Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Gyorgy Keglevich

7 Chemical and Electrochemical Syntheses of Two Organic Components of Ginger

Authors: Adrienn Kiss, Karoly Zauer, Gyorgy Keglevich, Rita Molnarne Bernath


Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a perennial plant from Southeast Asia, widely used as a spice, herb, and medicine for many illnesses since its beneficial health effects were observed thousands of years ago. Among the compounds found in ginger, zingerone [4-hydroxy-3- methoxyphenyl-2-butanone] deserves special attention: it has an anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic effect, it can be used in case of diarrheal disease, helps to prevent the formation of blood clots, has antimicrobial properties, and can also play a role in preventing the Alzheimer's disease. Ferulic acid [(E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-prop-2-enoic acid] is another cinnamic acid derivative in ginger, which has promising properties. Like many phenolic compounds, ferulic acid is also an antioxidant. Based on the results of animal experiments, it is assumed to have a direct antitumoral effect in lung and liver cancer. It also deactivates free radicals that can damage the cell membrane and the DNA and helps to protect the skin against UV radiation. The aim of this work was to synthesize these two compounds by new methods. A few of the reactions were based on the hydrogenation of dehydrozingerone [4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one] to zingerone. Dehydrozingerone can be synthesized by a relatively simple method from acetone and vanillin with good yield (80%, melting point: 41 °C). Hydrogenation can be carried out chemically, for example by the reaction of zinc and acetic acid, or Grignard magnesium and ethyl alcohol. Another way to complete the reduction is the electrochemical pathway. The electrolysis of dehydrozingerone without diaphragm in aqueous media was attempted to produce ferulic acid in the presence of sodium carbonate and potassium iodide using platinum electrodes. The electrolysis of dehydrozingerone in the presence of potassium carbonate and acetic acid to prepare zingerone was carried out similarly. Ferulic acid was expected to be converted to dihydroferulic acid [3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propanoic acid] in potassium hydroxide solution using iron electrodes, separating the anode and cathode space with a Soxhlet paper sheath impregnated with saturated magnesium chloride solution. For this reaction, ferulic acid was synthesized from vanillin and malonic acid in the presence of pyridine and piperidine (yield: 88.7%, melting point: 173°C). Unfortunately, in many cases, the expected transformations did not happen or took place in low conversions, although gas evolution occurred. Thus, a deeper understanding of these experiments and optimization are needed. Since both compounds are found in different plants, they can also be obtained by alkaline extraction or steam distillation from distinct plant parts (ferulic acid from ground bamboo shoots, zingerone from grated ginger root). The products of these reactions are rich in several other organic compounds as well; therefore, their separation must be solved to get the desired pure material. The products of the reactions described above were characterized by infrared spectral data and melting points. The use of these two simple methods may be informative for the formation of the products. In the future, we would like to study the ferulic acid and zingerone content of other plants and extract them efficiently. The optimization of electrochemical reactions and the use of other test methods are also among our plans.

Keywords: ferulic acid, ginger, synthesis, zingerone

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6 Communication Training about Depression and Suicide Prevention for Pharmacists: A Hungarian Pilot Study

Authors: Mónika Ditta Tóth, Ádám Fritz, Balázs Hankó, György Purebl


Communication training about depression and suicide prevention for pharmacists – A Hungarian pilot study Mónika Ditta Tóth1, Ádám Fritz2, Balázs Hankó2, György Purebl1 1: Semmelweis University, Institute of Behavioural Sciences 2: Semmelweis University, University Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy Administration Background: Suicide rates in Hungary have been one of the highest in the European Union. Depression is one of the main risk factors for suicide and recognizing and treating depression is an effective way to prevent suicidal behaviour. In their daily practice, pharmacists meet patients with high risk of mental health problems. Therefore they have a key role in the prevention of depression and suicide. Aim: The main aim of this study is to raise pharmacists’ awareness about depression and suicide to enable better recognation of verbal and non-verbal signs of these deseases. Another important objective is to reduce their stigma about depression and increase their confidence in communication with depressed and/or suicidal patients. Methods: A 3-hour communication workshop has been delivered in this pilot study about the reasons, trigger factors, verbal and non-verbal signs of depression and suicide. The training includes communication techniques which have been developed to patients needs, as well as role-playing scenarios. Depression Stigma and Morris Confidence Scales were applied before, after and 6 weeks following the training. The results of the training group are then compared with two of the following pharmacist groups: 1. written material only (N=15), 2. no material (N=15). Results: One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in the training group regarding the level of confidence in treating and communicating with patients with depression and/or suicide following the training, and after 6 weeks (F(2, 24)= 7,135, p=,004; baseline: 20,37, after training: 30,00, follow up: 27,66). After the 3-hour workshop the personal stigma about depression decreased (baselin: 19,75 after training: 17,00, p=0,075) in the training group (N=9), whilst the perceived stigma did not change (before: 33.54, after: 33,44, p=NS). Trainees assessed the workshop as ‘useful’ and ‘gap filling’. No significant differences was found in the group of pharmacisists who got written material only. Conclusions: Despite the high rates of depression and suicide in Hungary, pharmacists do not receive lectures or seminars about mental health during their university studies. Such half-day workshops could fill this gap and give practical help to recognize and communicate with depressed and/or suicidal patients in a more effective way. This way pharmacists, as community gate-keepers, could contribute to a more effective suicide prevention program in Hungary.

Keywords: communication training, pharmacists, depression, suicide

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5 Investigation of the Grain-Boundary Segregation Transition in the Binary Fe-C Alloy

Authors: Végh Ádám, Mekler Csaba, Dezső András, Szabó Dávid, Stomp Dávid, Kaptay György


Grain boundary segregation transition (GBST) has been calculated by a thermodynamic model in binary alloys. The method is used on cementite (Fe3C) segregation in base-centered cubic (ferrite) iron (Fe) in the Fe-C binary system. The GBST line is shown in the Fe3C lacking part of the phase diagram with high solvent (Fe) concentration. At a lower solute content (C) or at higher temperature the grain boundary is composed mostly of the solvent atoms (Fe). On higher concentration compared to the GBST line or at lower temperature a phase transformation occurs at the grain boundary, the latter mostly composed of the associates (Fe3C). These low-segregation and high-segregation states are first order interfacial phase transitions of the grain boundary and can be transformed into each other reversibly. These occur when the GBST line is crossed by changing the bulk composition or temperature.

Keywords: GBST, cementite, segregation, Fe-C alloy

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4 Prophylactic Replacement of Voice Prosthesis: A Study to Predict Prosthesis Lifetime

Authors: Anne Heirman, Vincent van der Noort, Rob van Son, Marije Petersen, Lisette van der Molen, Gyorgy Halmos, Richard Dirven, Michiel van den Brekel


Objective: Voice prosthesis leakage significantly impacts laryngectomies patients' quality of life, causing insecurity and frequent unplanned hospital visits and costs. In this study, the concept of prophylactic voice prosthesis replacement was explored to prevent leakages. Study Design: A retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary hospital. Methods: Device lifetimes and voice prosthesis replacements of a retrospective cohort, including all patients with laryngectomies between 2000 and 2012 in the Netherlands Cancer Institute, were used to calculate the number of needed voice prostheses per patient per year when preventing 70% of the leakages by prophylactic replacement. Various strategies for the timing of prophylactic replacement were considered: Adaptive strategies based on the individual patient’s history of replacement and fixed strategies based on the results of patients with similar voice prosthesis or treatment characteristics. Results: Patients used a median of 3.4 voice prostheses per year (range 0.1-48.1). We found a high inter-and intrapatient variability in device lifetime. When applying prophylactic replacement, this would become a median of 9.4 voice prostheses per year, which means replacement every 38 days, implying more than six additional voice prostheses per patient per year. The individual adaptive model showed that preventing 70% of the leakages was impossible for most patients, and only a median of 25% can be prevented. Monte-Carlo simulations showed that prophylactic replacement is not feasible due to the high Coefficient of Variation (Standard Deviation/Mean) in device lifetime. Conclusion: Based on our simulations, prophylactic replacement of voice prostheses is not feasible due to high inter-and intrapatient variation in device lifetime.

Keywords: voice prosthesis, voice rehabilitation, total laryngectomy, prosthetic leakage, device lifetime

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3 Methods and Techniques for Lower Danube Sturgeon Monitoring Used for the Assessment of Anthropic Activities Pressures and the Quantification of Risks on These Species

Authors: Gyorgy Deak, Marius C. Raischi, Lucian P. Georgescu, Tiberius M. Danalache, Elena Holban, Madalina G. Boboc, Monica Matei, Catalina Iticescu, Marius V. Olteanu, Stefan Zamfir, Gabriel Cornateanu


At present, on the Lower Danube, different types of pressures have been identified that affect the anadromous sturgeons stocks with an impact that leads to their decline. This paper presents techniques and procedures used by Romanian experts in the tagging and monitoring of anadromous sturgeons, as well as unique results at international level obtained on the basis of an informational volume collected in over 7 years of monitoring on these species behavior (both for adults as well as for ultrasonically tagged juveniles) on the Lower Danube. The local impact of hydrotechnical constructions (bottom sill, maritime navigation channel), the global impact of the poaching phenomenon and the impact of the restocking programs with sturgeon juveniles were assessed. Thus, the bottom sill impact on the Bala branch, the Bastroe Channel (cross-border impact) and the poaching phenomenon at the level of the Lower Danube was analyzed on the basis of a unique informational volume obtained through the use of patented monitoring systems by the Romanian experts (DKTB respectively, DKMR-01T). At the same time, the results from the monitoring of ultrasonically tagged sturgeon juveniles from the 2015 repopulation program are presented. Conclusions resulting from research can ensure favorable premises for finding some conservation solutions for CITES-protected sturgeon species that have survived for millions of years, currently being 1 species on the brink of extinction - Russian sturgeon, 2 species in danger of extinction - Beluga sturgeon and Stellate sturgeon and 2 species already extinct from the Lower Danube, namely common sturgeon and ship sturgeon.

Keywords: Lower Danube, sturgeons monitoring (adults and juveniles), tagging, impact on conservation

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2 Weal: The Human Core of Well-Being as Attested by Social and Life Sciences

Authors: Gyorgy Folk


A finite set of cardinal needs define the human core of living well shaped on the evolutionary time scale as attested by social and life sciences of the last decades. Well-being is the purported state of living well. Living of humans akin any other living beings involves the exchange of vital substance with nature, maintaining a supportive symbiosis with an array of other living beings, living up to bonds to kin and exerting efforts to sustain living. A supportive natural environment, access to material resources, the nearness to fellow beings, and life sustaining activity are prerequisites of well-being. Well-living is prone to misinterpretation as an individual achievement, one lives well only and only if bonded to human relationships, related to a place, incorporated in nature. Akin all other forms of it, human life is a self-sustaining arrangement. One may say that the substance of life is life, and not materials, products, and services converted into life. The human being remains shaped on an evolutionary time scale and is enabled within the non-altering core of human being, invariant of cultural differences in earthly space and time. Present paper proposes the introduction of weal, the missing link in the causal chain of societal performance and the goodness of life. Interpreted differently over the ages, cultures and disciplines, instead of well-being, the construct in general use, weal is proposed as the underlying foundation of well-being. Weal stands for the totality of socialised reality as framing well-being for the individual beyond the possibility of deliberate choice. The descriptive approach to weal, mapping it under the guidance of discrete scientific disciplines reveals a limited set of cardinal aspects, labeled here the cardinal needs. Cardinal expresses the fundamental reorientation weal can bring about, needs deliver the sense of sine qua non. Weal is conceived as a oneness mapped along eight cardinal needs. The needs, approached as aspects instead of analytically isolated factors do not require mutually exclusive definitions. To serve the purpose of reorientation, weal is operationalised as a domain in multidimensional space, each dimension encompassing an optimal level of availability of the fundamental satisfiers between the extremes of drastic insufficiency and harmful excess, ensured by actual human effort. Weal seeks balance among the material and social aspects of human being while allows for cultural and individual uniqueness in attaining human flourishing.

Keywords: human well-being, development, economic theory, human needs

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1 Memories of Lost Fathers: The Unfinished Transmission of Generational Values in Hungarian Cinema by Peter Falanga

Authors: Peter Falanga


During the process of de-Stalinization that began in 1956 with the Twentieth Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, many filmmakers in Hungary chose to explore their country’s political discomforts by using Socialist Realism as a negative model against which they could react to the dominating ideology. A renewed national film industry and a more permissive political regime would allow filmmakers to take to task the plight of the preceding generation who had experienced the fatal political turmoil of both World Wars and the purges of Stalin. What follows is no longer the multigenerational unity found in Socialist Realism wherein both the old and the young embrace Stalin’s revolutionary optimism; instead, the protagonists are parentless, and thus their connection to the previous generation is partially severed. In these films, violent historical forces leave one generation to search for both a connection with their family’s past, and for moral guidance to direct their future. István Szabó’s Father (1966), Márta Mészáros Diary for My Children (1984), and Pál Gábor’s Angi Vera (1978) each consider the fraught relationship between successive generations through the lens of postwar youth. A characteristic each of their protagonist’s share is that they are all missing one or both parents, and cope with familial loss either through recalling memories of their parents in dream-like sequences, or, in the case of Angi Vera, through embracing the surrogate paternalism that the Communist Party promises to provide. This paper considers the argument these films present about the progress of Hungarian history, and how this topic is explored in more recent films that similarly focus on the transmission of generational values. Scholars such as László Strausz and John Cunningham have written on the continuous concern with the transmission of generational values in more recent films such as István Szabó’s Sunshine (1999), Béla Tarr’s Werckmeister Harmonies (2000), György Pálfi’s Taxidermia (2006), Ágnes Kocsis’ Pál Adrienn (2010), and Kornél Mundruczó’s Evolution (2021). These films, they argue, make intimate portrayals of the various sweeping political changes in Hungary’s history and question how these epochs or events have impacted Hungarian identities. If these films attempt to personalize historical shifts of Hungary, then what is the significance of featuring characters who have lost one or both parents? An attempt to understand this coherent trend in Hungarian cinema will profit from examining the earlier, celebrated films of Szabó, Mészáros, and Gábor, who inaugurated this preoccupation with generational values. The pervasive interplay of dreams and memory in their films invites an additional element to their argument concerning historical progression. This paper incorporates Richard Teniman’s notion of the “dialectics of memory” in which memory is in a constant process of negation and reinvention to explain why these Directors prefer to explore Hungarian identity through the disarranged form of psychological realism over the linear causality structure of historical realism.

Keywords: film theory, Eastern European Studies, film history, Eastern European History

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