Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3869

Search results for: Green Price Sensitivity

3869 The Antecedents of Green Purchase Intention in Nigeria: Mediating Effect of Perceived Behavioral Control

Authors: Victoria Masi Haruna Karatu, Nik Kamariah Nikmat

Abstract:

In recent times awareness about the environment and green purchase has been on the increase across nations due to global warming. Previous researchers have attempted to determine what actually influences the purchase intention of consumers in this environmentally conscious epoch. The consumers too have become conscious of what to buy and who to buy from in their purchasing decisions as this action will reflect their concern about the environment and their personal well-being. This trend is a widespread phenomenon in most developed countries of the world. On the contrary evidence revealed that only 5% of the populations of Nigeria involve in green purchase activities thus making the country lag behind its counterparts in green practices. This is not a surprise as Nigeria is facing problems of inadequate green knowledge, non-enforcement of environmental regulations, sensitivity to the price of green products when compared with the conventional ones and distrust towards green products which has been deduced from prior studies of other regions. The main objectives of this study is to examine the direct antecedents of green purchase intention (green availability, government regulations, perceived green knowledge, perceived value and green price sensitivity) in Nigeria and secondly to establish the mediating role of perceived behavioral control on the relationship between these antecedents and green purchase intention. The study adopts quantitative method whereby 700 questionnaires were administered to lecturers in three Nigerian universities. 502 datasets were collected which represents 72 percent response rate. After screening the data only 440 were usable and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) and bootstrapping. From the findings, three antecedents have significant direct relationships with green purchase intention (perceived green knowledge, perceived behavioral control, and green availability) while two antecedents have positive and significant direct relationship with perceived behavioral control (perceived value and green price sensitivity). On the other hand, PBC does not mediate any of the paths from the predictors to criterion variable. This result is discussed in the Nigerian context.

Keywords: Green Availability, Green Price Sensitivity, Green Purchase Intention, Perceived Green Knowledge, Perceived Value

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3868 The Effect of Oil Price Uncertainty on Food Price in South Africa

Authors: Goodness C. Aye

Abstract:

This paper examines the effect of the volatility of oil prices on food price in South Africa using monthly data covering the period 2002:01 to 2014:09. Food price is measured by the South African consumer price index for food while oil price is proxied by the Brent crude oil. The study employs the GARCH-in-mean VAR model, which allows the investigation of the effect of a negative and positive shock in oil price volatility on food price. The model also allows the oil price uncertainty to be measured as the conditional standard deviation of a one-step-ahead forecast error of the change in oil price. The results show that oil price uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on food price in South Africa. The responses of food price to a positive and negative oil price shocks is asymmetric.

Keywords: oil price volatility, food price, bivariate, GARCH-in-mean VAR, asymmetric

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3867 A Case Study Approach to the Rate the Eco Sensitivity of Green Infrastructure Solutions

Authors: S. Saroop, D. Allopi

Abstract:

In the area of civil infrastructure, there is an urgent need to apply technologies that deliver infrastructure sustainably in a way that is cost-effective. Civil engineering projects can have a significant impact on ecological and social systems if not correctly planned, designed and implemented. It can impact climate change by addressing the issue of flooding and sustainability. Poor design choices now can result in future generations to live in a climate with depleted resources and without green spaces. The objectives of the research study were to rate the sensitivity of various greener infrastructure technologies that can be used in township infrastructure, at the various stages of the project. This paper discusses the Green Township Infrastructure Design Toolkit, that is used to rate the sustainability of infrastructure service projects. Various case studies were undertaken on a range of infrastructure projects to test the sensitivity of various design solution against sustainability criteria. The Green reporting tools ensure efficient, economical and sustainable provision of infrastructure services.

Keywords: eco-efficiency, green infrastructure, green technology, infrastructure design, sustainable development

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3866 Green Hydrogen: Exploring Economic Viability and Alluring Business Scenarios

Authors: S. Sakthivel

Abstract:

Currently, the global economy is based on the hydrocarbon economy, which is referencing the global hydrocarbon industry. Problems of using these fossil fuels (like oil, NG, coal) are emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) and price fluctuation, supply/distribution, etc. These challenges can be overcome by using clean energy as hydrogen. The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for hydrogen vehicles, alternative industrial feedstock, power generation, and energy storage, etc. Engineering consulting firms have a significant role in this ambition and green hydrogen value chain (i.e., integration of renewables, production, storage, and distribution to end-users). Typically, the cost of green hydrogen is a function of the price of electricity needed, the cost of the electrolyser, and the operating cost to run the system. This article focuses on economic viability and explores the alluring business scenarios globally. Break-even analysis was carried out for green hydrogen production and in order to evaluate and compare the impact of the electricity price on the production costs of green hydrogen and relate it to fossil fuel-based brown/grey/blue hydrogen costs. It indicates that the cost of green hydrogen production will fall drastically due to the declining costs of renewable electricity prices and along with the improvement and scaling up of electrolyser manufacturing. For instance, in a scenario where electricity prices are below US$ 40/MWh, green hydrogen cost is expected to reach cost competitiveness.

Keywords: green hydrogen, cost analysis, break-even analysis, renewables, electrolyzer

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3865 A Theory and Empirical Analysis on the Efficency of Chinese Electricity Pricing

Authors: Jianlin Wang, Jiajia Zhao

Abstract:

This paper applies the theory and empirical method to examine the relationship between electricity price and coal price, as well as electricity and industry output, for China during Jan 1999-Dec 2012. Our results indicate that there is no any causality between coal price and electricity price under other factors are controlled. However, we found a bi-directional causality between electricity consumption and industry output. Overall, the electricity price set by China’s NDRC is inefficient, which lead to the electricity supply shortage after 2004. It is time to reform electricity price system for China’s reformers.

Keywords: electricity price, coal price, power supply, China

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3864 Intended-Actual First Asking/Offer Price Discrepancies and Their Impact on Negotiation Behaviour and Outcomes

Authors: Liuyao Chai, Colin Clark

Abstract:

Analysis of 574 participants in a simulated two-person distributive negotiation revealed that the first price 245 (42.7%) of these participants actually asked/offered for the item under negotiation (a used car) differed from the first price they previously stated they intended to ask/offer during their negotiation. This discrepancy between a negotiator’s intended first asking/offer price and his/her actual first asking/offer price had a significant and economically consequential impact on both the course and the outcomes of the negotiations studied. Participants whose actual first price remained the same as their intended first price tended to secure better negotiation outcomes. Moreover, participants who changed their intended first price tended to obtain relatively lower outcomes regardless of whether their modified first announced price had created a negotiating position that was ‘stronger’ or ‘weaker’ than if they had opened with their intended first price. Subsequent investigation of over twenty negotiation behaviours and pre-negotiation perceptual variables within this dataset indicated that the three types of first price announcers—i.e. intended first asking/offer price ‘weakeners’, ‘maintainers’ and ‘strengtheners’— comprised persons who tended to have significantly different pre-negotiation perceptions and behaved in systematically different ways during their negotiation. Typically, the most negative, outcome-compromising consequences of changing, weakening or strengthening an intended first price occurred at the very beginning of a negotiation when participants exchanged their actual first asking/offer prices.

Keywords: business communication, negotiation, persuasion, intended first asking/offer prices, bargaining

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3863 Study of NGL Feed Price Calculation for a Typical NGL Fractionation Plant

Authors: Simin Eydivand, Ali Ghanadieslami, Reza Amiri

Abstract:

Natural gas liquids (NGLs) are light hydrocarbons that are dissolved in associated or non‐associated natural gas in a hydrocarbon reservoir and are produced within a gas stream. There are different ways to calculate the price of NGL. In this study, a spreadsheet calculation method is used for calculation of NGL price with an attractive economy of IRR 25%. For a typical NGL Plant with 3,200,000 t/y capacity of investment and operation of 90% capacity to have IRR 25%, the price of NGL is calculated 277 $/t.

Keywords: natural gas liquid, NGL, LPG, price, NGL fractionation, NF, investment, IRR, NPV

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3862 The Impact of Biodiversity and Urban Ecosystem Services in Real Estate

Authors: Carmen Cantuarias-Villessuzanne, Jeffrey Blain, Radmila Pineau

Abstract:

Our research project aims at analyzing the sensitiveness of French households to urban biodiversity and urban ecosystem services (UES). Opinion surveys show that the French population is sensitive to biodiversity and ecosystem services loss, but the value given to these issues within urban fabric and real estate market lacks evidence. Using GIS data and economic evaluation, by hedonic price methods, weassess the isolated contribution of the explanatory variables of biodiversityand UES on the price of residential real estate. We analyze the variation of the valuefor three urban ecosystem services - flood control, proximity to green spaces, and refreshment - on the price of real estate whena property changes ownership. Our modeling and mapping focus on the price at theIRIS scale (statistical information unit) from 2014 to 2019. The main variables are internal characteristics of housing (area, kind of housing, heating), external characteristics(accessibility and infrastructure, economic, social, and physical environmentsuch as air pollution, noise), and biodiversity indicators and urban ecosystemservices for the Ile-de-France region. Moreover, we compare environmental values on the enhancement of greenspaces and their impact on residential choices. These studies are very useful for real estate developers because they enable them to promote green spaces, and municipalities to become more attractive.

Keywords: urban ecosystem services, sustainable real estate, urban biodiversity perception, hedonic price, environmental values

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3861 General Framework for Price Regulation of Container Terminals

Authors: Murat Yildiz, Burcu Yildiz

Abstract:

Price Cap Regulation is a form of economic regulation designed in the 1980s in the United Kingdom. Price cap regulation sets a cap on the price that the utility provider can charge. The cap is set according to several economic factors, such as the price cap index, expected efficiency savings and inflation. It has been used by several countries as a regulatory regime in several sectors. Container port privatization is still in early stages in some countries. Lack of a general framework can be an impediment to privatization. This paper aims a general framework to comprising decisions to be made for variables which are able to accommodate the variety of container terminals. Several approaches that may be needed as well as a passage between approaches.

Keywords: Price Cap Regulation, ports privatization, container terminal price regime, earning sharing

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3860 Sensitivity, Specificity and Efficiency Real-Time PCR Using SYBR Green Method to Determine Porcine and Bovine DNA Using Specific Primer Cytochrome B Gene

Authors: Ahlam Inayatullah Badrul Munir, M. Husaini A. Rahman, Mohd Sukri Hassan

Abstract:

Real-time PCR is a molecular biology technique that is currently being widely used for halal services to differentiating between porcine and bovine DNA. The useful of technique become very important for student or workers (who works in the laboratory) to learn how the technique could be run smoothly without fail. Same concept with conventional PCR, real-time PCR also needed DNA template, primer, enzyme polymerase, dNTP, and buffer. The difference is in real-time PCR, have additional component namely fluorescent dye. The most common use of fluorescent dye in real-time PCR is SYBR green. The purpose of this study was to find out how sensitive, specific and efficient real-time PCR technique was combined with SYBR green method and specific primers of CYT b. The results showed that real-time PCR technique using SYBR Green, capable of detecting porcine and bovine DNA concentrations up to 0.0001 µl/ng. The level of efficiency for both types of DNA was 91% (90-110). Not only that in specific primer CYT b bovine primer could detect only bovine DNA, and porcine primer could detect only porcine primer. So, from the study could be concluded that real-time PCR technique that was combined with specific primer CYT b and SYBR green method, was sensitive, specific and efficient to detect porcine and bovine DNA.

Keywords: sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, real-time PCR, SYBR green, Cytochrome b, porcine DNA, bovine DNA

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3859 The Influence of Oil Price Fluctuations on Macroeconomics Variables of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khalid Mujaljal, Hassan Alhajhoj

Abstract:

This paper empirically investigates the influence of oil price fluctuations on the key macroeconomic variables of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using unrestricted VAR methodology. Two analytical tools- Granger-causality and variance decomposition are used. The Granger-causality test reveals that almost all specifications of oil price shocks significantly Granger-cause GDP and demonstrates evidence of causality between oil price changes and money supply (M3) and consumer price index percent (CPIPC) in the case of positive oil price shocks. Surprisingly, almost all specifications of oil price shocks do not Granger-cause government expenditure. The outcomes from variance decomposition analysis suggest that positive oil shocks contribute about 25 percent in causing inflation in the country. Also, contribution of symmetric linear oil price shocks and asymmetric positive oil price shocks is significant and persistent with 25 percent explaining variation in world consumer price index till end of the period.

Keywords: Granger causality, oil prices changes, Saudi Arabian economy, variance decomposition

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3858 Price Regulation in Domestic Market: Incentives to Collude in the Deregulated Market

Authors: S. Avdasheva, D. Tsytsulina

Abstract:

In many regulated industries over the world price cap as a method of price regulation replaces cost-plus pricing. It is a kind of incentive regulation introduced in order to enhance productive efficiency by strengthening sellers’ incentives for cost reduction as well as incentives for more efficient pricing. However pricing under cap is not neutral for competition in the market. We consider influence on competition on the markets where benchmark for cap is chosen from when sellers are multi-market. We argue that the impact of price cap regulation on market competition depends on the design of cap. More specifically if cap for one (regulated) market depends on the price of the supplier in other (non-regulated) market, there is sub-type of price cap regulation (known in Russian tariff regulation as ‘netback minus’) that enhance incentives to collude in non-regulated market.

Keywords: price regulation, competition, collusion

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3857 Federal College of Education Kano

Authors: Mahnaz Babaei Morad, Mojtaba Zargarzadeh, Behnaz Babaei Morad, Najmeh Salari Nasab

Abstract:

Green roofs and walls are one of the key elements of sustainable design in ecology design of cities. Lack of open space and urban green at different scales from one neighborhood to district is as subject that has become challenge for urban management Use change from green space to other use is familiar for Iranian citizens. The high price of land in this area, it seems only justified reason for municipalities that reduce the green space per capita. In this paper, examines the rooftops of Iranian city as a fifth facade, as well as the opportunity to offset some of the capital's urban spaces that has been removed. Today green roof isn't a matter of taste in the world. Be proportional to the quantity and quality of the architecture become the first concern of urban professionals and ecological approaches such as "sustainable" and "green architecture" is checked. In this paper we review and present examples of green roofs have been executed in Iran over the past decade. Survey some of the urban management policies in leading province in this article constitutes the second dimension. The purpose of this paper is study example of green roof performance in different parts of Iran, along with criteria for sustainable urban development and achieves the policies and components collection of implementation sustainable development , specific of Iranian green roof and monitor the develops ways to it.

Keywords: sustainable development, green roofs, Iran, green architecture

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3856 The Non-Uniqueness of Partial Differential Equations Options Price Valuation Formula for Heston Stochastic Volatility Model

Authors: H. D. Ibrahim, H. C. Chinwenyi, T. Danjuma

Abstract:

An option is defined as a financial contract that provides the holder the right but not the obligation to buy or sell a specified quantity of an underlying asset in the future at a fixed price (called a strike price) on or before the expiration date of the option. This paper examined two approaches for derivation of Partial Differential Equation (PDE) options price valuation formula for the Heston stochastic volatility model. We obtained various PDE option price valuation formulas using the riskless portfolio method and the application of Feynman-Kac theorem respectively. From the results obtained, we see that the two derived PDEs for Heston model are distinct and non-unique. This establishes the fact of incompleteness in the model for option price valuation.

Keywords: Black-Scholes partial differential equations, Ito process, option price valuation, partial differential equations

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3855 The Relations between Spatial Structure and Land Price

Authors: Jung-Hun Cho, Tae-Heon Moon, Jin-Hak Lee

Abstract:

Land price contains the comprehensive characteristics of urban space, representing the social and economic features of the city. Accordingly, land price can be utilized as an indicator, which can identify the changes of spatial structure and socioeconomic variations caused by urban development. This study attempted to explore the changes in land price by a new road construction. Methodologically, it adopted Space Syntax, which can interpret urban spatial structure comprehensively, to identify the relationship between the forms of road networks and land price. The result of the regression analysis showed the ‘integration index’ of Space Syntax is statistically significant and has a strong correlation with land price. If the integration value is high, land price increases proportionally. Subsequently, using regression equation, it tried to predict the land price changes of each of the lots surrounding the roads that are newly opened. The research methods or study results have the advantage of predicting the changes in land price in an easy way. In addition, it will contribute to planners and project managers to establish relevant polices and smoothing urban regeneration projects through enhancing residents’ understanding by providing possible results and advantages in their land price before the execution of urban regeneration and development projects.

Keywords: space syntax, urban regeneration, spatial structure, official land price

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3854 Price to Earnings Growth (PEG) Predicting Future Returns Better than the Price to Earnings (PE) Ratio

Authors: Lindrianasari Stefanie, Aminah Khairudin

Abstract:

This study aims to provide empirical evidence regarding the ability of Price to Earnings Ratio and PEG Ratio in predicting future stock returns issuers. The samples used in this study are stocks that go into LQ45. The main contribution is to assign empirical evidence if the PEG Ratio can provide optimum return compared to Price to Earnings Ratio. This study used a sample of the entire company into the group LQ45 with the period of observation. The data used is limited to the financial statements of a company incorporated in LQ45 period July 2013-July 2014, using the financial statements and the position of the company's closing stock price at the end of 2010 as a reference benchmark for the growth of the company's stock price compared to the closing price of 2013. This study found that the method of PEG Ratio can outperform the method of PE ratio in predicting future returns on the stock portfolio of LQ45.

Keywords: price to earnings growth, price to earnings ratio, future returns, stock price

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3853 Inventory Policy with Continuous Price Reduction in Solar Photovoltaic Supply Chain

Authors: Xiangrong Liu, Chuanhui Xiong

Abstract:

With the concern of large pollution emissions from coal-fired power plants and new commitment to green energy, global solar power industry was emerging recently. Due to the advanced technology, the price of solar photovoltaic(PV) module was reduced at a fast rate, which arose an interesting but challenge question to solar supply chain. This research is modeling the inventory strategies for a PV supply chain with a PV manufacturer, an assembler and an end customer. Through characterizing the manufacturer's and PV assembler's optimal decision in decentralized and centralized situation, this study shed light on how to improve supply chain performance through parameters setting in the contract design. The results suggest the assembler to lower the optimal stock level gradually each period before price reduction and set up a newsvendor base-stock policy in all periods after price reduction. As to the PV module manufacturer, a non-stationary produce-up-to policy is optimal.

Keywords: photovoltaic, supply chain, inventory policy, base-stock policy

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3852 Optimal Policies in a Two-Level Supply Chain with Defective Product and Price Dependent Demand

Authors: Samira Mohabbatdar, Abbas Ahmadi, Mohsen S. Sajadieh

Abstract:

This paper deals with a two-level supply chain consisted of one manufacturer and one retailer for single-type product. The demand function of the customers depends on price. We consider an integrated production inventory system where the manufacturer processes raw materials in order to deliver finished product with imperfect quality to the retailer. Then retailer inspects the products and after that delivers perfect products to customers. The proposed model is based on the joint total profit of both the manufacturer and the retailer, and it determines the optimal ordering lot-size, number of shipment and selling price of the retailer. A numerical example is provided to analyse and illustrate the behaviour and application of the model. Finally, sensitivity analysis of the key parameters are presented to test feasibility of the model.

Keywords: supply chain, pricing policy, defective quality, joint economic lot sizing

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3851 The Carbon Trading Price and Trading Volume Forecast in Shanghai City by BP Neural Network

Authors: Liu Zhiyuan, Sun Zongdi

Abstract:

In this paper, the BP neural network model is established to predict the carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City. First of all, we find the data of carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City from September 30, 2015 to December 23, 2016. The carbon trading price and trading volume data were processed to get the average value of each 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 carbon trading price and trading volume. Then, these data are used as input of BP neural network model. Finally, after the training of BP neural network, the prediction values of Shanghai carbon trading price and trading volume are obtained, and the model is tested.

Keywords: Carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, BP neural network model, Shanghai City

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3850 The Seller’s Sense: Buying-Selling Perspective Affects the Sensitivity to Expected-Value Differences

Authors: Taher Abofol, Eldad Yechiam, Thorsten Pachur

Abstract:

In four studies, we examined whether seller and buyers differ not only in subjective price levels for objects (i.e., the endowment effect) but also in their relative accuracy given objects varying in expected value. If, as has been proposed, sellers stand to accrue a more substantial loss than buyers do, then their pricing decisions should be more sensitive to expected-value differences between objects. This is implied by loss aversion due to the steeper slope of prospect theory’s value function for losses than for gains, as well as by loss attention account, which posits that losses increase the attention invested in a task. Both accounts suggest that losses increased sensitivity to relative values of different objects, which should result in better alignment of pricing decisions to the objective value of objects on the part of sellers. Under loss attention, this characteristic should only emerge under certain boundary conditions. In Study 1 a published dataset was reanalyzed, in which 152 participants indicated buying or selling prices for monetary lotteries with different expected values. Relative EV sensitivity was calculated for participants as the Spearman rank correlation between their pricing decisions for each of the lotteries and the lotteries' expected values. An ANOVA revealed a main effect of perspective (sellers versus buyers), F(1,150) = 85.3, p < .0001 with greater EV sensitivity for sellers. Study 2 examined the prediction (implied by loss attention) that the positive effect of losses on performance emerges particularly under conditions of time constraints. A published dataset was reanalyzed, where 84 participants were asked to provide selling and buying prices for monetary lotteries in three deliberations time conditions (5, 10, 15 seconds). As in Study 1, an ANOVA revealed greater EV sensitivity for sellers than for buyers, F(1,82) = 9.34, p = .003. Importantly, there was also an interaction of perspective by deliberation time. Post-hoc tests revealed that there were main effects of perspective both in the condition with 5s deliberation time, and in the condition with 10s deliberation time, but not in the 15s condition. Thus, sellers’ EV-sensitivity advantage disappeared with extended deliberation. Study 3 replicated the design of study 1 but administered the task three times to test if the effect decays with repeated presentation. The results showed that the difference between buyers and sellers’ EV sensitivity was replicated in repeated task presentations. Study 4 examined the loss attention prediction that EV-sensitivity differences can be eliminated by manipulations that reduce the differential attention investment of sellers and buyers. This was carried out by randomly mixing selling and buying trials for each participant. The results revealed no differences in EV sensitivity between selling and buying trials. The pattern of results is consistent with an attentional resource-based account of the differences between sellers and buyers. Thus, asking people to price, an object from a seller's perspective rather than the buyer's improves the relative accuracy of pricing decisions; subtle changes in the framing of one’s perspective in a trading negotiation may improve price accuracy.

Keywords: decision making, endowment effect, pricing, loss aversion, loss attention

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3849 The Impact of Macroeconomic Factors on Tehran Stock Exchange Index during Economic and Oil Sanctions between January 2006 and December 2012

Authors: Hamed Movahedizadeh, Annuar Md Nassir, Mehdi Karimimalayer, Navid Samimi Sedeh, Ehsan Bagherpour

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to evaluate Tehran’s Stock Exchange (TSE) performance regarding with impact of four macroeconomic factors including world crude Oil Price (OP), World Gold Price (GP), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and total Supplied Oil by Iran (SO) from January 2006 to December 2012 that Iran faced with economic and oil sanctions. Iran's exports of crude oil and lease condensate reduced to roughly 1.5 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2012, compared to 2.5 million bbl/d in 2011 due to hard sanctions. Monthly data are collected and subjected to a battery of tests through ordinary least square by EViews7. This study found that gold price and oil price are positively correlated with stock returns while total oil supplied and consumer price index have negative relationship with stock index, however, consumer price index tends to become insignificant in stock index. While gold price and consumer price index have short run relationship with TSE index at 10% of significance level this amount for oil price is significant at 5% and there is no significant short run relationship between supplied oil and Tehran stock returns. Moreover, this study found that all macroeconomic factors have long-run relationship with Tehran Stock Exchange Index.

Keywords: consumer price index, gold price, macroeconomic, oil price, sanction, stock market, supplied oil

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3848 Price Heterogeneity in Establishing Real Estate Composite Price Index as Underlying Asset for Property Derivatives in Russia

Authors: Andrey Matyukhin

Abstract:

Russian official statistics have been showing a steady decline in residential real estate prices for several consecutive years. Price risk in real estate markets is thus affecting various groups of economic agents, namely, individuals, construction companies and financial institutions. Potential use of property derivatives might help mitigate adverse consequences of negative price dynamics. Unless a sustainable price indicator is developed, settlement of such instruments imposes constraints on counterparties involved while imposing restrictions on real estate market development. The study addresses geographical and classification heterogeneity in real estate prices by means of variance analysis in various groups of real estate properties. In conclusion, we determine optimal sample structure of representative real estate assets with sufficient level of price homogeneity. The composite price indicator based on the sample would have a higher level of robustness and reliability and hence improving liquidity in the market for property derivatives through underlying standardization. Unlike the majority of existing real estate price indices, calculated on country-wide basis, the optimal indices for Russian market shall be constructed on the city-level.

Keywords: price homogeneity, property derivatives, real estate price index, real estate price risk

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3847 Corporate Social Responsibility in an Experimental Market

Authors: Nikolaos Georgantzis, Efi Vasileiou

Abstract:

We present results from experimental price-setting oligopolies in which green firms undertake different levels of energy-saving investments motivated by public subsidies and demand-side advantages. We find that consumers reveal higher willingness to pay for greener sellers’ products. This observation in conjunction to the fact that greener sellers set higher prices is compatible with the use and interpretation of energy-saving behaviour as a differentiation strategy. However, sellers do not exploit the resulting advantage through sufficiently high price-cost margins, because they seem trapped into “run to stay still” competition. Regarding the use of public subsidies to energy-saving sellers we uncover an undesirable crowding-out effect of consumers’ intrinsic tendency to support green manufacturers. Namely, consumers may be less willing to support a green seller whose energy-saving strategy entails a direct financial benefit. Finally, we disentangle two alternative motivations for consumer’s attractions to pro-social firms; first, the self-interested recognition of the firm’s contribution to the public and private welfare and, second, the need to compensate a firm for the cost entailed in each pro-social action. Our results show the prevalence of the former over the latter.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, energy savings, public good, experiments, vertical differentiation, altruism

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3846 Stock Price Prediction Using Time Series Algorithms

Authors: Sumit Sen, Sohan Khedekar, Umang Shinde, Shivam Bhargava

Abstract:

This study has been undertaken to investigate whether the deep learning models are able to predict the future stock prices by training the model with the historical stock price data. Since this work required time series analysis, various models are present today to perform time series analysis such as Recurrent Neural Network LSTM, ARIMA and Facebook Prophet. Applying these models the movement of stock price of stocks are predicted and also tried to provide the future prediction of the stock price of a stock. Final product will be a stock price prediction web application that is developed for providing the user the ease of analysis of the stocks and will also provide the predicted stock price for the next seven days.

Keywords: Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average, Deep Learning, Long Short Term Memory, Time-series

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3845 Using Monte Carlo Model for Simulation of Rented Housing in Mashhad, Iran

Authors: Mohammad Rahim Rahnama

Abstract:

The study employs Monte Carlo method for simulation of rented housing in Mashhad second largest city in Iran. A total number of 334 rental residential units in Mashhad, including both apartments and houses (villa), were randomly selected from advertisements placed in Khorasan Newspapers during the months of July and August of 2015. In order to simulate the monthly rent price, the rent index was calculated through combining the mortgage and the rent price. In the next step, the relation between the variables of the floor area and that of the number of bedrooms for each unit, in both apartments and houses(villa), was calculated through multivariate regression using SPSS and was coded in XML. The initial model was called using simulation button in SPSS and was simulated using triangular and binominal algorithms. The findings revealed that the average simulated rental index was 548.5$ per month. Calculating the sensitivity of rental index to a number of bedrooms we found that firstly, 97% of units have three bedrooms, and secondly as the number of bedrooms increases from one to three, for the rent price of less than 200$, the percentage of units having one bedroom decreases from 10% to 0. Contrariwise, for units with the rent price of more than 571.4$, the percentage of bedrooms increases from 37% to 48%. In the light of these findings, it becomes clear that planning to build rental residential units, overseeing the rent prices, and granting subsidies to rental residential units, for apartments with two bedrooms, present a felicitous policy for regulating residential units in Mashhad.

Keywords: Mashhad, Monte Carlo, simulation, rent price, residential unit

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3844 Green Construction in EGYPT

Authors: Hanan A. Anwar

Abstract:

This paper introduces green building construction in Egypt with different concepts and practices. The following study includes green building applied definition, guidelines, regulations and Standards. Evaluation of cost/benefit of green construction methods and green construction rating systems are presented. Relevant case studies will be reviewed. Four sites will be included.

Keywords: green construction, ecofreindly, self-sufficient town, carbon neutral atmosphere

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3843 The Influences of Green Infrastructure Develop on Urban Renewals for Real Essence and Non-Real Essence Economic Value

Authors: Chao Jen-Chih, Hsu Kuo-Wei

Abstract:

Climate change and natural disasters take effect on urban development. It has been discussed urban renewals can prevent natural disasters. Integrating green infrastructure and urban renewals may have great effect on adapting the impact of climate change. To highlight the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals, some strategies need to be carry on to reduce environmental impact. A number of urban renewals studies has been conducted on right transfer, financial risk, urban renewal policy, and public participation. Little research has been devoted on the subject of the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals. The purpose of this study is to investigate the affecting factors on the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals. This study will present the benefits of green infrastructure development and summarize the critical factors of green infrastructure develop on urban renewals for real essence and non-real essence on economic value from literature. Our results indicate that factors of housing price, land value, floor area incentive, and facilitation of the construction industry affect the outcome of real essence economic value. Factors of enhancement of urban disaster prevention, improvement of urban environment and landscape, crime reduction, climate control, pollution reduction, biological diversity, health impacts, and leisure space affects the outcome of non-real essence economic value.

Keywords: economic value, green infrastructure, urban renewals, urban development

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3842 Co-Integration Model for Predicting Inflation Movement in Nigeria

Authors: Salako Rotimi, Oshungade Stephen, Ojewoye Opeyemi

Abstract:

The maintenance of price stability is one of the macroeconomic challenges facing Nigeria as a nation. This paper attempts to build a co-integration multivariate time series model for inflation movement in Nigeria using data extracted from the abstract of statistics of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) from 2008 to 2017. The Johansen cointegration test suggests at least one co-integration vector describing the long run relationship between Consumer Price Index (CPI), Food Price Index (FPI) and Non-Food Price Index (NFPI). All three series show increasing pattern, which indicates a sign of non-stationary in each of the series. Furthermore, model predictability was established with root-mean-square-error, mean absolute error, mean average percentage error, and Theil’s unbiased statistics for n-step forecasting. The result depicts that the long run coefficient of a consumer price index (CPI) has a positive long-run relationship with the food price index (FPI) and non-food price index (NFPI).

Keywords: economic, inflation, model, series

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3841 A Study on Characteristics of Hedonic Price Models in Korea Based on Meta-Regression Analysis

Authors: Minseo Jo

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors in the hedonic price models, that has significance impact in determining the price of apartments. There are many variables employed in the hedonic price models and their effectiveness vary differently according to the researchers and the regions they are analysing. In order to consider various conditions, the meta-regression analysis has been selected for the study. In this paper, four meta-independent variables, from the 65 hedonic price models to analysis. The factors that influence the prices of apartments, as well as including factors that influence the prices of apartments, regions, which are divided into two of the research performed, years of research performed, the coefficients of the functions employed. The covariance between the four meta-variables and p-value of the coefficients and the four meta-variables and number of data used in the 65 hedonic price models have been analyzed in this study. The six factors that are most important in deciding the prices of apartments are positioning of apartments, the noise of the apartments, points of the compass and views from the apartments, proximity to the public transportations, companies that have constructed the apartments, social environments (such as schools etc.).

Keywords: hedonic price model, housing price, meta-regression analysis, characteristics

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3840 The Application of Green Technology to Residential Architecture in Hangzhou

Authors: Huiru Chen, Xuran Zhang

Abstract:

At present, the residential architecture in China are still causing high energy consumption and high pollution during their whole life cycle, which can be backward compared with the developed countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of green technology to residential architecture in Hangzhou. This article will start with the development of green buildings, then analyzes the use status of green technology in Hangzhou from several specific measures. Analysis of the typical existing green residential buildings in Hangzhou is an attempt to form a preliminary Hangzhou’s green technology application strategy system. Through research, it has been found that the application of green technology in Hangzhou has changed from putting green to the facade, to the combination of the preservation of the traditional green concept and the modern green technology.

Keywords: application, green technology, Hangzhou, residential architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 77