose Lo Faro, Valerie Marchi


Thanks to their ultra-small size, high electron density, and low toxicity, gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have unique photoelectrochemical and luminescence properties that make them very interesting for diagnosis bio-imaging and theranostics. These applications require control of their delivery and interaction with cells; for this reason, the surface chemistry of Au NCs is essential to determine their interaction with the targeted biological objects. Here we demonstrate their ability as markers of pancreatic tumor cells. By functionalizing the surface of the NCs with a recognition peptite (U11), the nanostructures are able to preferentially bind to pancreatic cancer cells via a receptor (uPAR) overexpressed by these cells. Furthermore, the NCs can mark even the nucleus without the need of fixing the cells. These nanostructures can therefore be used as a non-toxic, multivalent luminescent platform, capable of selectively recognizing tumor cells for bioimaging, drug delivery, and radiosensitization.

Keywords: gold nanoclusters, luminescence, biomarkers, pancreatic cancer, biomedical applications, bioimaging, fluorescent probes, drug delivery

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18 Logistic Model Tree and Expectation-Maximization for Pollen Recognition and Grouping

Authors: Endrick Barnacin, Jean-Luc Henry, Jack Molinié, Jimmy Nagau, Hélène Delatte, Gérard Lebreton


Palynology is a field of interest for many disciplines. It has multiple applications such as chronological dating, climatology, allergy treatment, and even honey characterization. Unfortunately, the analysis of a pollen slide is a complicated and time-consuming task that requires the intervention of experts in the field, which is becoming increasingly rare due to economic and social conditions. So, the automation of this task is a necessity. Pollen slides analysis is mainly a visual process as it is carried out with the naked eye. That is the reason why a primary method to automate palynology is the use of digital image processing. This method presents the lowest cost and has relatively good accuracy in pollen retrieval. In this work, we propose a system combining recognition and grouping of pollen. It consists of using a Logistic Model Tree to classify pollen already known by the proposed system while detecting any unknown species. Then, the unknown pollen species are divided using a cluster-based approach. Success rates for the recognition of known species have been achieved, and automated clustering seems to be a promising approach.

Keywords: pollen recognition, logistic model tree, expectation-maximization, local binary pattern

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17 Everyday Solitude, Affective Experiences, and Well-Being in Old Age: The Role of Culture versus Immigration

Authors: Da Jiang, Helene H. Fung, Jennifer C. Lay, Maureen C. Ashe, Peter Graf, Christiane A. Hoppmann


Being alone is often equated with loneliness. Yet, recent findings suggest that the objective state of being alone (i.e., solitude) can have both positive and negative connotations. The present research aimed to examine (1) affective experience in daily solitude; and (2) the association between everyday affect in solitude and well-being. We examined the distinct roles of culture and immigration in moderating these associations. Using up to 35 daily life assessments of momentary affect, solitude, and emotional well-being in two samples (Vancouver, Canada, and China), the study compared older adults who aged in place (local Caucasians in Vancouver Canada and local Hong Kong Chinese in Hong Kong, China) and older adults of different cultural heritages who immigrated to Canada (immigrated Caucasians and immigrated East Asians). We found that older adults of East Asian heritage experienced more positive and less negative affect when alone than did Caucasians. Reporting positive affect in solitude was more positively associated with well-being in older adults who had immigrated to Canada as compared to those who had aged in place. These findings speak to the unique effects of culture and immigration on the affective correlates of solitude and their associations with well-being in old age.

Keywords: solitude, emotion, age, immigration, culture

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16 Hourly Solar Radiations Predictions for Anticipatory Control of Electrically Heated Floor: Use of Online Weather Conditions Forecast

Authors: Helene Thieblemont, Fariborz Haghighat


Energy storage systems play a crucial role in decreasing building energy consumption during peak periods and expand the use of renewable energies in buildings. To provide a high building thermal performance, the energy storage system has to be properly controlled to insure a good energy performance while maintaining a satisfactory thermal comfort for building’s occupant. In the case of passive discharge storages, defining in advance the required amount of energy is required to avoid overheating in the building. Consequently, anticipatory supervisory control strategies have been developed forecasting future energy demand and production to coordinate systems. Anticipatory supervisory control strategies are based on some predictions, mainly of the weather forecast. However, if the forecasted hourly outdoor temperature may be found online with a high accuracy, solar radiations predictions are most of the time not available online. To estimate them, this paper proposes an advanced approach based on the forecast of weather conditions. Several methods to correlate hourly weather conditions forecast to real hourly solar radiations are compared. Results show that using weather conditions forecast allows estimating with an acceptable accuracy solar radiations of the next day. Moreover, this technique allows obtaining hourly data that may be used for building models. As a result, this solar radiation prediction model may help to implement model-based controller as Model Predictive Control.

Keywords: anticipatory control, model predictive control, solar radiation forecast, thermal storage

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15 Mapping a Data Governance Framework to the Continuum of Care in the Active Assisted Living Context

Authors: Gaya Bin Noon, Thoko Hanjahanja-Phiri, Laura Xavier Fadrique, Plinio Pelegrini Morita, Hélène Vaillancourt, Jennifer Teague, Tania Donovska


Active Assisted Living (AAL) refers to systems designed to improve the quality of life, aid in independence, and create healthier lifestyles for care recipients. As the population ages, there is a pressing need for non-intrusive, continuous, adaptable, and reliable health monitoring tools to support aging in place. AAL has great potential to support these efforts with the wide variety of solutions currently available, but insufficient efforts have been made to address concerns arising from the integration of AAL into care. The purpose of this research was to (1) explore the integration of AAL technologies and data into the clinical pathway, and (2) map data access and governance for AAL technology in order to develop standards for use by policy-makers, technology manufacturers, and developers of smart communities for seniors. This was done through four successive research phases: (1) literature search to explore existing work in this area and identify lessons learned; (2) modeling of the continuum of care; (3) adapting a framework for data governance into the AAL context; and (4) interviews with stakeholders to explore the applicability of previous work. Opportunities for standards found in these research phases included a need for greater consistency in language and technology requirements, better role definition regarding who can access and who is responsible for taking action based on the gathered data, and understanding of the privacy-utility tradeoff inherent in using AAL technologies in care settings.

Keywords: active assisted living, aging in place, internet of things, standards

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14 Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility: Research on the Interconnection of Both Concepts and Its Impact on Non-Profit Organizations

Authors: Helene Eller


The aim of non-profit organizations (NPO) is to provide services and goods for its clientele, with profit being a minor objective. By having this definition as the basic purpose of doing business, it is obvious that the goal of an organisation is to serve several bottom lines and not only the financial one. This approach is underpinned by the non-distribution constraint which means that NPO are allowed to make profits to a certain extent, but not to distribute them. The advantage is that there are no single shareholders who might have an interest in the prosperity of the organisation: there is no pie to divide. The gained profits remain within the organisation and will be reinvested in purposeful projects. Good governance is mandatory to support the aim of NPOs. Looking for a measure of good governance the principals of corporate governance (CG) will come in mind. The purpose of CG is direction and control, and in the field of NPO, CG is enlarged to consider the relationship to all important stakeholders who have an impact on the organisation. The recognition of more relevant parties than the shareholder is the link to corporate social responsibility (CSR). It supports a broader view of the bottom line: It is no longer enough to know how profits are used but rather how they are made. Besides, CSR addresses the responsibility of organisations for their impact on society. When transferring the concept of CSR to the non-profit area it will become obvious that CSR with its distinctive features will match the aims of NPOs. As a consequence, NPOs who apply CG apply also CSR to a certain extent. The research is designed as a comprehensive theoretical and empirical analysis. First, the investigation focuses on the theoretical basis of both concepts. Second, the similarities and differences are outlined and as a result the interconnection of both concepts will show up. The contribution of this research is manifold: The interconnection of both concepts when applied to NPOs has not got any attention in science yet. CSR and governance as integrated concept provides a lot of advantages for NPOs compared to for-profit organisations which are in a steady justification to show the impact they might have on the society. NPOs, however, integrate economic and social aspects as starting point. For NPOs CG is not a mere concept of compliance but rather an enhanced concept integrating a lot of aspects of CSR. There is no “either-nor” between the concepts for NPOs.

Keywords: business ethics, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, non-profit organisations

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13 Superiority of Bone Marrow Derived-Osteoblastic Cells (ALLOB®) over Bone Marrow Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Sandra Pietri, Helene Dubout, Sabrina Ena, Candice Hoste, Enrico Bastianelli


Bone Therapeutics is a bone cell therapy company addressing high unmet medical needs in the field of bone fracture repair, more specifically in non-union and delayed-union fractures where the bone repair process is impaired. The company has developed a unique allogeneic osteoblastic cell product (ALLOB®) derived from bone marrow which is currently tested in humans in the indication of delayed-union fractures. The purpose of our study was to directly compare ALLOB® vs. non-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for their in vitro osteogenic characteristics and their in vivo osteogenic potential in order to determine which cellular type would be the most adapted for bone fracture repair. Methods: Healthy volunteers’ bone marrow aspirates (n=6) were expended (i) into BM-MSCs using a complete MSC culture medium or (ii) into ALLOB® cells according to its manufacturing process. Cells were characterized in vitro by morphology, immunophenotype, gene expression and differentiation potential. Additionally, their osteogenic potential was assessed in vivo in the subperiosteal calvaria bone formation model in nude mice. Results: The in vitro side-by-side comparison studies showed that although ALLOB® and BM-MSC shared some common general characteristics such as the 3 minimal MSC criteria, ALLOB® expressed significantly higher levels of chondro/osteoblastic genes such as BMP2 (fold change (FC) > 100), ALPL (FC > 12), CBFA1 (FC > 3) and differentiated significantly earlier than BM-MSC toward the osteogenic lineage. Moreover the bone formation model in nude mice demonstrated that used at the same cellular concentration, ALLOB® was able to induce significantly more (160% vs.107% for control animals) bone formation than BM-MSC (118% vs. 107 % for control animals) two weeks after administration. Conclusion: Our side-by-side comparison studies demonstrated that in vitro and in vivo, ALLOB® displays superior osteogenic capacity to BM-MScs and is therefore a better candidate for the treatment of bone fractures.

Keywords: gene expression, histomorphometry, mesenchymal stem cells, osteogenic differentiation potential, preclinical

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12 Evidence of Behavioural Thermoregulation by Dugongs (Dugong dugon) at the High Latitude Limit to Their Range in Eastern Australia

Authors: Daniel R. Zeh, Michelle R. Heupel, Mark Hamann, Rhondda Jones, Colin J. Limpus, Helene Marsh


Marine mammals live in an environment with water temperatures nearly always lower than the mammalian core body temperature of 35 - 38°C. Marine mammals can lose heat at high rates and have evolved a range of adaptations to minimise heat loss. Our project tracked dugongs to examine if there was a discoverable relationship between the animals’ movements and the temperature of their environment that might suggest behavioural thermoregulation. Twenty-nine dugongs were fitted with acoustic and satellite/GPS transmitters in 2012, 2013 and 2014 in Moreton Bay Queensland at the high latitude limit of the species’ winter range in eastern Australia on 30 occasions (one animal was tagged twice). All 22 animals that stayed in the area and had functional transmitters made at least one (and up to 66) return trip(s) to the warmer oceanic waters outside the bay where seagrass is unavailable. Individual dugongs went in and out of the bay in synchrony with the tides and typically spent about 6 hours in the oceanic water. There was a diel pattern in the movements: 85% of outgoing trips occurred between midnight and noon. There were significant individual differences, but the likelihood of a dugong leaving the bay was independent of body length or sex. In Quarter 2 (April – June), the odds of a dugong making a trip increased by about 40% for each 1°C increase in the temperature difference between the bay and the warmer adjacent oceanic waters. In Quarter 3, the odds of making a trip were lower when the outside –inside bay temperature differences were small or negative but increased by a factor of up to 2.12 for each 1°C difference in outside – inside temperatures. In Quarter 4, the odds of making a trip were higher when it was cooler outside the bay and decreased by a factor of nearly 0.5 for each 1°C difference in outside – inside bay temperatures. The activity spaces of the dugongs generally declined as winter progressed suggesting a change in the cost-effectiveness of moving outside the bay. Our analysis suggests that dugongs can thermoregulate their core temperature through the behaviour of moving to water having more favourable temperature.

Keywords: acoustic, behavioral thermoregulation, dugongs, movements, satellite, telemetry, quick fix GPS

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11 Derivational Morphology Training Improves Spelling in School-Aged Children

Authors: Estelle Ardanouy, Helene Delage, Pascal Zesiger


Morphological awareness contributes to the acquisition of reading and spelling in typical learners as well as in children with learning disorders. Indeed, the acquisition of phoneme-grapheme correspondences is not sufficient to master spelling, especially in inconsistent orthographic systems such as English or French. Several meta-analyses show the benefit of explicit training in derivational morphology on reading and spelling in old children (who have already learned the main grapheme-phoneme correspondences), but highlight the lack of studies with younger children, particularly in French. In this study, we chose to focus on the efficiency of an intensive training in derivational morphology on spelling skills in French-speaking four-graders (9-10 years of age). The training consisted of 1) learning how to divide words into morphemes (ex: para/pente in French, paraglider in English), as well as 2) working on the meaning of affixes in relation to existing words (ex: para/pente: to protect against – para - the slope -pente). One group of pupils (N = 37, M age = 9.5) received this experimental group training in morphology while an alternative training group (N = 34, M age = 9.6) received a visuo-semantic training based on visual cues to memorize the spelling difficulties of complex words (such as the doubling of “r” in “verre” in French -or "glass" in English-which are represented by the drawing of two glasses). Both trainings lasted a total of 15 hours at a rate of four 45 minutes sessions per week, resulting in five weeks of training in the school setting. Our preliminary results show a significant improvement in the experimental group in the spelling of affixes on the trained (p < 0.001) and untrained word lists (p <0.001), but also in the root of words on the trained (p <0.001) and untrained word lists group (p <0.001). The training effect is also present on both trained and untrained morphologically composed words. By contrast, the alternative training group shows no progress on these previous measures (p >0.15). Further analyses testing the effects of both trainings on other measures such as morphological awareness and reading of morphologically compose words are in progress. These first results support the effectiveness of explicitly teaching derivational morphology to improve spelling in school-aged children. The study is currently extended to a group of children with developmental dyslexia because these children are known for their severe and persistent spelling difficulties.

Keywords: developmental dyslexia, derivational morphology, reading, school-aged children, spelling, training

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10 Teaching Ethnic Relations in Social Work Education: A Study of Teachers' Strategies and Experiences in Sweden

Authors: Helene Jacobson Pettersson, Linda Lill


Demographic changes and globalization in society provide new opportunities for social work and social work education in Sweden. There has been an ambition to include these aspects into the Swedish social work education. However, the Swedish welfare state standard continued to be as affectionate as invisible starting point in discussions about people’s way of life and social problems. The aim of this study is to explore content given to ethnic relations in social work in the social work education in Sweden. Our standpoint is that the subject can be understood both from individual and structural levels, it changes over time, varies in different steering documents and differs from the perspectives of teachers and students. Our question is what content is given to ethnic relations in social work by the teachers in their strategies and teaching material. The study brings together research in the interface between education science, social work and research of international migration and ethnic relations. The presented narratives are from longer interviews with a total of 17 university teachers who teach in social work program at four different universities in Sweden. The universities have in different ways a curriculum that involves the theme of ethnic relations in social work, and the interviewed teachers are teaching and grading social workers on specific courses related to ethnic relations at undergraduate and graduate levels. Overall assesses these 17 teachers a large number of students during a semester. The questions were concerned on how the teachers handle ethnic relations in education in social work. The particular focus during the interviews has been the teacher's understanding of the documented learning objectives and content of literature and how this has implications for their teaching. What emerges is the teachers' own stories about the educational work and how they relate to the content of teaching, as well as the teaching strategies they use to promote the theme of ethnic relations in social work education. The analysis of this kind of pedagogy is that the teaching ends up at an individual level with a particular focus on the professional encounter with individuals. We can see the shortage of a critical analysis of the construction of social problems. The conclusion is that individual circumstance precedes theoretical perspective on social problems related to migration, transnational relations, globalization and social. This result has problematic implications from the perspective of sustainability in terms of ethnic diversity and integration in society. Thus these aspects have most relevance for social workers’ professional acting in social support and empowerment related activities, in supporting the social status and human rights and equality for immigrants.

Keywords: ethnic relations in Swedish social work education, teaching content, teaching strategies, educating for change, human rights and equality

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9 A Systematic Review on Communication and Relations between Health Care Professionals and Patients with Cancer in Outpatient Settings Matter

Authors: Anne Prip, Kirsten Alling Møller, Dorte Lisbet Nielsen, Mary Jarden, Marie-Helene Olsen, Anne Kjaergaard Danielsen


Background: The development in cancer care has shifted towards shorter hospital stays and more outpatient treatment. Today, cancer care and treatment predominantly takes place in outpatient settings where encounters between patients and health care professionals are often brief. This development will probably continue internationally as the global cancer burden seems to be growing significantly. Furthermore, the number of patients who require ambulatory treatments such as chemotherapy is increasing. Focusing on the encounters between health care professionals and patients during oncology treatment has thus become increasingly important due to a growing trend in outpatient cancer management. Objective: The aim of the systematic review was to summarize the literature from the perspective of the patient, on experiences of and the need for communication and relationships with the health care professional during chemotherapy treatment in an outpatient setting. Method: The review was designed and carried out according to the PRISMA guidelines and PICO framework. The systematic search was conducted in Medline, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence Based Practice Database. Results: In all, 1174 studies were identified by literature search. After duplicates were removed, the remaining studies (n = 1053) were screened for inclusion. Nine studies were included; qualitative (n = 5) and quantitative (n = 4) as they met the inclusions criteria. The review identified that communication and relationships between health care professionals and patients were important for the patients’ ability to cope with cancer and also had an impact on patients’ satisfaction with care in the outpatient clinic. Furthermore, the review showed that hope and positivity was a need and strategy for patients with cancer and was facilitated by health care professionals. Finally, it revealed that outpatient clinic visits framed and influenced communication and relationships. Conclusions: This review identified the significance of communication and the relationships between patients and health care professionals in the outpatient setting as it supports patients’ ability to cope with cancer. The review showed the need for health care professionals to pay attention to the relational aspects of communication in an outpatient clinic as encounters are often brief. Furthermore, the review helps to specify which elements of the communication are central in the patient-health care professional interaction from the patients' perspective. Finally, it shows a need for more research to investigate which type of interaction and intervention would be the most effective in supporting patients’ coping during chemotherapy in an outpatient clinic.

Keywords: ambulatory chemotherapy, communication, health care professional-patient relation, nurse-patient relation, outpatient care, systematic review

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8 The Interaction of Lay Judges and Professional Judges in French, German and British Labour Courts

Authors: Susan Corby, Pete Burgess, Armin Hoeland, Helene Michel, Laurent Willemez


In German 1st instance labour courts, lay judges always sit with a professional judge and in British and French 1st instance labour courts, lay judges sometimes sit with a professional judge. The lay judges’ main contribution is their workplace knowledge, but they act in a juridical setting where legal norms prevail. Accordingly, the research question is: does the professional judge dominate the lay judges? The research, funded by the Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, is based on over 200 qualitative interviews conducted in France, Germany and Great Britain in 2016-17 with lay and professional judges. Each interview lasted an hour on average, was audio-recorded, transcribed and then analysed using MaxQDA. Status theories, which argue that external sources of (perceived) status are imported into the court, and complementary notions of informational advantage suggest professional judges might exercise domination and control. Furthermore, previous empirical research on British and German labour courts, now some 30 years old, found that professional judges dominated. More recent research on lay judges and professional judges in criminal courts also found professional judge domination. Our findings, however, are more nuanced and distinguish between the hearing and deliberations, and also between the attitudes of judges in the three countries. First, in Germany and Great Britain the professional judge has specialist knowledge and expertise in labour law. In contrast, French professional judges do not study employment law and may only seldom adjudicate on employment law cases. Second, although the professional judge chairs and controls the hearing when he/she sits with lay judges in all three countries, exceptionally in Great Britain lay judges have some latent power as they have to take notes systematically due to the lack of recording technology. Such notes can be material if a party complains of bias, or if there is an appeal. Third, as to labour court deliberations: in France, the professional judge alone determines the outcome of the case, but only if the lay judges have been unable to agree at a previous hearing, which only occurs in 20% of cases. In Great Britain and Germany, although the two lay judges and the professional judge have equal votes, the contribution of British lay judges’ workplace knowledge is less important than that of their German counterparts. British lay judges essentially only sit on discrimination cases where the law, the purview of the professional judge, is complex. They do not sit routinely on unfair dismissal cases where workplace practices are often a key factor in the decision. Also, British professional judges are less reliant on their lay judges than German professional judges. Whereas the latter are career judges, the former only become professional judges after having had several years’ experience in the law and many know, albeit indirectly through their clients, about a wide range of workplace practices. In conclusion, whether or if the professional judge dominates lay judges in labour courts varies by country, although this is mediated by the attitudes of the interactionists.

Keywords: cross-national comparisons, labour courts, professional judges, lay judges

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7 Well-Being in the Workplace: Do Christian Leaders Behave Differently?

Authors: Mariateresa Torchia, Helene Cristini, Hannele Kauppinen


Leadership plays a vital role in organizations. Leaders provide directions and facilitate the processes that enable organizations to achieve their goals and objectives. However, while productivity and financial objectives are often given the greatest emphasis, leaders also have the responsibility for instituting standards of ethical conduct and moral values that guide the behavior of employees. Leaders’ behaviors such as support, empowerment and a high-quality relationship with their employees might not only prevent stress, but also improve employees’ stress coping meanwhile contributing to their affective well-being. Stemming from Girard’s Mimetic Theory, this study aims at understanding how leaders can foster well-being in organizations. To do so, we explore which is the role leaders play in conflict management, resentment management and negative emotions dissipation. Furthermore, we examine whether and to what extent religiosity impacts the way in which leaders operate in relation to employees’ well-being. Indeed, given that organizational values are crucial to ethical behavior and firms’ values may be steeled by a deep sense of spirituality and religious identification, there is a need to take a closer look at the role religion and spirituality play in influencing the way leaders impact employees’ well-being. Thus, religion might work as an overarching logic that provides a set of principles guiding leaders’ everyday practices and relations with employees. We answer our research questions using a qualitative approach. We interviewed 27 Christian leaders (members of the Christian Entrepreneurs and Leaders Association – EDC, a non-profit organization created in 1926 including 3,000 French Christian Leaders & Entrepreneurs). Our results show that well-being can have a different meaning in relation to the type of companies, size, culture, country of analysis. Moreover the values and believes of leaders influence the way they see and foster well-being among employees. Furthermore, leaders can have both a positive or negative impact on well-being. Indeed on the one side, they could increase well-being in the company while on the other hand, they could be the source of resentment and conflicts among employees. Finally, we observed that Christian leaders possess characteristics that are sometimes missing in leaders (humility, inability to compare with others, attempt to be coherent with their values and beliefs, interest in the common good instead of the personal interest, having tougher dilemmas, collectively undertaking the firm). Moreover the Christian leader believes that the common good should come before personal interest. In other words, to them, not only short –termed profit shouldn’t guide strategical decisions but also leaders should feel responsible for their employees’ well-being. Last but not least, the study is not an apologia of Christian, yet it discusses the implications of these values through the light of Girard’s mimetic theory for both theory and practice.

Keywords: Christian leaders, employees well-being, leadership, mimetic theory

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6 Management of Caverno-Venous Leakage: A Series of 133 Patients with Symptoms, Hemodynamic Workup, and Results of Surgery

Authors: Allaire Eric, Hauet Pascal, Floresco Jean, Beley Sebastien, Sussman Helene, Virag Ronald


Background: Caverno-venous leakage (CVL) is devastating, although barely known disease, the first cause of major physical impairment in men under 25, and responsible for 50% of resistances to phosphodiesterase 5-inhibitors (PDE5-I), affecting 30 to 40% of users in this medication class. In this condition, too early blood drainage from corpora cavernosa prevents penile rigidity and penetration during sexual intercourse. The role of conservative surgery in this disease remains controversial. Aim: Assess complications and results of combined open surgery and embolization for CVL. Method: Between June 2016 and September 2021, 133 consecutive patients underwent surgery in our institution for CVL, causing severe erectile dysfunction (ED) resistance to oral medical treatment. Procedures combined vein embolization and ligation with microsurgical techniques. We performed a pre-and post-operative clinical (Erection Harness Scale: EHS) hemodynamic evaluation by duplex sonography in all patients. Before surgery, the CVL network was visualized by computed tomography cavernography. Penile EMG was performed in case of diabetes or suspected other neurological conditions. All patients were optimized for hormonal status—data we prospectively recorded. Results: Clinical signs suggesting CVL were ED since age lower than 25, loss of erection when changing position, penile rigidity varying according to the position. Main complications were minor pulmonary embolism in 2 patients, one after airline travel, one with Factor V Leiden heterozygote mutation, one infection and three hematomas requiring reoperation, one decreased gland sensitivity lasting for more than one year. Mean pre-operative pharmacologic EHS was 2.37+/-0.64, mean pharmacologic post-operative EHS was 3.21+/-0.60, p<0.0001 (paired t-test). The mean EHS variation was 0.87+/-0.74. After surgery, 81.5% of patients had a pharmacologic EHS equal to or over 3, allowing for intercourse with penetration. Three patients (2.2%) experienced lower post-operative EHS. The main cause of failure was leakage from the deep dorsal aspect of the corpus cavernosa. In a 14 months follow-up, 83.2% of patients had a clinical EHS equal to or over 3, allowing for sexual intercourse with penetration, one-third of them without any medication. 5 patients had a penile implant after unsuccessful conservative surgery. Conclusion: Open surgery combined with embolization for CVL is an efficient approach to CVL causing severe erectile dysfunction.

Keywords: erectile dysfunction, cavernovenous leakage, surgery, embolization, treatment, result, complications, penile duplex sonography

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5 Toxicological Analysis of Some Plant Combinations Used for the Treatment of Hypertension by Lay People in Northern Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Mmbulaheni Ramulondi, Sandy Van Vuuren, Helene De Wet


The use of plant combinations to treat various medical conditions is not a new concept, and it is known that traditional people do not only rely on a single plant extract for efficacy but often combine various plant species for treatment. The knowledge of plant combinations is transferred from one generation to the other in the belief that combination therapy may enhance efficacy, reduce toxicity, decreases adverse effects, increase bioavailability and result in lower dosages. However, combination therapy may also be harmful when the interaction is antagonistic, since it may result in increasing toxicity. Although a fair amount of research has been done on the toxicity of medicinal plants, there is very little done on the toxicity of medicinal plants in combination. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity potential of 19 plant combinations which have been documented as treatments of hypertension in northern KwaZulu-Natal by lay people. The aqueous extracts were assessed using two assays; the Brine shrimp assay (Artemia franciscana) and the Ames test (Mutagenicity). Only one plant combination (Aloe marlothii with Hypoxis hemerocallidea) in the current study has been previously assessed for toxicity. With the Brine shrimp assay, the plant combinations were tested in two concentrations (2 and 4 mg/ml), while for mutagenicity tests, they were tested at 5 mg/ml. The results showed that in the Brine shrimp assay, six combinations were toxic at 4 mg/ml. The combinations were Albertisia delagoensis with Senecio serratuloides (57%), Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (98%), Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea (66%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (89%), Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (99%) and Aloe marlothii with Trichilia emetica and Hyphaene coriacea (50%). However when the concentration was reduced to 2 mg/ml, only three combinations were toxic which were Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (76%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (66%) and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (73%). For the mutagenicity assay, only the combinations between Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina were mutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Most of the combinations which were toxic involve C. roseus which was also toxic when tested singularly. It is worth noting that C. roseus was one of the most frequently used plant species both to treat hypertension singularly and in combination and some of the individuals have been using this for the last 20 years. The mortality percentage of the Brine shrimp showed a significant correlation between dosage and toxicity thus toxicity was dosage dependant. A combination which is worth noting is the combination between A. delagoensis and S. serratuloides. Singularly these plants were non-toxic towards Brine shrimp, however their combination resulted in antagonism with the mortality rate of 57% at the total concentration of 4 mg/ml. Low toxicity was mostly observed, giving some validity to combined use, however the few combinations showing increased toxicity demonstrate the importance of analysing plant combinations.

Keywords: dosage, hypertension, plant combinations, toxicity

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4 Ethnic Relations in Social Work Education: A Study of Teachers’ Strategies and Experiences in Sweden

Authors: Helene Jacobson Pettersson, Linda Lill


Research that combines educational science, social work and migration studies shows that ethnic relations tend to be represented from various angles and with different content. As studied here, it is found in steering documents, literature, and teaching that the construction of ethnic relations related to social work varies in education over time. The study has its actuality in changed preconditions to social work education caused by the demographic development and the on-going globalization in the Swedish society. In this presentation we will explore strategies and experiences of teaching ethnic relations at social work educations in Sweden. The purpose is to investigate the strategies that are used and what content is given to ethnic relations in the social work education. University teachers are interviewed concerning their interpretation of steering documents related to the content and how they transform this in their teaching. Even though there has been a tradition to include aspects as intercultural relations and ethnicity, the norms of the welfare state has continued to be the basis for how to conceptualize people’s way of living and social problems. Additionally, the contemporary migration situation with a large number of refugees coming to Sweden peaking in 2015, dramatically changes the conditions for social work as a practice field. Increasing economic and social tensions in Sweden, becomes a challenge for the universities to support the students to achieve theoretical and critical knowledge and skills needed to work for social change, human rights and equality in the ethnic diverse Swedish society. The study raises questions about how teachers interpret the goals of the social work programs in terms of ethnic relations. How do they transform this into teaching? How are ethnic relations in social work described and problematized in lectures, cases and examinations? The empirical material is based on interviews with teachers involved in the social work education at four Swedish universities. The interviewees were key persons in the sense that they could influence the course content, and they were drawn from different semesters of the program. In depth interviews are made on the themes; personal entrance, description and understanding of ethnic relations in social work, teachers’ conception of students understanding of ethnic relations, and the content, form and strategies for teaching used by the teachers. The analysis is thematic and inspired from narrative analysis. The results show that the subject is relatively invisible in steering documents. The interviewees have experienced changes in the teaching over time, with less focus on intercultural relations and specific cultural competence. Instead ethnic relations are treated more contextually and interacting with categories as gender, class and age. The need of theoretical and critical knowledge of migration and ethnic relations in a broad sense but also for specific professional use is emphasized.

Keywords: ethnic relations, social work education, social change, human rights, equality, ethnic diversity in Sweden

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3 UVA or UVC Activation of H₂O₂ and S₂O₈²⁻ for Estrogen Degradation towards an Application in Rural Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Anaelle Gabet, Helene Metivier, Christine De Brauer, Gilles Mailhot, Marcello Brigante


The presence of micropollutants in surface waters has been widely reported around the world, particularly downstream from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Rural WWTPs constitute more than 90 % of the total WWTPs in France. Like conventional ones, they are not able to fully remove micropollutants. Estrogens are excreted by human beings every day and several studies have highlighted their endocrine disruption properties on river wildlife. They are mainly estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Rural WWTPs require cheap and robust tertiary processes. UVC activation of H₂O₂ for HO· generation, a very reactive molecule, has demonstrated its effectiveness. However, UVC rays are dangerous to manipulate and energy-consuming. This is why the ability of UVA rays was investigated in this study. Moreover, the use of S₂O₈²⁻ for SO₄·- generation as an alternative to HO· has emerged in the last few years. Such processes have been widely studied on a lab scale. However, pilot-scale works constitute fewer studies. This study was carried out on a 20-L pilot composed of a 1.12-L UV reactor equipped with a polychromatic UVA lamp or a monochromatic (254 nm) UVC lamp fed in recirculation. Degradation rates of a mixture of spiked E1, E2 and EE2 (5 µM each) were followed by HPLC-UV. Results are expressed in UV dose ( received by the compounds of interest to compare UVC and UVA. In every system, estrogen degradation rates followed pseudo-first-order rates. First, experiments were carried out in tap water. All estrogens underwent photolysis under UVC rays, although E1 photolysis is higher. However, only very weak photolysis was observed under UVA rays. Preliminary studies on both oxidants have shown that S₂O₈²⁻ photolysis constants are higher than H₂O₂ under both UVA and UVC rays. Therefore, estrogen degradation rates are about ten times higher in the presence of 1 mM of S₂O₈²⁻ than with one mM of H₂O₂ under both radiations. In the same conditions, the mixture of interest required about 40 times higher UV dose when using UVA rays compared to UVC. However, the UVA/S₂O₈²⁻ system only requires four times more UV dose than the conventional UVC/H₂O₂ system. Further studies were carried out in WWTP effluent with the UVC lamp. When comparing these results to the tap water ones, estrogen degradation rates were more inhibited in the S₂O₈²⁻ system than with H₂O₂. It seems that SO₄·- undergo higher quenching by a real effluent than HO·. Preliminary experiments have shown that natural organic matter is mainly responsible for the radical quenching and that HO and SO₄ both had similar second-order reaction rate constants with dissolved organic matter. However, E1, E2 and EE2 second-order reaction rate constants are about ten times lower with SO₄ than with HO. In conclusion, the UVA/S₂O₈²⁻ system showed encouraging results for the use of UVA rays but further studies in WWTP effluent have to be carried out to confirm this interest. The efficiency of other pollutants in the real matrix also needs to be investigated.

Keywords: AOPs, decontamination, estrogens, radicals, wastewater

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2 Development of a Miniature Laboratory Lactic Goat Cheese Model to Study the Expression of Spoilage by Pseudomonas Spp. In Cheeses

Authors: Abirami Baleswaran, Christel Couderc, Loubnah Belahcen, Jean Dayde, Hélène Tormo, Gwénaëlle Jard


Cheeses are often reported to be spoiled by Pseudomonas spp., responsible for defects in appearance, texture, taste, and smell, leading to their non-marketing and even their destruction. Despite preventive actions, problems linked to Pseudomonas spp. are difficult to control by the lack of knowledge and control of these contaminants during the cheese manufacturing. Lactic goat cheese producers are not spared by this problem and are looking for solutions to decrease the number of spoiled cheeses. To explore different hypotheses, experiments are needed. However, cheese-making experiments at the pilot scale are expensive and time consuming. Thus, there is a real need to develop a miniature cheeses model system under controlled conditions. In a previous study, several miniature cheese models corresponding to different type of commercial cheeses have been developed for different purposes. The models were, for example, used to study the influence of milk, starters cultures, pathogen inhibiting additives, enzymatic reactions, microflora, freezing process on cheese. Nevertheless, no miniature model was described on the lactic goat cheese. The aim of this work was to develop a miniature cheese model system under controlled laboratory conditions which resembles commercial lactic goat cheese to study Pseudomonas spp. spoilage during the manufacturing and ripening process. First, a protocol for the preparation of miniature cheeses (3.5 times smaller than a commercial one) was designed based on the cheese factorymanufacturing process. The process was adapted from “Rocamadour” technology and involves maturation of pasteurized milk, coagulation, removal of whey by centrifugation, moulding, and ripening in a little scale cellar. Microbiological (total bacterial count, yeast, molds) and physicochemical (pH, saltinmoisture, moisture in fat-free)analyses were performed on four key stages of the process (before salting, after salting, 1st day of ripening, and end of ripening). Factory and miniature cheeses volatilomewere also obtained after full scan Sift-MS cheese analysis. Then, Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from contaminated cheeses were selected on their origin, their ability to produce pigments, and their enzymatic activities (proteolytic, lecithinasic, and lipolytic). Factory and miniature curds were inoculated by spotting selected strains on the cheese surface. The expression of cheese spoilage was evaluated by counting the level of Pseudomonas spp. during the ripening and by visual observation and under UVlamp. The physicochemical and microbiological compositions of miniature cheeses permitted to assess that miniature process resembles factory process. As expected, differences involatilomes were observed, probably due to the fact that miniature cheeses are made usingpasteurized milk to better control the microbiological conditions and also because the little format of cheese induced probably a difference during the ripening even if the humidity and temperature in the cellar were quite similar. The spoilage expression of Pseudomonas spp. was observed in miniature and factory cheeses. It confirms that the proposed model is suitable for the preparation of miniature cheese specimens in the spoilage study of Pseudomonas spp. in lactic cheeses. This kind of model could be deployed for other applications and other type of cheese.

Keywords: cheese, miniature, model, pseudomonas spp, spoilage

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1 Decrease in Olfactory Cortex Volume and Alterations in Caspase Expression in the Olfactory Bulb in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Majed Al Otaibi, Melissa Lessard-Beaudoin, Amel Loudghi, Raphael Chouinard-Watkins, Melanie Plourde, Frederic Calon, C. Alexandre Castellano, Stephen Cunnane, Helene Payette, Pierrette Gaudreau, Denis Gris, Rona K. Graham


Introduction: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Symptoms include memory dysfunction, and also alterations in attention, planning, language and overall cognitive function. Olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom of several neurological disorders including AD. Studying the mechanisms underlying the olfactory dysfunction may therefore lead to the discovery of potential biomarkers and/or treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. Objectives: To determine if olfactory dysfunction predicts future cognitive impairment in the aging population and to characterize the olfactory system in a murine model expressing a genetic factor of AD. Method: For the human study, quantitative olfactory tests (UPSIT and OMT) have been done on 93 subjects (aged 80 to 94 years) from the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge) cohort accepting to participate in the ORCA secondary study. The telephone Modified Mini Mental State examination (t-MMSE) was used to assess cognition levels, and an olfactory self-report was also collected. In a separate cohort, olfactory cortical volume was calculated using MRI results from healthy old adults (n=25) and patients with AD (n=18) using the AAL single-subject atlas and performed with the PNEURO tool (PMOD 3.7). For the murine study, we are using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Result: Human Study: Based on the self-report, 81% of the participants claimed to not suffer from any problem with olfaction. However, based on the UPSIT, 94% of those subjects showed a poor olfactory performance and different forms of microsmia. Moreover, the results confirm that olfactory function declines with age. We also detected a significant decrease in olfactory cortical volume in AD individuals compared to controls. Murine study: Preliminary data demonstrate there is a significant decrease in expression levels of the proform of caspase-3 and the caspase substrate STK3, in the olfactory bulb of mice expressing human APOE4 compared with controls. In addition, there is a significant decrease in the expression level of the caspase-9 proform and caspase-8 active fragment. Analysis of the mature neuron marker, NeuN, shows decreased expression levels of both isoforms. The data also suggest that Iba-1 immunostaining is increased in the olfactory bulb of APOE4 mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusions: The activation of caspase-3 may be the cause of the decreased levels of STK3 through caspase cleavage and may play role in the inflammation observed. In the clinical study, our results suggest that seniors are unaware of their olfactory function status and therefore it is not sufficient to measure olfaction using the self-report in the elderly. Studying olfactory function and cognitive performance in the aging population will help to discover biomarkers in the early stage of the AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, APOE4, cognition, caspase, brain atrophy, neurodegenerative, olfactory dysfunction

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