Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: Genevieve Robin

73 Numerical Computation of Sturm-Liouville Problem with Robin Boundary Condition

Authors: Theddeus T. Akano, Omotayo A. Fakinlede

Abstract:

The modelling of physical phenomena, such as the earth’s free oscillations, the vibration of strings, the interaction of atomic particles, or the steady state flow in a bar give rise to Sturm-Liouville (SL) eigenvalue problems. The boundary applications of some systems like the convection-diffusion equation, electromagnetic and heat transfer problems requires the combination of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Hence, the incorporation of Robin boundary condition in the analyses of Sturm-Liouville problem. This paper deals with the computation of the eigenvalues and eigenfunction of generalized Sturm-Liouville problems with Robin boundary condition using the finite element method. Numerical solutions of classical Sturm–Liouville problems are presented. The results show an agreement with the exact solution. High results precision is achieved with higher number of elements.

Keywords: Sturm-Liouville problem, Robin boundary condition, finite element method, eigenvalue problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
72 A Dynamic Round Robin Routing for Z-Fat Tree

Authors: M. O. Adda

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a topology called Zoned fat tree (Z-Fat tree) which is a further extension to the classical fat trees. The extension relates to the provision of extra degree of connectivity to maximize the number of deployed ports per routing nodes, and hence increases the bisection bandwidth especially for slimmed fat trees. The extra links, when classical routing is used, tend, in deterministic environment, to be under-utilized for some traffic patterns, hence achieving poor performance. We suggest two versions of a dynamic round robin scheme that outperforms the classical D-mod-k and S-mod-K routing and show by simulation that our proposal utilize all the extra added links to the classical fat tree, and achieve better performance for general applications.

Keywords: deterministic routing, fat tree, interconnection, traffic pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
71 An Efficient Subcarrier Scheduling Algorithm for Downlink OFDMA-Based Wireless Broadband Networks

Authors: Hassen Hamouda, Mohamed Ouwais Kabaou, Med Salim Bouhlel

Abstract:

The growth of wireless technology made opportunistic scheduling a widespread theme in recent research. Providing high system throughput without reducing fairness allocation is becoming a very challenging task. A suitable policy for resource allocation among users is of crucial importance. This study focuses on scheduling multiple streaming flows on the downlink of a WiMAX system based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). In this paper, we take the first step in formulating and analyzing this problem scrupulously. As a result, we proposed a new scheduling scheme based on Round Robin (RR) Algorithm. Because of its non-opportunistic process, RR does not take in account radio conditions and consequently it affect both system throughput and multi-users diversity. Our contribution called MORRA (Modified Round Robin Opportunistic Algorithm) consists to propose a solution to this issue. MORRA not only exploits the concept of opportunistic scheduler but also takes into account other parameters in the allocation process. The first parameter is called courtesy coefficient (CC) and the second is called Buffer Occupancy (BO). Performance evaluation shows that this well-balanced scheme outperforms both RR and MaxSNR schedulers and demonstrate that choosing between system throughput and fairness is not required.

Keywords: OFDMA, opportunistic scheduling, fairness hierarchy, courtesy coefficient, buffer occupancy

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70 Imputation of Incomplete Large-Scale Monitoring Count Data via Penalized Estimation

Authors: Mohamed Dakki, Genevieve Robin, Marie Suet, Abdeljebbar Qninba, Mohamed A. El Agbani, Asmâa Ouassou, Rhimou El Hamoumi, Hichem Azafzaf, Sami Rebah, Claudia Feltrup-Azafzaf, Nafouel Hamouda, Wed a.L. Ibrahim, Hosni H. Asran, Amr A. Elhady, Haitham Ibrahim, Khaled Etayeb, Essam Bouras, Almokhtar Saied, Ashrof Glidan, Bakar M. Habib, Mohamed S. Sayoud, Nadjiba Bendjedda, Laura Dami, Clemence Deschamps, Elie Gaget, Jean-Yves Mondain-Monval, Pierre Defos Du Rau

Abstract:

In biodiversity monitoring, large datasets are becoming more and more widely available and are increasingly used globally to estimate species trends and con- servation status. These large-scale datasets challenge existing statistical analysis methods, many of which are not adapted to their size, incompleteness and heterogeneity. The development of scalable methods to impute missing data in incomplete large-scale monitoring datasets is crucial to balance sampling in time or space and thus better inform conservation policies. We developed a new method based on penalized Poisson models to impute and analyse incomplete monitoring data in a large-scale framework. The method al- lows parameterization of (a) space and time factors, (b) the main effects of predic- tor covariates, as well as (c) space–time interactions. It also benefits from robust statistical and computational capability in large-scale settings. The method was tested extensively on both simulated and real-life waterbird data, with the findings revealing that it outperforms six existing methods in terms of missing data imputation errors. Applying the method to 16 waterbird species, we estimated their long-term trends for the first time at the entire North African scale, a region where monitoring data suffer from many gaps in space and time series. This new approach opens promising perspectives to increase the accuracy of species-abundance trend estimations. We made it freely available in the r package ‘lori’ (https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lori) and recommend its use for large- scale count data, particularly in citizen science monitoring programmes.

Keywords: biodiversity monitoring, high-dimensional statistics, incomplete count data, missing data imputation, waterbird trends in North-Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
69 Sexualization of Women in Nigerian Magazine Advertisements

Authors: Kehinde Augustina Odukoya

Abstract:

This study examines the portrayal of women in Nigerian magazine advertisements, with the aim to investigate whether there is sexualization of women in the advertisements. To achieve this aim, content analyses of 61 magazine advertisements from 5 different categories of magazines; a general interest magazine (Genevieve), fashion magazine (Hints Complete Fashion), men’s magazine (Mode), women’s magazine (Totally Whole) and a relationship magazine (Forever) were carried out. Erving Goffman’s 1979 frame analysis and Kang’s two additional coding categories were used to investigate the sexualization of women. Findings show that women are used for decorative purposes and objectified in over 70 per cent of the advertisements analyzed. Also, there is sexualization of women in magazine advertisements because women are nude 57.4 percent of the magazine advertisements.

Keywords: advertisements, magazine, sexualization, women

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68 Thermal Modelling and Experimental Comparison for a Moving Pantograph Strip

Authors: Nicolas Delcey, Philippe Baucour, Didier Chamagne, Geneviève Wimmer, Auditeau Gérard, Bausseron Thomas, Bouger Odile, Blanvillain Gérard

Abstract:

This paper proposes a thermal study of the catenary/pantograph interface for a train in motion. A 2.5D complex model of the pantograph strip has been defined and created by a coupling between a 1D and a 2D model. Experimental and simulation results are presented and with a comparison allow validating the 2.5D model. Some physical phenomena are described and presented with the help of the model such as the stagger motion thermal effect, particular heats and the effect of the material characteristics. Finally it is possible to predict the critical thermal configuration during a train trip.

Keywords: electro-thermal studies, mathematical optimizations, multi-physical approach, numerical model, pantograph strip wear

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67 Membrane Spanning DNA Origami Nanopores for Protein Translocation

Authors: Genevieve Pugh, Johnathan Burns, Stefan Howorka

Abstract:

Single-molecule sensing via protein nanopores has achieved a step-change in portable and label-free DNA sequencing. However, protein pores of both natural or engineered origin are not able to produce the tunable diameters needed for effective protein sensing. Here, we describe a generic strategy to build synthetic DNA nanopores that are wide enough to accommodate folded protein. The pores are composed of interlinked DNA duplexes and carry lipid anchors to achieve the required membrane insertion. Our demonstrator pore has a contiguous cross-sectional channel area of 50 nm2 which is 6-times larger than the largest protein pore. Consequently, transport of folded protein across bilayers is possible. The modular design is amenable for different pore dimensions and can be adapted for protein sensing or to create molecular gates in synthetic biology.

Keywords: biosensing, DNA nanotechnology, DNA origami, nanopore sensing

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66 Mathematical Modelling of the Effect of Glucose on Pancreatic Alpha-Cell Activity

Authors: Karen K. Perez-Ramirez, Genevieve Dupont, Virginia Gonzalez-Velez

Abstract:

Pancreatic alpha-cells participate on glucose regulation together with beta cells. They release glucagon hormone when glucose level is low to stimulate gluconeogenesis from the liver. As other excitable cells, alpha cells generate Ca2+ and metabolic oscillations when they are stimulated. It is known that the glucose level can trigger or silence this activity although it is not clear how this occurs in normal and diabetic people. In this work, we propose an electric-metabolic mathematical model implemented in Matlab to study the effect of different glucose levels on the electrical response and Ca2+ oscillations of an alpha cell. Our results show that Ca2+ oscillations appear in opposite phase with metabolic oscillations in a window of glucose values. The model also predicts a direct relationship between the level of glucose and the intracellular adenine nucleotides showing a self-regulating pathway for the alpha cell.

Keywords: Ca2+ oscillations, mathematical model, metabolic oscillations, pancreatic alpha cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
65 Feedback Preference and Practice of English Majors’ in Pronunciation Instruction

Authors: Claerchille Jhulia Robin

Abstract:

This paper discusses the perspective of ESL learners towards pronunciation instruction. It sought to determine how these learners view the type of feedback their speech teacher gives and its impact on their own classroom practice of providing feedback. This study utilized a quantitative-qualitative approach to the problem. The respondents were Education students majoring in English. A survey questionnaire and interview guide were used for data gathering. The data from the survey was tabulated using frequency count and the data from the interview were then transcribed and analyzed. Results showed that ESL learners favor immediate corrective feedback and they do not find any issue in being corrected in front of their peers. They also practice the same corrective technique in their own classroom.

Keywords: ESL, feedback, learner perspective, pronunciation instruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
64 Application of Global Predictive Real Time Control Strategy to Improve Flooding Prevention Performance of Urban Stormwater Basins

Authors: Shadab Shishegar, Sophie Duchesne, Genevieve Pelletier

Abstract:

Sustainability as one of the key elements of Smart cities, can be realized by employing Real Time Control Strategies for city’s infrastructures. Nowadays Stormwater management systems play an important role in mitigating the impacts of urbanization on natural hydrological cycle. These systems can be managed in such a way that they meet the smart cities standards. In fact, there is a huge potential for sustainable management of urban stormwater and also its adaptability to global challenges like climate change. Hence, a dynamically managed system that can adapt itself to instability of the environmental conditions is desirable. A Global Predictive Real Time Control approach is proposed in this paper to optimize the performance of stormwater management basins in terms of flooding prevention. To do so, a mathematical optimization model is developed then solved using Genetic Algorithm (GA). Results show an improved performance at system-level for the stormwater basins in comparison to static strategy.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, optimization, real time control, storm water management

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63 Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network for Rainfall-Water Level Modeling

Authors: Thohidul Islam, Md. Hamidul Haque, Robin Kumar Biswas

Abstract:

Floods are one of the deadliest natural disasters which are very complex to model; however, machine learning is opening the door for more reliable and accurate flood prediction. In this research, a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP) is developed to model the rainfall-water level relation, in a subtropical monsoon climatic region of the Bangladesh-India border. Our experiments show promising empirical results to forecast the water level for 1 day lead time. Our best performing MLP model achieves 98.7% coefficient of determination with lower model complexity which surpasses previously reported results on similar forecasting problems.

Keywords: flood forecasting, machine learning, multilayer perceptron network, regression

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62 Internal and External Validity in Experimental Economics

Authors: Helena Chytilova, Robin Maialeh

Abstract:

Experimental economics is subject to criticism with regards to frequently discussed trade-off between internal and external validity requirements, which seems to be critically flawed. Incompatibility of trade-off condition and condition of internal validity as a prerequisite for external validity is presented. In addition, the imprecise concept of artificiality found to be rather improving external validity, seems to strengthen illusory status of external versus internal validity tension. Internal validity will be further analysed with regards to Duhem-Quine problem, where unpredictability argument is significantly weakened trough application of inductivism within the illustrative hypothetical-deductive model. Discussion outlined above partially weakens critical arguments related to robustness of results in experimental economics, if perfectly controlled experimental environment is secured.

Keywords: Duhem-Quine problem, external validity, inductivism, internal validity

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61 European Refugee Camps and the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living: Advancing Accountability under International Human Rights Law

Authors: Genevieve Zingg

Abstract:

Since the onset of the 2015 ‘refugee crisis’ in the European Union (EU), migrant deaths have overwhelmingly occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. However, far less attention has been paid to the startling number of injuries, deaths, and allegations of systematic human rights violations occurring within European refugee camps. Most troubling is the assertion that injuries and deaths in EU refugee camps have occurred as a result of negligent management and poor access to healthcare, food, water and sanitation, and other elements that comprise an adequate standard of living under international human rights law. Using available evidence and documentation, this paper will conduct a thorough examination of the causes of death and injury in EU refugee camps, with a specific focus on Greece, in order to identify instances of negligence or conditions that amount to potential breaches of human rights law. Based on its analysis, this paper will subsequently explore potential legal avenues to achieving justice and accountability under international human rights law in order to effectively address and remedy inadequate standards of living causing wrongful death or injury in European refugee camps.

Keywords: European Union, Greece, human rights, international human rights law, migration, refugees

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60 Automated Recognition of Still’s Murmur in Children

Authors: Sukryool Kang, James McConnaughey, Robin Doroshow, Raj Shekhar

Abstract:

Still’s murmur, a vibratory heart murmur, is the most common normal innocent murmur of childhood. Many children with this murmur are unnecessarily referred for cardiology consultation and testing, which exacts a high cost financially and emotionally on the patients and their parents. Pediatricians to date are not successful at distinguishing Still’s murmur from murmurs of true heart disease. In this paper, we present a new algorithmic approach to distinguish Still’s murmur from pathological murmurs in children. We propose two distinct features, spectral width and signal power, which describe the sharpness of the spectrum and the signal intensity of the murmur, respectively. Seventy pediatric heart sound recordings of 41 Still’s and 29 pathological murmurs were used to develop and evaluate our algorithm that achieved a true positive rate of 97% and false positive rate of 0%. This approach would meet clinical standards in recognizing Still’s murmur.

Keywords: AR modeling, auscultation, heart murmurs, Still's murmur

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59 Centralizing the Teaching Process in Intelligent Tutoring System Architectures

Authors: Nikolaj Troels Graf Von Malotky, Robin Nicolay, Alke Martens

Abstract:

There exist a plethora of architectures for ITSs (Intelligent Tutoring Systems). A thorough analysis and comparison of the architectures revealed, that in most cases the architecture extensions are evolutionary grown, reflecting state of the art trends of each decade. However, from the perspective of software engineering, the main aspect of an ITS has not been reflected in any of these architectures, yet. From the perspective of cognitive research, the construction of the teaching process is what makes an ITS 'intelligent' regarding the spectrum of interaction with the students. Thus, in our approach, we focus on a behavior based architecture, which is based on the main teaching processes. To create a new general architecture for ITS, we have to define the prerequisites. This paper analyzes the current state of the existing architectures and derives rules for the behavior of ITS. It is presenting a teaching process for ITSs to be used together with the architecture.

Keywords: intelligent tutoring, ITS, tutoring process, system architecture, interaction process

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58 Does "R and D" Investment Drive Economic Growth? Evidence from Africa

Authors: Boopen Seetanah, R. V. Sannassee, Sheereen Fauzel, Robin Nunkoo

Abstract:

The bulk of research on the impact of research and development (R&D) has been carried out in developed economies where the intensity of R&D expenditure has been relatively high and stable for many years. However, there is a paucity of similar studies in developing countries. In this paper, we provide empirical estimates of the impact of R&D investment on economic growth in a developing African economy (Mauritius) where R&D expenditure intensity has been low initially, but rising, albeit moderately in recent years. Using a dynamic time series analysis over the period 1980 to 2014 in a Vector Autoregressive framework, R & D is shown to have a positive and significant effect on the economic progress of the island, although the impact is considerably less when compared to both other ingredients of growth and also to reported elasticities fromdeveloped economies . Interestingly, there is evidence of bicausality between R & D and growth. furthermore, R & D positively impacts on both domestic and foreign investment, suggesting the possibilities of indirect effects.

Keywords: R & D, VECM, Africa, Mauritius

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
57 Reframing Service Oriented Architecture Design Principles in Software Design Quality

Authors: Purnomo Yustianto, Robin Doss, Novianto B. Kurniawan Suhardi

Abstract:

Since its inception, the design activities of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has been guided with aspects from the Service Design Principles (SDP), such as cohesion, granularity, loose coupling, discoverability, and autonomy, etc. The goal of this paper is two folds. The first is to examine the position of SDP within the context of software quality, and the second is to reframe the aspects of SDP into a more concise terms and relations. This paper is divided into four parts, in which after the introduction, a review on related software quality is provided to determine the quality context of SDP. The third part reviews the original SDP and offers a relation model among the SDP aspects. The fourth part explores the design quality metrics available for SOA and proposes a relationship representing the design quality. Among the aspects of design principles, the cohesion and coupling aspect is determined to be the two important aspects for achieving reusability of a service.

Keywords: SOA, software quality, service design principle, reusability, cohesion, coupling

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56 The Mandaya Woman: Her Role as Balyan (Priestess) and Magdadawot (Bard)

Authors: Genevieve Jorolan-Quintero

Abstract:

After the devastation caused by typhoon Haiyan in the southeastern part of the Philippines in 2012, there was this intense need among the indigenous communities to ‘reconcile’ with nature. The belief that the deluge, which claimed thousands of lives, was caused by the destruction of the environment because of humanities’ greed and carelessness was widespread and strong. The rift had to be mended. Nature had to be appeased. For this, the balyan (priestess) was called in to perform a ritual. Only she can communicate with the spirits. The communities depend on her spiritual intervention as she alone has the power to invoke the spirits of nature. Among the indigenous people, the balyan is most often also a magdadawot (bard) who possesses the knowledge especially about the folk epics and the skill to chant them. The balyan is the communities’ repository of knowledge. When one passes away, a whole library of tribal knowledge and wisdom is lost. The oral traditions embody the life values, ideals, customs, and even the history of the First Nations People. These include the myths, epics, legends, riddles, and songs. The indigenous system is patriarchal, but is actually indirectly matriarchal reflecting the authority of the woman. Disputes within the community are heard and tried by the Council of Elders. However, the balyan is often consulted for her opinion. Her advice is deemed significant and most often necessary. These are three instances that highlight the significant role of the balyan among the indigenous communities in the Philippines, especially among the Mandaya tribe who live in the southern region of the country. This paper highlights the unique kind of leadership of the Mandaya woman – as priestess and bard - and her impact on the lives of her people.

Keywords: balyan, bard, magdadawot, mandaya

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55 Contracting Strategies to Foster Industrial Symbiosis Implementation

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) deals with the exchange of waste materials, fatal energy and utilities as resources for production. While it brings environmental benefits from resource conservation its economic profitability is one of the main barriers to its implementation. I.S involves several actors with their own objectives and resources so that each actor must be satisfied by ex-ante arrangements to commit toward investments and transactions. Regarding I.S Transaction cost economics helps to identify hybrid forms of governance for transactions governance due to I.S projects specificities induced by the need for customization (asset specificity, non-homogeneity). Thus we propose a framework to analyze the best contractual practices tailored to address I.S specific risks that we identified as threefold (load profiles and quality mismatch, value fluctuations). Schemes from cooperative game theory and contracting management are integrated to analyze value flows between actors. Contractual guidelines are then proposed to address the identified risks and to split the value for a set of I.S archetypes drawn from actual experiences.

Keywords: contracts, economics, industrial symbiosis, risks

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
54 Metamodel for Artefacts in Service Engineering Analysis and Design

Authors: Purnomo Yustianto, Robin Doss

Abstract:

As a process of developing a service system, the term ‘service engineering’ evolves in scope and definition. To achieve an integrated understanding of the process, a general framework and an ontology are required. This paper extends a previously built service engineering framework by exploring metamodels for the framework artefacts based on a foundational ontology and a metamodel landscape. The first part of this paper presents a correlation map between the proposed framework with the ontology as a form of evaluation for the conceptual coverage of the framework. The mapping also serves to characterize the artefacts to be produced for each activity in the framework. The second part describes potential metamodels to be used, from the metamodel landscape, as alternative formats of the framework artefacts. The results suggest that the framework sufficiently covers the ontological concepts, both from general service context and software service context. The metamodel exploration enriches the suggested artefact format from the original eighteen formats to thirty metamodel alternatives.

Keywords: artefact, framework, service, metamodel

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53 Characterization of Calcium-Signalling Mediated by Human GPR55 Expressed in HEK293 Cells

Authors: Yousuf M. Al Suleimani, Robin Hiley

Abstract:

The endogenous phospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) was recently identified as a novel ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) and an inducer of intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i release. This study attempts to characterize Ca2+ signals provoked by LPI in HEK293 cells engineered to stably express human GPR55 and to test cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55. The study shows that treatment with LPI stimulates a sustained, oscillatory Ca2+ release. The response is characterized by an initial rapid rise, which is mediated by the Gαq-PLC-IP3 pathway, and this is followed by prolonged oscillations that require RhoA activation. Ca2+ oscillations are initiated by intracellular mechanisms and extracellular Ca2+ is only required to replenish Ca2+ lost from the cytoplasm. Analysis of cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55 revealed no clear effect of the endocannabinoid anandamide, however, rimonabant and the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 evoked GPR55-mediated [Ca2+]i. Thus, LPI is likely to be a key plasma membrane mediator of signaling events and changes in gene expression through GPR55 activation.

Keywords: lysophosphatidylinositol, calcium, GPR55, cannabinoid

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52 Victims and Violators: Open Source Information, Admissibility Standards, and War Crimes Investigations in Iraq and Syria

Authors: Genevieve Zingg

Abstract:

Modern technology and social media platforms have fundamentally altered the nature of war crimes investigations by providing new forms of data, evidence, and documentation, and pose a unique opportunity to expand the efficacy of international law. However, much of the open source information available is deemed inadmissible in subsequent legal proceedings and fails to function as evidence largely due to issues of reliability and verifiability. Focusing on current judicial investigations related to ongoing conflicts in Syria and Iraq, this paper will examine key challenges and opportunities for the effective use of open source information in securing justice. This paper will consider strategies and approaches that can be used to ensure that information collected by affected populations meets basic admissibility standards. This paper argues that the critical failure to equip civilian populations in conflict zones with knowledge and information regarding established admissibility standards and guidelines both jeopardizes the potential of open source information and compromises the ability of victims to participate effectively in justice and accountability processes. The ultimate purpose of this paper is, therefore, to examine how to maximize the value of open source information based on the rules of evidence in international, regional, and national courts, and how to maximize the participation of affected populations in holding their abusers to account.

Keywords: human rights, international criminal law, international justice, international law, Iraq, open source information, social media, Syria, transitional justice, war crimes

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51 Consolidating Service Engineering Ontologies Building Service Ontology from SOA Modeling Language (SoaML)

Authors: Purnomo Yustianto, Robin Doss, Suhardi, Novianto Budi Kurniawan

Abstract:

As a term for characterizing a process of devising a service system, the term ‘service engineering’ is still regarded as an ‘open’ research challenge due to unspecified details and conflicting perspectives. This paper presents consolidated service engineering ontologies in collecting, specifying and defining relationship between components pertinent within the context of service engineering. The ontologies are built by way of literature surveys from the collected conceptual works by collating various concepts into an integrated ontology. Two ontologies are produced: general service ontology and software service ontology. The software-service ontology is drawn from the informatics domain, while the generalized ontology of a service system is built from both a business management and the information system perspective. The produced ontologies are verified by exercising conceptual operationalizations of the ontologies in adopting several service orientation features and service system patterns. The proposed ontologies are demonstrated to be sufficient to serve as a basis for a service engineering framework.

Keywords: engineering, ontology, service, SoaML

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50 The Anti-Obesity Effects of the Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Blumea balsamifera on Diet-Induced Obese Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Mae Genevieve G. Cheung, Michael G. Cuevas, Lovely Fe L. Cuison, Elijin P. Dai, Katrina Marie S. Duron, Azalea Damaris E. Encarnacion, May T. Magtoto, Gina C. Castro

Abstract:

The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Blumea balsamifera in reducing obesity on diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts were obtained by maceration and percolation, respectively, of air-dried, grinded leaves. The test animals were given a high fat diet (HFD) for 21 days, except for one negative control group fed with a standard diet (SD). The Blumea balsamifera extracts were given at doses of 300 mg/Kg and 600 mg/Kg for BBAE and BBEE groups, and the positive control group, Orlistat, was given at 21.6 mg/Kg dose. After 24 days of treatment, the statistical difference of parameters such as Lee’s index and lipid profile of each group before and after the treatment period were determined separately using Tukey’s test of two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The statistical results showed that the600mg/kg dose of BBAE and BBEE had greatly lowered the Lee’s index among the other doses while the 300 mg/Kg dose BBEE, 600 mg/Kg BBAE, and 300 mg/kg BBAE lowered the total cholesterol level, LDL level, and VLDL and total triglyceride level respectively. The extracts, however, lowered the HDL level which was also exhibited by the standard drug, Orlistat.

Keywords: adipocytes, adipogenesis, Blumea balsamifera, Lee’s index, obesity, Sambong

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49 Building Collapse: Factors and Resisting Mechanisms: A Review of Case Studies

Authors: Genevieve D. Fernandes, Nisha P. Naik

Abstract:

All through the ages in all human civilizations, men have been engaged in construction activity, not only to build their dwellings and house their activities, but also roads, bridges to facilitate means of transport, and communication etc. The main concern in this activity was to ensure safety and reduce the collapse of the buildings and other structures. But even after taking all precautions, it is impossible to guarantee safety and collapse because of several unforeseen reasons like faulty constructions, design errors, overloading, soil liquefaction, gas explosion, material degradation, terrorist attacks and economic factors also contributing to the collapse. It is also uneconomical to design the structure for unforeseen events unless they have a reasonable chance of occurrence. In order to ensure safety and prevent collapse, many guidelines have been framed by local bodies and government authorities in many countries like the United States Department of Defence (DOD), United States General Service Administration (GSA) and Euro-Codes in European Nations. Some other practices are followed to incorporate redundancies in the structure like detailing, ductile designs, tying of elements at particular locations, and provision of hinges and interconnections. It is also to be admitted that a full-proof safe design structure for accidental events cannot be prepared and implemented as it is uneconomical and the chances of such occurrences are less. This paper reviews past case studies of the collapse of structures with the aim of developing an understanding of the collapse mechanism. This study will definitely help to bring about a detailed improvement in the design to maximise the quality of the construction at a minimal cost.

Keywords: unforeseen factors, progressive collapse, collapse resisting mechanisms, column removal scenario

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48 An Experimental Study on the Mechanical Performance of Concrete Enhanced with Graphene Nanoplatelets

Authors: Johana Jaramillo, Robin Kalfat, Dmitriy A. Dikin

Abstract:

The cement production process is one of the major sources of carbon dioxide (CO₂), a potent greenhouse gas. Indeed, as a result of its cement manufacturing process, concrete contributes approximately 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to environmental concerns, concrete also has a low tensile and ductility strength, which can lead to cracks. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) have proven to be an eco-friendly solution for improving the mechanical and durability properties of concrete. The current research investigates the effects of preparing concrete enhanced with GNPs by using different wet dispersions techniques and mixing methods on its mechanical properties. Concrete specimens were prepared with 0.00 wt%, 0.10 wt%, 0.20 wt%, 0.30 wt% and wt% GNPs. Compressive and flexural strength of concrete at age 7 days were determined. The results showed that the maximum improvement in mechanical properties was observed when GNPs content was 0.20 wt%. The compressive and flexural were improved by up to 17.5% and 8.6%, respectively. When GNP dispersions were prepared by the combination of a drill and an ultrasonic probe, mechanical properties experienced maximum improvement.

Keywords: concrete, dispersion techniques, graphene nanoplatelets, mechanical properties, mixing methods

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47 Finite Element Assessment on Bond Behaviour of FRP-to-Concrete Joints under Cyclic Loading

Authors: F. Atheer, Al-Saoudi, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

Over the last two decades, externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites bonded to concrete substrates has become a popular method for strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) highway and railway bridges. Such structures are exposed to severe cyclic loading throughout their lifetime often resulting in fatigue damage to structural components and a reduction in the service life of the structure. Since experimental and numerical results on the fatigue performance of FRP-to-concrete joints are still limited, the current research focuses on assessing the fatigue performance of externally bonded FRP-to-concrete joints using a direct shear test. Some early results indicate that the stress ratio and the applied cyclic stress level have a direct influence on the fatigue life of the externally bonded FRP. In addition, a calibrated finite element model is developed to provide further insight into the influence of certain parameters such as: concrete strength, FRP thickness, number of cycles, frequency and stiffness on the fatigue life of the FRP-to-concrete joints.

Keywords: FRP, concrete bond, control, fatigue, finite element model

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
46 Enhancement of Light Extraction of Luminescent Coating by Nanostructuring

Authors: Aubry Martin, Nehed Amara, Jeff Nyalosaso, Audrey Potdevin, FrançOis ReVeret, Michel Langlet, Genevieve Chadeyron

Abstract:

Energy-saving lighting devices based on LightEmitting Diodes (LEDs) combine a semiconductor chip emitting in the ultraviolet or blue wavelength region to one or more phosphor(s) deposited in the form of coatings. The most common ones combine a blue LED with the yellow phosphor Y₃Al₅O₁₂:Ce³⁺ (YAG:Ce) and a red phosphor. Even if these devices are characterized by satisfying photometric parameters (Color Rendering Index, Color Temperature) and good luminous efficiencies, further improvements can be carried out to enhance light extraction efficiency (increase in phosphor forward emission). One of the possible strategies is to pattern the phosphor coatings. Here, we have worked on different ways to nanostructure the coating surface. On the one hand, we used the colloidal lithography combined with the Langmuir-Blodgett technique to directly pattern the surface of YAG:Tb³⁺ sol-gel derived coatings, YAG:Tb³⁺ being used as phosphor model. On the other hand, we achieved composite architectures combining YAG:Ce coatings and ZnO nanowires. Structural, morphological and optical properties of both systems have been studied and compared to flat YAG coatings. In both cases, nanostructuring brought a significative enhancement of photoluminescence properties under UV or blue radiations. In particular, angle-resolved photoluminescence measurements have shown that nanostructuring modifies photons path within the coatings, with a better extraction of the guided modes. These two strategies have the advantage of being versatile and applicable to any phosphor synthesizable by sol-gel technique. They then appear as promising ways to enhancement luminescence efficiencies of both phosphor coatings and the optical devices into which they are incorporated, such as LED-based lighting or safety devices.

Keywords: phosphor coatings, nanostructuring, light extraction, ZnO nanowires, colloidal lithography, LED devices

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45 Food Bolus Obstruction: A Rural Hospital’s Experience

Authors: Davina Von Hagt, Genevieve Gibbons, Matt Henderson, Tom Bowles

Abstract:

Purpose: Food bolus obstructions are common emergency surgical presentations, but there is no established management guideline in a rural setting. Intervention usually involves endoscopic removal after initial medical management has failed. Within a rural setting, this falls upon the general surgeon. There are varied endoscopic techniques that may be used. Methodology: A review of the past fifty cases of food bolus obstruction managed at Albany Health Campus was retrospectively reviewed to assess endoscopic findings and techniques. Operation notes, histopathology, imaging, and patient notes were reviewed. Results: 50 patients underwent gastroscopy for food bolus obstruction from August 2017 to March 2021. Ages ranged from 11 months to 95 years, with the majority of patients aged between 30-70 years. 88% of patients were male. Meat was the most common bolus (20% unspecified, 20% steak, 10% chicken, 6% lamb, 4% sausage, 2% pork). At endoscopy, 12% were found not to have a food bolus obstruction. Two patients were found to have oesophageal cancer, and four patients had a stricture and required dilatation. A variety of methods were used to relieve oesophageal obstruction ranging from pushing through to stomach (24 patients), using an overtube (10 patients), raptor (13 patients), and less common instruments such as Roth net, basket, guidewire, and pronged grasper. One patient had an unsuccessful endoscopic retrieval and required theatre for laparoscopic assisted removal with rendezvous endoscopic piecemeal removal via oesophagus and gastrostomy. Conclusion: Food bolus obstruction is a common emergency presentation. Within the rural setting, management requires innovation and teamwork within the safety of the local experience.

Keywords: food bolus obstruction, regional hospital, surgical management, innovative surgical treatment

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44 Influences on Occupational Identity through Trans and Gender Diverse Identity: A Qualitative Study about Work Experiences of Trans and Gender Diverse Individuals

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

Abstract:

Work experiences and satisfaction as well as the feeling of belonging has been narrowly explored from the perspective of trans and gender diverse individuals. Hence, the study investigates the relationship of values, attitudes, and norms of occupational environments and the working identity of trans and gender diverse people of the Australian workforce. Based on 22 semi-structured interviews with trans and gender diverse individuals regarding their work and career experiences, a first insight about their feeling of belonging through commonality in the workplace could be established. Communality between the values, attitudes and norms of a trans and gender diverse individuals working identities and profession, organization and working environment could increase the feeling of belonging. Further reflection and evaluation of trans and gender diverse identities in the workplace need to be considered to create an equitable and inclusive workplace of the future. Consequently, an essential development step for the future of work and its fundamental values of diversity, inclusion, and belonging will consist of the acknowledgement and inclusion of trans and gender diverse people as part of a broader social identity of the workplace.

Keywords: belonging, future of work, working identity, trans and gender diverse identity

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