Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Godian O. Mbah

7 Effects of Process Parameters on the Yield of Oil from Coconut Fruit

Authors: Ndidi F. Amulu, Godian O. Mbah, Maxwel I. Onyiah, Callistus N. Ude


Analysis of the properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and its oil was evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The analyses carried out include proximate composition of the fruit, extraction of oil from the fruit using different process parameters and physicochemical analysis of the extracted oil. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and carbohydrate content of the coconut as 7.59, 55.15, 5.65, 7.35, and 19.51 respectively. The oil from the coconut fruit was odourless and yellowish liquid at room temperature (30oC). The treatment combinations used (leaching time, leaching temperature and solute: solvent ratio) showed significant differences (P˂0.05) in the yield of oil from coconut flour. The oil yield ranged between 36.25%-49.83%. Lipid indices of the coconut oil indicated the acid value (AV) as 10.05 Na0H/g of oil, free fatty acid (FFA) as 5.03%, saponification values (SV) as 183.26 mgKOH-1 g of oil, iodine value (IV) as 81.00 I2/g of oil, peroxide value (PV) as 5.00 ml/ g of oil and viscosity (V) as 0.002. A standard statistical package minitab version 16.0 program was used in the regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The statistical software mentioned above was also used to generate various plots such as single effect plot, interactions effect plot and contour plot. The response or yield of oil from the coconut flour was used to develop a mathematical model that correlates the yield to the process variables studied. The maximum conditions obtained that gave the highest yield of coconut oil were leaching time of 2 hrs, leaching temperature of 50 oC and solute/solvent ratio of 0.05 g/ml.

Keywords: coconut, oil-extraction, optimization, physicochemical, proximate

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6 A Phishing Email Detection Approach Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Kenneth Fon Mbah, Arash Habibi Lashkari, Ali A. Ghorbani


Phishing e-mails are a security issue that not only annoys online users, but has also resulted in significant financial losses for businesses. Phishing advertisements and pornographic e-mails are difficult to detect as attackers have been becoming increasingly intelligent and professional. Attackers track users and adjust their attacks based on users’ attractions and hot topics that can be extracted from community news and journals. This research focuses on deceptive Phishing attacks and their variants such as attacks through advertisements and pornographic e-mails. We propose a framework called Phishing Alerting System (PHAS) to accurately classify e-mails as Phishing, advertisements or as pornographic. PHAS has the ability to detect and alert users for all types of deceptive e-mails to help users in decision making. A well-known email dataset has been used for these experiments and based on previously extracted features, 93.11% detection accuracy is obtainable by using J48 and KNN machine learning techniques. Our proposed framework achieved approximately the same accuracy as the benchmark while using this dataset.

Keywords: phishing e-mail, phishing detection, anti phishing, alarm system, machine learning

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5 Activities of Processors in Domestication/Conservation and Processing of Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) in Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Authors: Iwuchukwu J. C., Mbah C.


There seems to be dearth on information on how oil bean is being exploited, processed and conserved locally. This gap stifles initiatives on the evaluation of the suitability of the methods used and the invention of new and better methods. The study; therefore, assesses activities of processors in domestication/conservation and processing of oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) Enugu State, South East Nigeria. Three agricultural zones, three blocks, nine circles and seventy-two respondents that were purposively selected made up the sample for the study. Data were presented in percentage, chart and mean score. The result shows that processors of oil bean in the area were middle-aged, married with relatively large household size and long years of experience in processing. They sourced oil bean they processed from people’s farmland and sourced information on processing of oil bean from friends and relatives. Activities involved in processing of oil bean were boiling, dehulling, washing, sieving, slicing, wrapping. However, the sequence of these activities varies among these processors. Little or nothing was done by the processors towards the conservation of the crop while poor storage and processing facilities and lack of knowledge on modern preservation technique were major constraints to processing of oil bean in the area. The study concluded that efforts should be made by governments and processors through cooperative group in provision of processing and storage facility for oil bean while research institute should conserve and generate improved specie of the crop to arouse interest of the farmers and processors on the crop which will invariably increase productivity.

Keywords: conservation, domestication, oil bean, processing

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4 Comparative Study of the Effects of Process Parameters on the Yield of Oil from Melon Seed (Cococynthis citrullus) and Coconut Fruit (Cocos nucifera)

Authors: Ndidi F. Amulu, Patrick E. Amulu, Gordian O. Mbah, Callistus N. Ude


Comparative analysis of the properties of melon seed, coconut fruit and their oil yield were evaluated in this work using standard analytical technique AOAC. The results of the analysis carried out revealed that the moisture contents of the samples studied are 11.15% (melon) and 7.59% (coconut). The crude lipid content are 46.10% (melon) and 55.15% (coconut).The treatment combinations used (leaching time, leaching temperature and solute: solvent ratio) showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in yield between the samples, with melon oil seed flour having a higher percentage range of oil yield (41.30 – 52.90%) and coconut (36.25 – 49.83%). The physical characterization of the extracted oil was also carried out. The values gotten for refractive index are 1.487 (melon seed oil) and 1.361 (coconut oil) and viscosities are 0.008 (melon seed oil) and 0.002 (coconut oil). The chemical analysis of the extracted oils shows acid value of 1.00mg NaOH/g oil (melon oil), 10.050mg NaOH/g oil (coconut oil) and saponification value of 187.00mg/KOH (melon oil) and 183.26mg/KOH (coconut oil). The iodine value of the melon oil gave 75.00mg I2/g and 81.00mg I2/g for coconut oil. A standard statistical package Minitab version 16.0 was used in the regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The statistical software mentioned above was also used to optimize the leaching process. Both samples gave high oil yield at the same optimal conditions. The optimal conditions to obtain highest oil yield ≥ 52% (melon seed) and ≥ 48% (coconut seed) are solute - solvent ratio of 40g/ml, leaching time of 2hours and leaching temperature of 50oC. The two samples studied have potential of yielding oil with melon seed giving the higher yield.

Keywords: Coconut, Melon, Optimization, Processing

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3 Entomological Survey of Mosquitoes Responsible for the Transmission of Lymphatic Filariasis in Biase Cross River State, Nigeria

Authors: Maurice Mbah


Entomological survey of mosquitoes responsible for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Biase Local Government area of Cross River State, Nigeria within March and June 2017. Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne parasitic disease that is caused by three species of tissue dwelling filaroids (Wuchereria bancrofti; Brugia malayi; Brugia timori): Wuchereria bancrofti is responsible for 90% of cases and is found throughout the tropics and in some sub-tropical areas worldwide. The mosquitoes were caught using human landing catches, and pyrethrum spray catches method. The entomological analysis of mosquitoes which include speciating into genus and dissecting them to unveil any microfilaria in the thoracic region, abdomen, and mouth parts of the mosquitoes. Entomological analysis shows that, from the 1296 mosquitoes caught 795 (61.3%) were Culex species, 342 (26.4%) Anopheles species, 102 (7.9%) Aedes species, and 57 (4.4%) of other Genera. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of mosquitoes caught in the dry and rainy season (X²=0.62, P < 0.05). Out of 1213 mosquitoes dissected, 24(0.02%) contained developed stages (L₁ – L₃) of W. bancrofti larvae. 13 (0.01%) of the infected mosquitoes were of Culex species, and Anopheles species accounted for the other 11 (0.009%). There was a statistically significant difference in the infection rate between the two seasons (X²=0.87, P < 0.05). The correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the infection rate among mosquitoes in the dry and rainy season (r=0.85, P < 0.05). The entomological studies showed that Anopheles species and the Culex species are the vectors of lymphatic filariasis in the study area.

Keywords: entomological survey, mosquitoes, lymphatic filariasis, biase

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2 Urban Agriculture among Households of Makurdi Metropolis of Benue State, Nigeria: Key Challenges

Authors: Evangeline Mbah, Margret Okeke, Agbo Joseph


Agriculture was primarily a rural activity in Nigeria, but due to increasing demand for food and jobs for many urban dwellers, it became necessary for urban households to embark on farming as a means of improving household food security and additional income for economic empowerment. Urban agriculture serves as a veritable tool for poverty reduction among people living in urban areas mostly low-income earners and unemployed. The survey was conducted to identify key challenges encountered by households in Makurdi metropolis of Benue state, Nigeria who are engaged in urban agriculture. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of respondents used for the study. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean score and standard deviation. Results show that a greater percentage (46.0%) of the respondents engaged in cultivation of leafy vegetable, 22.0% cultivated cassava, 21.0% planted sweet potato, 18.0% cultivated tomato while 56.0% reared poultry, 23.0% kept goat, among others. Sources of agricultural information indicated by the respondents were family members/relations (85.0%), friends/neighbours (73.0%), radio (68.0%), extension agents (57.0%), etc. Major challenges encountered by the respondents in urban agriculture include inadequate size of farmland (M= 2.72), lack of access to credit facilities (M= 2.63), lack of funds (M= 2.50), high cost of labour (M= 2.49), insecurity of lands (M= 2.46), theft of crops at maturity (M= 2.38), lack of farm inputs such as improved varieties of seeds, fertilizer and exotic breeds of livestock (M= 2.23), destruction of crops by stray farm animals (M= 1.96), among others. The study recommends that there is a need for adequate provision of farm inputs by the government at all levels at a subsidized rate in order to reduce the cost of production and enhance optimum productivity.

Keywords: urban, agriculture, household, challenges, Makurdi, Nigeria

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1 Effects of Poultry Manure Rates on Some Growth and Yield Attributes of Cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Pearl Poly-Mbah, Evelyn Obioma, Juliet Amajuoyi


The investigation here reported examined growth and yield responses of Cucumber to manure rates in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. Fruit vegetables are widely cultivated and produced in Northern Nigeria but greatly consumed in Southern Nigeria where cucumbers command high demand and price but are minimally cultivated. Unfortunately, farmers in northern Nigeria incur lots of losses because cucumber is a perishable vegetable and is transported all the way from the northern Nigeria where cucumbers are produced to Southern Nigeria where cucumbers are consumed, hence the high cost of cucumber fruits in Southern Nigeria. There is a need, therefore, to evolve packages that will enhance cucumber production in Southern Nigeria. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of poultry manure rates on the growth and yield of cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. Specifically, this study was designed to assess the effect of poultry manure rates on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length/plant, leaf area per plant and the number of leaves produced per plant. The design used for the experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three blocks (replications). Treatment consisted of four rates of well-decomposed poultry manure at the rate of 0 tons/ha, 2 tons/ha, 4 tons/ha and 6 tons/ha. Data were collected on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant at two weeks interval, leaf number per plant at two weeks interval, leaf area per plant at two weeks interval, number of fruits produced per plant, and fresh weight of fruits per plant at harvest. Results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were highly significant effects (P=0.05) of poultry manure on growth and yield parameters studied which include number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant, leaf number per plant, leaf area per plant, fruit number and fruit weight per plant such that increase in poultry manure rates lead to increase in growth and yield parameters studied. Therefore, the null hypothesis (Ho) was rejected, while the alternative hypothesis was accepted. Farmers should be made to know that growing cucumber with poultry manure in southeastern Nigeria agro ecology is a successful enterprise

Keywords: cucumber, effects, growth and yield, manure

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