Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Gladys Oppong

10 A Study on the Motivational Factors of Women Entrepreneurship

Authors: Gladys Oppong, Saumya Singh, Pramod Pathak


Women entrepreneurship has started establishing itself globally. Despite various social hurdles, Indian women have proved their strength in the area of entrepreneurship. Rising pattern of women entrepreneurship in Indian context make it significant to know the reason behind it. It’s a normal perception that women with financially strong backgrounds are highly motivated to progress in the area of entrepreneurship while lack of money becomes a major restraint for others. The proposed study attempts to identify the motivational factors for becoming women entrepreneur. The research work is to be conducted on women entrepreneurs. For this purpose, factor analysis will be used. The study has identified a set of motivational factors namely family business, social status, education and qualification, self-fulfillment and achievement among others that give momentum to the women to become an entrepreneur. The outcome of the study will be helpful in developing women entrepreneurship in India.

Keywords: women entrepreneurship, motivation, family business, social status

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9 The Effects of Land Grabbing on Livelihood Assets and Its Implication on Food Production in Ghana: A Case Study of Bui Dam Construction Project

Authors: Charles Kwaku Oppong


This study examined the effects of the agricultural land grabbed for the Bui Dam project on the livelihoods assets of the affected people and its implication on food production. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through the use of focus group discussions, questionnaire administration, interview guide, and observations. It was found that the land grabbing incident in the study communities as a result of the Bui Dam construction has resulted in the improvements in the physical assets of the affected people. The findings also indicated that local food crop production and the quantity of fish catch have dwindled after the land grabs. Contrary to this, the local people’s access to the natural capital, particularly the local land for agricultural activities has been worsened. The study recommends alternative sustainable livelihood for the affected people by the local government.

Keywords: land grabbing, livelihood, asset, food production

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8 Design of a Virtual Instrument (VI) System for Earth Resistivity Survey

Authors: Henry Okoh, Obaro Verisa Omayuli, Gladys A. Osagie


One of the challenges of developing nations is the dearth of measurement devices. Aside the shortage, when available, they are either old or obsolete and also very expensive. When this is the situation, researchers must design alternative systems to help meet the desired needs of academia. This paper presents a design of cost-effective multi-disciplinary virtual instrument system for scientific research. This design was based on NI USB-6255 multifunctional DAQ which was used for earth resistivity measurement in Schlumberger array and the result obtained compared closely with that of a conventional ABEM Terrameter. This instrument design provided a hands-on experience as related to full-waveform signal acquisition in the field.

Keywords: cost-effective, data acquisition (DAQ), full-waveform, multi-disciplinary, Schlumberger array, virtual Instrumentation (VI).

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7 The Effects of Urbanization on Peri-Urban Livelihood in Ghana: A Case of Kumasi Peri-Urban Communities

Authors: Charles Kwaku Oppong


The research linked urban expansion resulting from urbanization with changing morphology processes happening in peri-urban communities. Two villages of Kumasi City peri-urban were used as a case study. Appropriate analytical framework and methodology (literature review and empirical evidence) were employed to ensure that all pertinent issues of peri-urban interface are brought to light. It was discovered from the study that since peri-urban livelihood is linked with assets base; it has been found that stock of asset, as well as transformation processes, were major factors in the shaping of livelihoods strategies. For that reason, success or failure of household livelihoods was seen to relate to the kind of livelihood strategy employed. With efforts to mitigate for livelihoods failure due to peri-urban development, households' recourse to remittances, land disposal, and other means as an alternative livelihood approach. The study calls for local government policy interventions in regulating peri-urban transformation process and providing safety nets for the vulnerable.

Keywords: urban expansion, peri-urban interface, livelihoods, asset

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6 Factors Associated with Rural-Urban Migration and Its Associated Health Hazards on the Female Adolescents in Kumasi Metropolis

Authors: Freda Adomaa, Samuel Oppong Boampong, Charles Gyamfi Rahman


The living and working environment of migrants and their access to healthcare services induce good or poor health. This study was conducted to assess the factors associated with rural-urban migration and its associated health hazards among female adolescents. A sample size of two hundred (200) was chosen in which all responded to questionnaires comprising closed-ended questions, which were distributed to gather data from the respondents, after which it was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The utilized three causes of rural-urban migration thus political, economic and socio-cultural. The study revealed that political situations such as regional inequality (65.4%) and ethnic conflicts (78.2%) whereas economic factors such as lack of amenities (82.3%), lack of employment in rural communities (77.4%), lack of education (74%), and poverty (85.3%) as well as socio-cultural factors such as divorced parents (65.6%), media influence (79.1%), family conflicts (59.4%) and appealing urban informal sector (65.2%) are major causes of migration. Respondents’ encountered challenges such as poor remuneration for services (87.2%), being maltreated by a colleague or worker (69%), sleeping in open space (73.3%), and harassment by the task force (71.4%) and teenage pregnancies (58.5%). The study concluded that the three variables play a key role in adolescent migration and when they travel they end up getting involved in serious health hazardous behaviors such as rapes as well as physical and psychological harassments’. The study, therefore, recommends that vocational training of the rural people on small scale industries (non-farm) activities that could generate an income for the rural household should be introduced.

Keywords: rural, urban, migration, female health hazards

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5 Storage System Validation Study for Raw Cocoa Beans Using Minitab® 17 and R (R-3.3.1)

Authors: Anthony Oppong Kyekyeku, Sussana Antwi-Boasiako, Emmanuel De-Graft Johnson Owusu Ansah


In this observational study, the performance of a known conventional storage system was tested and evaluated for fitness for its intended purpose. The system has a scope extended for the storage of dry cocoa beans. System sensitivity, reproducibility and uncertainties are not known in details. This study discusses the system performance in the context of existing literature on factors that influence the quality of cocoa beans during storage. Controlled conditions were defined precisely for the system to give reliable base line within specific established procedures. Minitab® 17 and R statistical software (R-3.3.1) were used for the statistical analyses. The approach to the storage system testing was to observe and compare through laboratory test methods the quality of the cocoa beans samples before and after storage. The samples were kept in Kilner jars and the temperature of the storage environment controlled and monitored over a period of 408 days. Standard test methods use in international trade of cocoa such as the cut test analysis, moisture determination with Aqua boy KAM III model and bean count determination were used for quality assessment. The data analysis assumed the entire population as a sample in order to establish a reliable baseline to the data collected. The study concluded a statistically significant mean value at 95% Confidence Interval (CI) for the performance data analysed before and after storage for all variables observed. Correlational graphs showed a strong positive correlation for all variables investigated with the exception of All Other Defect (AOD). The weak relationship between the before and after data for AOD had an explained variability of 51.8% with the unexplained variability attributable to the uncontrolled condition of hidden infestation before storage. The current study concluded with a high-performance criterion for the storage system.

Keywords: benchmarking performance data, cocoa beans, hidden infestation, storage system validation

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4 Assessment of Physico-Chemical Properties and Acceptability of Avocado Pear (Persea americana) Skin Inclusion in Ruminant Diets

Authors: Gladys Abiemwense Ibhaze, Anthony Henry Ekeocha, Adebowale Noah Fajemisin, Tope Oke, Caroline Tosin Alade,


The study was conducted to evaluate the silage quality and acceptability of ensiled avocado pear skin (APS) with cassava peel (CSP) and brewers’ grain (BG) using eighteen (18) West African Dwarf goats with an average weight of 7.0±1.5 kg. The experimental diets; 1) 50% cassava peel+ 50% brewers’ grain, 2) 50% brewers’ grain+ 50% avocado pear skin, 3) 50% cassava peel +25% brewers’ grain+ 25% avocado pear skin were ensiled for 21 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD). The chemical composition of the diets was investigated. The acceptability of the diets was evaluated for twelve (12) days. Results obtained showed that the crude protein content ranged from 12.18 – 12.47%, crude fiber (15.99-22.67%). Results obtained showed that diet 1 had the least pH value (4.0), followed by diet 3 (4.5) and diet 2 (5.2). All diets were firm in texture and maintained their initial color. The temperature ranged from 27-29 ⁰C with diet 2 having the highest temperature of 29 ⁰C. Acceptability of experimental diets varied (p < 0.05) significantly. Dry matter intake ranged from (426.22-686.73g/day) with animals on a diet one recording the highest dry matter intake. The coefficient of preference and percentage preference, also differed (p <0.05) significantly among the diets. Diet 1 had a coefficient of preference greater than unity. However, this was not significantly (p>0.05) different from diet two but differed from diet 3. Conclusively, APS could be included in goats’ diets in the absence of CSP during feed scarcity provided a rich source of protein is available.

Keywords: avocado pear skin, Brewers' grain, Cassava peel, preference

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3 Experiences of HIV Positive Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partner Among Individuals in Discordant Couples in Mbarara City, Southwestern Uganda

Authors: Humphrey Atwijukiire, Gladys Nakidde, Anne Tweheyo Otwine, Jane Kabami


Experiences of HIV Positive Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partner Among Individuals in Discordant Couples in Mbarara City, Southwestern Uganda Introduction: Disclosure of HIV status is key in HIV management. Despite many studies on serostatus disclosure, there is a gap in experiences regarding HIV status disclosure among discordant couples. This study explored the lived experiences of serostatus disclosure among discordant couples in Mbarara City, South Western Uganda. Methods: We conducted 12 in-depth interviews using translated interview guide, and audio recorders. Participants were purposively enrolled in the study. The study was conducted at three public health facilities in Mbarara City. Data was analyzed using thematic content analysis. Approval for this research was obtained from Mbarara University Research Ethics Committee and administrative clearance from city clerk of Mbarara City. Results: The mean age of participants was 38 years. An equal number of males (six) and females participated. Most of them had at least secondary level education, only three had primary education. Experienced benefits of HIV serostatus disclosure included: social support and care; decisions regarding health, fertility, and child bearing; sharing information on HIV prevention and protection; positive living; and, ease of HIV disclosure. The challenges included: misunderstandings in the families. Conclusion: Socially, psychologically and financially PLWHIV have benefited from their negative partners. Health wise, they have been supported, and cared for, but some have faced challenges, such as family misunderstandings. Couple HIV counseling and testing by a trained health worker is beneficial in HIV care and could mitigate the challenges related HIV serostatus disclosure.

Keywords: discordant couples, disclosure, experiences, HIV

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2 Biological Hotspots in the Galápagos Islands: Exploring Seasonal Trends of Ocean Climate Drivers to Monitor Algal Blooms

Authors: Emily Kislik, Gabriel Mantilla Saltos, Gladys Torres, Mercy Borbor-Córdova


The Galápagos Marine Reserve (GMR) is an internationally-recognized region of consistent upwelling events, high productivity, and rich biodiversity. Despite its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll condition, the archipelago has experienced phytoplankton blooms, especially in the western section between Isabela and Fernandina Islands. However, little is known about how climate variability will affect future phytoplankton standing stock in the Galápagos, and no consistent protocols currently exist to quantify phytoplankton biomass, identify species, or monitor for potential harmful algal blooms (HABs) within the archipelago. This analysis investigates physical, chemical, and biological oceanic variables that contribute to algal blooms within the GMR, using 4 km Aqua MODIS satellite imagery and 0.125-degree wind stress data from January 2003 to December 2016. Furthermore, this study analyzes chlorophyll-a concentrations at varying spatial scales— within the greater archipelago, as well as within five smaller bioregions based on species biodiversity in the GMR. Seasonal and interannual trend analyses, correlations, and hotspot identification were performed. Results demonstrate that chlorophyll-a is expressed in two seasons throughout the year in the GMR, most frequently in September and March, with a notable hotspot in the Elizabeth Bay bioregion. Interannual chlorophyll-a trend analyses revealed highest peaks in 2003, 2007, 2013, and 2016, and variables that correlate highly with chlorophyll-a include surface temperature and particulate organic carbon. This study recommends future in situ sampling locations for phytoplankton monitoring, including the Elizabeth Bay bioregion. Conclusions from this study contribute to the knowledge of oceanic drivers that catalyze primary productivity and consequently affect species biodiversity within the GMR. Additionally, this research can inform policy and decision-making strategies for species conservation and management within bioregions of the Galápagos.

Keywords: bioregions, ecological monitoring, phytoplankton, remote sensing

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1 Increases in Serum Erythropoietin Hormone in Recreational Breath-Hold Divers Following a Series of Repeated Apnoeas: Apnoea beyond Freediving

Authors: Antonis Elia, Theo Loizou, Gladys Onambele-Pearson, Matthew Barlow, Georgina Stebbings


Hypoxic conditions have been reported to enhance red blood cell production in both acclimatised low-landers and altitude adapted populations. This process is mediated by the erythropoietin hormone, which is released predominantly by the hypoxic kidney. A higher haemoglobin concentration was previously reported in elite breath-hold divers when compared to elite-skiers and untrained individuals. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether apnoea induced hypoxia could induce a significant increase in serum erythropoietin concentration in recreational breath-hold divers which would provide an explanation to the higher haemoglobin levels observed in elite breath-hold divers. Identifying whether apnoea induced hypoxia induces a significant increase in serum erythropoietin might suggest that apnoea can be used as an alternative acclimatisation method to high altitude exposure. Seven healthy, recreational male breath-hold divers performed two sets of five 180 second breath-holds with a ten-minute supine rest between each set and a two-minute seated rest between each apnoea. During each breath-hold, participant’s heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation levels were recorded every subsequent 10 seconds until the end of the 180 second breath-hold. After each 180 second breath-hold a capillary blood sample was collected from the finger to identify circulating haemoglobin levels. Following completion of the apnoeic protocol, three blood samples were collected at 30, 90 and 180 minutes to measure circulating erythropoietin levels. A significant interaction between erythropoietin and time was observed (F(3,18)= 4.72, p < 0.001), with significant increases in erythropoietin evident at 30 (t(6)= -5.035, p < 0.0590 (t(6)= -6.162, p < 0.05) and 180 (t(6)= - 7.232, p < 0.001) minutes post the last apnoea when compared to baseline. Corresponding average increases when compared to baseline were 16% at 30, 23% at 90 and 40% at 180 minutes post the last apnoea. A significant interaction between haemoglobin and time was observed (F(78,84)= 20.814, p < 0.001), with significant increases in haemoglobin evident at the fifth (t(29)= -1.124, p < 0.001), ninth (t(29)= -1.357, p < 0.001) and tenth (t(29)= -1.211, p < 0.05) apnoeas when compared to baseline. A significant interaction between peripheral oxygen saturation and time was observed (F(10,60)= 408.23, p < 0.001). The present study demonstrates that a series of ten 180 second breath-holds is sufficient to induce a significant increase in the circulating erythropoietin concentration of recreational breath hold divers. These observations may suggest that apnoea induced hypoxia may be used as an alternative acclimatisation method to high altitude exposure.

Keywords: apnoea, breath-holding, diving reflex, erythropoietin, haemoglobin

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