Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Giovana Perini-Loureiro

5 A Study of the Use of Arguments in Nominalizations as Instanciations of Grammatical Metaphors Finished in -TION in Academic Texts of Native Speakers

Authors: Giovana Perini-Loureiro

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to identify whether the nominalizations terminating in -TION in the academic discourse of native English speakers contain the arguments required by their input verbs. In the perspective of functional linguistics, ideational metaphors, with nominalization as their most pervasive realization, are lexically dense, and therefore frequent in formal texts. Ideational metaphors allow the academic genre to instantiate objectification, de-personalization, and the ability to construct a chain of arguments. The valence of those nouns present in nominalizations tends to maintain the same elements of the valence from its original verbs, but these arguments are not always expressed. The initial hypothesis was that these arguments would also be present alongside the nominalizations, through anaphora or cataphora. In this study, a qualitative analysis of the occurrences of the five more frequent nominalized terminations in -TION in academic texts was accomplished, and thus a verification of the occurrences of the arguments required by the original verbs. The assembling of the concordance lines was done through COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English). After identifying the five most frequent nominalizations (attention, action, participation, instruction, intervention), the concordance lines were selected at random to be analyzed, assuring the representativeness and reliability of the sample. It was possible to verify, in all the analyzed instances, the presence of arguments. In most instances, the arguments were not expressed, but recoverable, either in the context or in the shared knowledge among the interactants. It was concluded that the realizations of the arguments which were not expressed alongside the nominalizations are part of a continuum, starting from the immediate context with anaphora and cataphora; up to a knowledge shared outside the text, such as specific area knowledge. The study also has implications for the teaching of academic writing, especially with regards to the impact of nominalizations on the thematic and informational flow of the text. Grammatical metaphors are essential to academic writing, hence acknowledging the occurrence of its arguments is paramount to achieve linguistic awareness and the writing prestige required by the academy.

Keywords: corpus, functional linguistics, grammatical metaphors, nominalizations, academic English

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4 Moderate Electric Field Influence on Carotenoids Extraction Time from Heterochlorella luteoviridis

Authors: Débora P. Jaeschke, Eduardo A. Merlo, Rosane Rech, Giovana D. Mercali, Ligia D. F. Marczak

Abstract:

Carotenoids are high value added pigments that can be alternatively extracted from some microalgae species. However, the application of carotenoids synthetized by microalgae is still limited due to the utilization of organic toxic solvents. In this context, studies involving alternative extraction methods have been conducted with more sustainable solvents to replace and reduce the solvent volume and the extraction time. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the extraction time of carotenoids from the microalgae Heterochlorella luteoviridis using moderate electric field (MEF) as a pre-treatment to the extraction. The extraction methodology consisted of a pre-treatment in the presence of MEF (180 V) and ethanol (25 %, v/v) for 10 min, followed by a diffusive step performed for 50 min using a higher ethanol concentration (75 %, v/v). The extraction experiments were conducted at 30 °C and, to keep the temperature at this value, it was used an extraction cell with a water jacket that was connected to a water bath. Also, to enable the evaluation of MEF effect on the extraction, control experiments were performed using the same cell and conditions without voltage application. During the extraction experiments, samples were withdrawn at 1, 5 and 10 min of the pre-treatment and at 1, 5, 30, 40 and 50 min of the diffusive step. Samples were, then, centrifuged and carotenoids analyses were performed in the supernatant. Furthermore, an exhaustive extraction with ethyl acetate and methanol was performed, and the carotenoids content found for this analyses was considered as the total carotenoids content of the microalgae. The results showed that the application of MEF as a pre-treatment to the extraction influenced the extraction yield and the extraction time during the diffusive step; after the MEF pre-treatment and 50 min of the diffusive step, it was possible to extract up to 60 % of the total carotenoids content. Also, results found for carotenoids concentration of the extracts withdrawn at 5 and 30 min of the diffusive step did not presented statistical difference, meaning that carotenoids diffusion occurs mainly in the very beginning of the extraction. On the other hand, the results for control experiments showed that carotenoids diffusion occurs mostly during 30 min of the diffusive step, which evidenced MEF effect on the extraction time. Moreover, carotenoids concentration on samples withdrawn during the pre-treatment (1, 5 and 10 min) were below the quantification limit of the analyses, indicating that the extraction occurred in the diffusive step, when ethanol (75 %, v/v) was added to the medium. It is possible that MEF promoted cell membrane permeabilization and, when ethanol (75 %) was added, carotenoids interacted with the solvent and the diffusion occurred easily. Based on the results, it is possible to infer that MEF promoted the decrease of carotenoids extraction time due to the increasing of the permeability of the cell membrane which facilitates the diffusion from the cell to the medium.

Keywords: moderate electric field (MEF), pigments, microalgae, ethanol

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3 Violence against Women: A Study on the Aggressors' Profile

Authors: Giovana Privatte Maciera, Jair Izaías Kappann

Abstract:

Introduction: The violence against woman is a complex phenomenon that accompanies the woman throughout her life and is a result of a social, cultural, political and religious construction, based on the differences among the genders. Those differences are felt, mainly, because of the patriarchal system that is still present which just naturalize and legitimate the asymmetry of power. As consequence of the women’s lasting historical and collective effort for a legislation against the impunity of violence against women in the national scenery, it was ordained, in 2006, a law known as Maria da Penha. The law was created as a protective measure for women that were victims of violence and consequently for the punishment of the aggressor. Methodology: Analysis of police inquiries is established by the Police Station of Defense of the Woman of Assis city, by formal authorization of the justice, in the period of 2013 to 2015. For the evaluating of the results will be used the content analysis and the theoretical referential of Psychoanalysis. Results and Discussion: The final analysis of the inquiries demonstrated that the violence against women is reproduced by the society and the aggressor, in most cases it is a member of their own family, mainly the current or former-spouse. The most common kinds of aggression were: the threat bodily harm, and the physical violence, that normally happens accompanied by psychological violence, being the most painful for the victims. The biggest part of the aggressors was white, older than the victim, worker and had primary school. But, unlike the expected, the minority of the aggressors were users of alcohol and/or drugs and possessed children in common with the victim. There is a contrast among the number of victims who already admitted have suffered some type of violence earlier by the same aggressor and the number of victims who has registered the occurrence before. The aggressors often use the discourse of denial in their testimony or try to justify their act like the blame was of the victim. It is believed in the interaction of several factors that can influence the aggressor to commit the abuse, including psychological, personal and sociocultural factors. One hypothesis is that the aggressor has a violence history in the family origin. After the aggressor being judged, condemned or not, usually there is no rehabilitation plan or supervision that enable his change. Conclusions: It has noticed the importance of studying the aggressor’s characteristics and the reasons that took him to commit such violence, making possible the implementation of an appropriate treatment to prevent and reduce the aggressions, as well the creation of programs and actions that enable communication and understanding concerning the theme. This is because the recurrence is still high, since the punitive system is not enough and the law is still ineffective and inefficient in certain aspects and in its own functioning. It is perceived a compulsion in repeat so much for the victims as for the aggressors, because they end involving, almost always, in disturbed and violent relationships, with the relation of subordination-dominance as characteristic.

Keywords: aggressors' profile, gender equality, Maria da Penha law, violence against women

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2 Comparison of Gestational Diabetes Influence on the Ultrastructure of Rectus Abdominis Muscle in Women and Rats

Authors: Giovana Vesentini, Fernanda Piculo, Gabriela Marini, Debora Damasceno, Angelica Barbosa, Selma Martheus, Marilza Rudge

Abstract:

Problem statement: Skeletal muscle is highly adaptable, muscle fiber composition and size can respond to a variety of stimuli, such physiologic, as pregnancy, and metabolic abnormalities, as Diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to analyze the effects of pregnancy-associated diabetes on the rectus abdominis muscle (RA), and to compare this changes in rats and women. Methods: Female Wistar rats were maintained under controlled conditions and distributed in Pregnant (P) and Long-term mild pregnant diabetic (LTMd) (n=3 r/group). Diabetes in rats was induced by streptozotocin (100mg/Kg, sc) on the first day of life, for a hyperglycemic state between 120-300 mg/dL in adult life. Female rats were mated overnight, at day 21 of pregnancy were anesthetized, and killed for the harvesting of maternal RA. Pregnant women who attended the Diabetes Prenatal Care Clinic of Botucatu Medical School were distributed in Pregnant non-diabetic (Pnd) and Gestational Diabetic (GDM) (n=3 w/group). The diagnosis of GDM was established according to ADA’s criteria (2016). The harvesting of RA was during the cesarean section. Transversal cross-sections of the RA of both women and rats were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. All procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Experiments of the Botucatu Medical School (Protocol Number 1003/2013) and by the Botucatu Medical School Ethical Committee for Human Research in Medical Sciences (CAAE: 41570815.0.0000.5411). Results: The photomicrographs of the RA of rats revealed disorganized Z lines, thinning sarcomeres, and a usual quantity of intermyofibrillar mitochondria in the P group. The LTMd group showed swollen sarcoplasmic reticulum, dilated T tubes and areas with sarcomere disruption. The ultrastructural analysis of Pnd non-diabetic women in the RA showed well-organized myofibrils forming intact sarcomeres, organized Z lines and a normal distribution of intermyofibrillar mitochondria. The GDM group revealed increase in intermyofibrillar mitochondria, areas with sarcomere disruption and increased lipid droplets. Conclusion: Pregnancy and diabetes induce adaptations in the ultrastructure of the rectus abdominis muscle for both women and rats, changing the architectural design of these tissues. However, in rats these changes are more severe maybe because, besides the high blood glucose levels, the quadrupedal animal may suffer an excessive mechanical tension during pregnancy by gravity. Probably, these findings may suggest that these alterations are a risk factor that contributes to the development of muscle dysfunction in women with GDM and may motivate treatment strategies in these patients.

Keywords: gestational diabetes, muscle dysfunction, pregnancy, rectus abdominis

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1 Serum Concentration of the CCL7 Chemokine in Diabetic Pregnant Women during Pregnancy until the Postpartum Period

Authors: Fernanda Piculo, Giovana Vesentini, Gabriela Marini, Debora Cristina Damasceno, Angelica Mercia Pascon Barbosa, Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

Abstract:

Introduction: Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were significantly more likely to have urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction compared to non-diabetic women two years after a cesarean section. Additional results demonstrated that induced diabetes causes detrimental effects on pregnant rat urethral muscle. These results indicate the need for exploration of the mechanistic role of a recovery factor in female UI. Chemokine ligand 7 (CCL7) was significantly over expressed in rat serum, urethral and vaginal tissues immediately following induction of stress UI in a rat model simulating birth trauma. CCL7 over expression has shown potency for stimulating targeted stem cell migration and provide a translational link (clinical measurement) which further provide opportunities for treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the CCL7 levels profile in diabetic pregnant women with urinary incontinence during pregnancy over the first year postpartum. Methods: This study was conducted in the Perinatal Diabetes Research Center of the Botucatu Medical School/UNESP, and was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Institution (CAAE: 20639813.0.0000.5411). The diagnosis of GDM was established between 24th and 28th gestational weeks, by the 75 g-OGTT test according to ADA’s criteria. Urinary incontinence was defined according to the International Continence Society and the CCL7 levels was measured by ELISA (R&D Systems, Catalog Number DCC700). Two hundred twelve women were classified into four study groups: normoglycemic continent (NC), normoglycemic incontinent (NI), diabetic continent (DC) and diabetic incontinent (DI). They were evaluated at six-time-points: 12-18, 24-28 and 34-38 gestational weeks, 24-48 hours, 6 weeks and 6-12 months postpartum. Results: At 12-18 weeks, it was possible to consider only two groups, continent and incontinent, because at this early gestational period has not yet been the diagnosis of GDM. The group with GDM and UI (DI group) showed lower levels of CCL7 in all time points during pregnancy and postpartum, compared to normoglycemic groups (NC and NI), indicating that these women have not recovered from child birth induced UI during the 6-12 months postpartum compared to their controls, and that the progression of UI and/or lack of recovery throughout the first postpartum year can be related with lower levels of CCL7. Instead, serum CCL7 was significantly increased in the NC group. Taken together, these findings of overexpression of CCL7 in the NC group and decreased levels in the DI group, could confirm that diabetes delays the recovery from child birth induced UI, and that CCL7 could potentially be used as a serum marker of injury. Conclusion: This study demonstrates lower levels of CCL7 in the DI group during pregnancy and postpartum and suggests that the progression of UI in diabetic women and/or lack of recovery throughout the first postpartum year can be related with low levels of CCL7. This provides a translational potential where CCL7 measurement could be used as a surrogate for injury after delivery. Successful controlled CCL7 mediated stem cell homing to the lower urinary tract could one day introduce the potential for non-operative treatment or prevention of stress urinary incontinence.

Keywords: CCL7, gestational diabetes, pregnancy, urinary incontinence

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