Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Gökhan Basman

44 Development of an Attitude Scale Towards Social Networking Sites

Authors: Münevver Başman, Deniz Gülleroğlu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to determine the attitudes towards social networking sites. 45 tryout items, prepared for this aim, were applied to 342 students studying at Marmara University, Faculty of Education. The reliability and the validity of the scale were conducted with the help of these students. As a result of exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation, 41 items grouped according to the structure with three factors (interest, reality and negative effects) is obtained. While alpha reliability of the scale is obtained as .899; the reliability of factors is obtained as .899, .799, .775, respectively.

Keywords: Attitude, reliability, social networking sites, validity.

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43 The Investigation of Niobium Addition on Mechanical Properties of Al11Si alloy

Authors: Kerem Can Dizdar, Semih Ateş, Ozan Güler, Gökhan Basman, Derya Dışpınar, Cevat Fahir Arısoy

Abstract:

Grain refinement and obtaining homogeneous microstructure is the key parameter in casting of aluminum alloys. Ti has been traditionally used as grain refiner, however, inconsistency and heterogeneous dendrite arms, as well as fading efficiency, have been the drawbacks of Ti. Alternatively, Nb (Niobium) has gained attention. In this work, the effect of Nb was investigated in case of both as cast and T6 heat treated conditions. Different ratios of Nb (0.0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1 weight%) were added to AlSi11 alloy, mechanical properties were examined statistically, and relationship was established between microstructure and mechanical properties by examining the grain size and dendrite characteristics before and after heat treatment. Results indicate that in the case of as cast state; with the increasing addition of Nb has no significant effect on yield strength, however, it increases the tensile strength and elongation starting with 0.05wt% ratio, and it remains constant up to 0.1wt%. For the heat-treated condition; Nb addition provides increment at yield strength and tensile strength up to 0.05wt%, but it leads to decrementfrom 0.05 to 0.1wt%. The opposite is valid for the elongation; It decreases in between 0-0.05wt% then rises in range of 0.05-0.1wt%. Highest yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were found T6 heat treated 0.05wt% Nb addition. 0.05wt% was found as critical Nbaddition ratio for mechanical properties of Al-11Si alloys. Grain refinement and obtaining homogeneous microstructure is the key parameter in casting of aluminum alloys. Ti has been traditionally used as grain refiner, however, inconsistency and heterogeneous dendrite arms, as well as fading efficiency, have been the drawbacks of Ti. Alternatively, Nb (Niobium) has gained attention. In this work, the effect of Nb was investigated in case of both as cast and T6 heat treated conditions. Different ratios of Nb (0.0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1 weight%) were added to AlSi11 alloy, mechanical properties were examined statistically, and relationship was established between microstructure and mechanical properties by examining the grain size and dendrite characteristics before and after heat treatment. Results indicate that in the case of as cast state; with the increasing addition of Nb has no significant effect on yield strength, however, it increases the tensile strength and elongation starting with 0.05wt% ratio, and it remains constant up to 0.1wt%. For the heat-treated condition; Nb addition provides increment at yield strength and tensile strength up to 0.05wt%, but it leads to decrement from 0.05 to 0.1wt%. The opposite is valid for the elongation; It decreases in between 0-0.05wt% then rises in range of 0.05-0.1wt%. Highest yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were found T6 heat treated 0.05wt% Nb addition. 0.05wt% was found as critical Nbaddition ratio for mechanical properties of Al-11Si alloys.

Keywords: al-si alloy, grain refinement, heat treatment, mechanical properties, microstructure, niobium, sand casting

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42 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Control Using a Novel Active Slat

Authors: Basman Elhadidi, Islam Elqatary, Osama Saaid, Hesham Othman

Abstract:

An active slat is developed to increase the lift and delay the separation for a DU96-W180 airfoil. The active slat is a fixed slat that can be closed, fully opened or intermittently opened by a rotating vane depending on the need. Experimental results show that the active slat has reduced the mean pressure and increased the mean velocity on the suction side of the airfoil for all positive angles of attack, indicating an increase of lift. The experimental data and numerical simulations also show that the direction of actuator vane rotation can influence the mixing of the flow streams on the suction side and hence influence the aerodynamic performance.

Keywords: active slat, flow control, experimental investigation, aerodynamic performance

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41 Realistic Study Discover Some Posture Deformities According to Some Biomechanical Variables for Schoolchildren

Authors: Basman Abdul Jabbar

Abstract:

The researchers aimed to improve the importance of the good posture without any divisions & deformities. The importance of research lied in the discovery posture deformities early so easily treated before its transformation into advanced abnormalities difficult to treat and may need surgical intervention. Research problem was noting that some previous studies were based on the discovery of posture deformities, which was dependent on the (self-evaluation) which this type did not have accuracy to discover deformities. The Samples were (500) schoolchildren aged (9-11 years, males) at Baghdad al Karak. They were students at primary schools. The measure included all posture deformities. The researcher used video camera to analyze the posture deformities according to biomechanical variables by Kinovea software for motion analysis. The researcher recommended the need to use accurate scientific methods for early detection of posture deformities in children which contribute to the prevention and reduction of distortions.

Keywords: biomechanics, children, deformities, posture

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40 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Control Using a Novel Active Slat

Authors: Basman Elhadidi, Islam Elqatary, Osama Mohamady, Hesham Othman

Abstract:

An active slat is developed to increase the lift and delay the separation for a DU96-W180 airfoil. The active slat is a fixed slat that can be closed, fully opened or intermittently opened by a rotating vane depending on the need. Experimental results show that the active slat has reduced the mean pressure and increased the mean velocity on the suction side of the airfoil for all positive angles of attack, indicating an increase of lift. The experimental data and numerical simulations also show that the direction of actuator vane rotation can influence the mixing of the flow streams on the suction side and hence influence the aerodynamic performance.

Keywords: active slat, flow control, DU96-W180 airfoil, flow streams

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39 The Analysis of Expenses for Research and Development Activities in Turkey

Authors: Gökhan Karhan, Yavuz Elitok

Abstract:

Nowadays, inequality between developing and underdeveloped countries has a rapid increment. Developed countries impress the underdeveloped countries to become dependent through them. For that reason, Turkey has to increase its capability of making technological innovations. It has tried to be identified by examining the expenses of R&D in public, mercantile establishments and universities in Turkey that which expense is not enough and which expense should be doubled. As a result, developing new resolution strategies will be easier.

Keywords: competitive strength, research and development, technological innovation, Turkey

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38 Integrating Service Learning into a Business Analytics Course: A Comparative Investigation

Authors: Gokhan Egilmez, Erika Hatfield, Julie Turner

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated the impacts of service-learning integration on an undergraduate level business analytics course from multiple perspectives, including academic proficiency, community awareness, engagement, social responsibility, and reflection. We assessed the impact of the service-learning experience by using a survey developed primarily based on the literature review and secondarily on an ad hoc group of researchers. Then, we implemented the survey in two sections, where one of the sections was a control group. We compared the results of the empirical survey visually and statistically.

Keywords: business analytics, service learning, experiential education, statistical analysis, survey research

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37 Scheduled Maintenance and Downtime Cost in Aircraft Maintenance Management

Authors: Remzi Saltoglu, Nazmia Humaira, Gokhan Inalhan

Abstract:

During aircraft maintenance scheduling, operator calculates the budget of the maintenance. Usually, this calculation includes only the costs that are directly related to the maintenance process such as cost of labor, material, and equipment. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. However, in some of those, downtime cost is neglected claiming that grounding is a natural fact of maintenance; therefore, it is not considered as part of the analytical decision-making process. Based on the normalized data, we introduce downtime cost with its monetary value and add its seasonal character. We envision that the rest of the model, which works together with the downtime cost, could be checked with the real life cases, through the review of MRO cost and airline spending in the particular and scheduled maintenance events.

Keywords: aircraft maintenance, downtime, downtime cost, maintenance cost

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36 Technological Developments in Logistics and its Applications in the Army

Authors: Gökhan Balci

Abstract:

“Armies march on their stomachs “mentioned Napoleon, who drew attentıon to the importance of logistics for the armies…In today’s World, in whıch continental trade gained importance, the crucial role of logistics became conspicuous since it was accepted by the business World that an effective logistics system is the key factor for success. Depending of the new developments in technology and techniques of logistics, the modern military institutions increase their effectiveness. The modern national armies or allied forces which operate in overseas, realize the importance of logistics as well. This study will focus on the applications of logistics in civilian business sector and modern armies, which may shed light on logistical problems of the other armies.

Keywords: modern logistics, application in armies, new technology in logistics, new developments in technology

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35 An Investigation on Hot-Spot Temperature Calculation Methods of Power Transformers

Authors: Ahmet Y. Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Fatma Keskin Arabul, Mustafa G. Aydeniz, Yasemin Oner, Gokhan Kalkan

Abstract:

In the standards of IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60076-7, three different hot-spot temperature estimation methods are suggested. In this study, the algorithms which used in hot-spot temperature calculations are analyzed by comparing the algorithms with the results of an experimental set-up made by a Transformer Monitoring System (TMS) in use. In tested system, TMS uses only top oil temperature and load ratio for hot-spot temperature calculation. And also, it uses some constants from standards which are on agreed statements tables. During the tests, it came out that hot-spot temperature calculation method is just making a simple calculation and not uses significant all other variables that could affect the hot-spot temperature.

Keywords: Hot-spot temperature, monitoring system, power transformer, smart grid

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34 Self-Efficacy Perceptions and the Attitudes of Prospective Teachers towards Assessment and Evaluation

Authors: Münevver Başman, Ezel Tavşancıl

Abstract:

Making the right decisions about students depends on teachers’ use of the assessment and evaluation techniques effectively. In order to do that, teachers should have positive attitudes and adequate self-efficacy perception towards assessment and evaluation. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship between self-efficacy perception and the attitudes of prospective teachers towards assessment and evaluation and what kind of differences these issues have in terms of a variety of demographic variables. The study group consisted of 277 prospective teachers who have been studying in different departments of Marmara University, Faculty of Education. In this study, ‘Personal Information Form’, ‘A Perceptual Scale for Measurement and Evaluation of Prospective Teachers Self-Efficacy in Education’ and ‘Attitudes toward Educational Measurement Inventory’ are applied. As a result, positive correlation was found between self-efficacy perceptions and the attitudes of prospective teachers towards assessment and evaluation. Considering different departments, there is a significant difference between the mean score of attitudes of prospective teachers and between the mean score of self-efficacy perceptions of them. However, considering variables of attending statistics class and the class types at the graduated high school, there is no significant difference between the mean score of attitudes of prospective teachers and between the mean score of self-efficacy perceptions of them.

Keywords: attitude, perception, prospective teacher, self-efficacy

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33 The Enzyme Inhibitory Potentials of Different Extracts from Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia

Authors: Gokhan Zengin, Abdurrahman Aktumsek

Abstract:

The key enzyme inhibitory theory is one of the most accepted strategies in the treatment of global health problems including Alzheimer’s Disease and Diabetes mellitus. For this reason, the enzyme inhibitory potentials of different solvent extracts from Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia were investigated against cholinesterase, and tyrosinase. The in vitro enzyme inhibitory potentials were measured with a microplate reader. The acetone and methanol extracts exhibited the strongest enzyme inhibitory effects on cholinesterase. However, the water extract was only active on tyrosinase. The results suggested that Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia could be considered as a source of natural enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of major health problems.

Keywords: enzyme inhibitors, cholinesterase, tyrosinase, linaria, Turkey

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32 Wally Feelings Test: Validity and Reliability Study

Authors: Gökhan Kayili, Ramazan Ari

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed to be adapted Wally Feelings Test to Turkish children and performed the reliability and validity analysis of the test. The sampling of the research was composed of three to five year-old 699 Turkish preschoolers who are attending official and private nursery school. The schools selected with simple random sampling method by considering different socio economic conditions and different central district in Konya. In order to determine reliability of Wally Feelings Test, internal consistency coefficients (KR-20), split-half reliability and test- retest reliability analysis have been performed. During validation process construct validity, content/scope validity and concurrent/criterion validity were used. When validity and reliability of the test examined, it is seen that Wally Feelings Test is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate three to five year old Turkish children’s understanding feeling skills.

Keywords: reliability, validity, wally feelings test, social sciences

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31 Stability or Instabilty? Triplet Deficit Analysis In Turkey

Authors: Zeynep Karaçor, Volkan Alptekin, Gökhan Akar, Tuba Akar

Abstract:

This paper aims to review the phenomenon of triplet deficit which is called interaction of budget balance that make up the overall balance of the economy, investment savings balance and current accounts balance in terms of Turkey. In this paper, triplet deficit state in Turkish economy has been analyzed with vector autoregressive model and Granger causality test using data covering the period of 1980-2010. According to VAR results, increase in current accounts is perceived on public sector borrowing requirement. These two variables influence each other bilaterally. Therefore, current accounts increase public deficit, whereas public deficit increases current accounts. It is not possible to mention the existence of a short-term Granger causality between variables at issue.

Keywords: internal and external deficit, stability, triplet deficit, Turkey economy

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30 The Role of Phytoremediation in Reclamation of Soil Pollution and Suitability of Certain Ornamental Plants to Phytoremediation

Authors: Bahriye Gülgün, Gökhan Balik, Şükrü Dursun, Kübra Yazici

Abstract:

The main reasons such as economic growth of society increase of the world population and rapid changes of industrialization cause the amount and the types of pollutants to increase over time. Soil pollution is the typical side effect of industrial activities. As a result of industrial activities, there are large amounts of heavy metal emission every year. Heavy metals are one of the highest pollution sources according to the soil pollution aspect. The usage of hyperaccumulator plants to clean heavy metal polluted soils and the selection of plants for phytoremediation gain importance recently. There are limited numbers of researches on the ornamental plant types of phytoremediation thus; researches on this subject are important. This research is prepared based on the ornamental plant types with phytoremediation abilities.

Keywords: phytoremediation, ornamental plants, landscape reclamation, soil reclamation, environmental pollution

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29 Contribution of the SidePlate Beam-Column Connections to the Seismic Responses of Special Moment Frames

Authors: Gökhan Yüksel, Serdar Akça, İlker Kalkan

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the significant levels of contribution of the moment-resisting beam-column connections with side plates to the earthquake behavior of special steel moment frames. To this end, the moment-curvature relationships of a regular beam-column connection and its SidePlate counterpart were determined with the help of finite element analyses. The connection stiffness and deformability values from these finite element analyses were used in the linear time-history analyses of an example structural steel frame under three different seismic excitations. The top-story lateral drift, base shear, and overturning moment values in two orthogonal directions were obtained from these time-history analyses and compared to each other. The results revealed the improvements in the system response with the use of SidePlate connections. The paper ends with crucial recommendations for the plan and design of further studies on this very topic.

Keywords: seismic detailing, special moment frame, steel structures, beam-column connection, earthquake-resistant design

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28 Determining Moment-Curvature Relationship of Reinforced Concrete Rectangular Shear Walls

Authors: Gokhan Dok, Hakan Ozturk, Aydin Demir

Abstract:

The behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) members is quite important in RC structures. When evaluating the performance of structures, the nonlinear properties are defined according to the cross sectional behavior of RC members. To be able to determine the behavior of RC members, its cross sectional behavior should be known well. The moment-curvature (MC) relationship is used to represent cross sectional behavior. The MC relationship of RC cross section can be best determined both experimentally and numerically. But, experimental study on RC members is very difficult. The aim of the study is to obtain the MC relationship of RC shear walls. Additionally, it is aimed to determine the parameters which affect MC relationship. While obtaining MC relationship of RC members, XTRACT which can represent robustly the MC relationship is used. Concrete quality, longitudinal and transverse reinforcing ratios, are selected as parameters which affect MC relationship. As a result of the study, curvature ductility and effective flexural stiffness are determined using this parameter. Effective flexural stiffness is compared with the values defined in design codes.

Keywords: moment-curvature, reinforced concrete, shear wall, numerical

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27 Extraction of Saponins and Cyclopeptides from Cow Cockle (Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert) Seeds Grown in Turkey

Authors: Ihsan Burak Cam, Ferhan Balci-Torun, Ayhan Topuz, Esin Ari, Ismail Gokhan Deniz, Ilker Genc

Abstract:

The seeds of Vaccaria hispanica have been used in food and pharmaceutical industry. It is an important product due to its superior starch granules, triterpenic saponins, and cyclopeptides suitable for drug delivery. V. hispanica naturally grows in different climatic regions and has genotypes that differ in terms of seed content and composition. Sixty-six V. hispanica seed specimens were collected based on the representation of the distribution in all regions of Turkey and the determination of possible genotypic differences between regions. The seeds, collected from each of the 66 locations, were grown in greenhouse conditions in Akdeniz University, Antalya. Saponin and cyclopeptide contents of the V. hispanica seeds were determined after harvest. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied for the extraction of saponins and cyclopeptides. Cyclopeptide (segetalin A) and saponin content of V. hispanica seeds were found in the range of 0.165-0.654 g/100 g and 0.15-1.14 g/100 g, respectively. The results were found to be promising for the seeds from Turkey in terms of saponin content and quality. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the Scientific and Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (project no 112 O 136).

Keywords: Vaccaria hispanica, saponin, cyclopeptid, cow cockle seeds

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26 Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Classification Using Support Vector Machine and Mahalanobis Distance

Authors: Najoua El Hajjaji El Idrissi, Necip Gokhan Kasapoglu

Abstract:

Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar-based imaging is a powerful technique used for earth observation and classification of surfaces. Forest evolution has been one of the vital areas of attention for the remote sensing experts. The information about forest areas can be achieved by remote sensing, whether by using active radars or optical instruments. However, due to several weather constraints, such as cloud cover, limited information can be recovered using optical data and for that reason, Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) is used as a powerful tool for forestry inventory. In this [14paper, we applied support vector machine (SVM) and Mahalanobis distance to the fully polarimetric AIRSAR P, L, C-bands data from the Nezer forest areas, the classification is based in the separation of different tree ages. The classification results were evaluated and the results show that the SVM performs better than the Mahalanobis distance and SVM achieves approximately 75% accuracy. This result proves that SVM classification can be used as a useful method to evaluate fully polarimetric SAR data with sufficient value of accuracy.

Keywords: classification, synthetic aperture radar, SAR polarimetry, support vector machine, mahalanobis distance

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25 Mediation of the Middle Eastern Crises and Economic Growth: An Application of Times Series Analysis

Authors: Gokhan Erkal, Gulsen Aydin, Muge Yuce, Lokman Sahin

Abstract:

This study aims to analyze the impacts of involving in mediation of conflicts in the Middle East from the perspective of the economic growth of the mediators. The Middle East is a highly volatile region of the world with rampant crises whose affects spill beyond its borders. Therefore, management and resolution of the conflicts in the region are of great significance. Mediation is an instrument used for abating violence and settling dispute. The recourse to mediation has grown to an important degree in recent years. However, for mediators, it is a daunting task to involve in the mediation of the deadlocks in the Middle East. This study tries to shed light on the positive correlation between economic growth of the mediator and the successful outcome of the mediation process to provide motivation for mediators. To this end, first, it briefly introduces the conflicts ongoing in the region and their negative impacts. Second, the methodology, time series analysis, and the data to be used, International Crisis Behavior Project Data, are presented. Third, the empirical test is carried out and the findings are evaluated. The conclusion highlights the benefits of successful mediation for the economic growth of the mediators of Middle Eastern crises.

Keywords: international crises, mediation, Middle East, times series analysis

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24 Antioxidant Potential and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Linked to Alzheimer's Diseases and Diabetes Mellitus by Monoterpene-Rich Essential Oil from Sideritis Galatica Bornm. Endemic to Turkey

Authors: Gokhan Zengin, Cengiz Sarikurkcu, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Ramazan Ceylan

Abstract:

The present study was designated to characterize the essential oil from S. galatica (SGEOs) and evaluate its antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Antioxidant capacity were tested different methods including free radical scavenging (DPPH, ABTS and NO), reducing power (FRAP and CUPRAC), metal chelating and phosphomolybdenum. Inhibitory activities were analyzed on acetylcholiesterase, butrylcholinesterase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. SGEOs were chemically analyzed and identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS). 23 components, representing 98.1% of SGEOs were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (74.1%), especially α- (23.0%) and β-pinene (32.2%), were the main constituents in SGEOs. The main sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were β-caryophyllene (16.9%), Germacrene-D (1.2%) and Caryophyllene oxide (1.2%), respectively. Generally, SGEOs has shown moderate free radical, reducing power, metal chelating and enzyme inhibitory activities. These activities related to chemical profile in SGEOs. Our findings supported that the possible utility of SGEOs is a source of natural agents for food, cosmetics or pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: sideritis galatica, antioxidant, monoterpenes, cholinesterase, anti-diabetic

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23 A Stochastic Analytic Hierarchy Process Based Weighting Model for Sustainability Measurement in an Organization

Authors: Faramarz Khosravi, Gokhan Izbirak

Abstract:

A weighted statistical stochastic based Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model for modeling the potential barriers and enablers of sustainability for measuring and assessing the sustainability level is proposed. For context-dependent potential barriers and enablers, the proposed model takes the basis of the properties of the variables describing the sustainability functions and was developed into a realistic analytical model for the sustainable behavior of an organization. This thus serves as a means for measuring the sustainability of the organization. The main focus of this paper was the application of the AHP tool in a statistically-based model for measuring sustainability. Hence a strong weighted stochastic AHP based procedure was achieved. A case study scenario of a widely reported major Canadian electric utility was adopted to demonstrate the applicability of the developed model and comparatively examined its results with those of an equal-weighted model method. Variations in the sustainability of a company, as fluctuations, were figured out during the time. In the results obtained, sustainability index for successive years changed form 73.12%, 79.02%, 74.31%, 76.65%, 80.49%, 79.81%, 79.83% to more exact values 73.32%, 77.72%, 76.76%, 79.41%, 81.93%, 79.72%, and 80,45% according to priorities of factors that have found by expert views, respectively. By obtaining relatively necessary informative measurement indicators, the model can practically and effectively evaluate the sustainability extent of any organization and also to determine fluctuations in the organization over time.

Keywords: AHP, sustainability fluctuation, environmental indicators, performance measurement

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22 Comparing Different Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar Antennas for Tunnel Health Assessment

Authors: Can Mungan, Gokhan Kilic

Abstract:

Structural engineers and tunnel owners have good reason to attach importance to the assessment and inspection of tunnels. Regular inspection is necessary to maintain and monitor the health of the structure not only at the present time but throughout its life cycle. Detection of flaws within the structure, such as corrosion and the formation of cracks within the internal elements of the structure, can go a long way to ensuring that the structure maintains its integrity over the course of its life. Other issues that may be detected earlier through regular assessment include tunnel surface delamination and the corrosion of the rebar. One advantage of new technology such as the ground penetrating radar (GPR) is the early detection of imperfections. This study will aim to discuss and present the effectiveness of GPR as a tool for assessing the structural integrity of the heavily used tunnel. GPR is used with various antennae in frequency and application method (2 GHz and 500 MHz GPR antennae). The paper will attempt to produce a greater understanding of structural defects and identify the correct tool for such purposes. Conquest View with 3D scanning capabilities was involved throughout the analysis, reporting, and interpretation of the results. This study will illustrate GPR mapping and its effectiveness in providing information of value when it comes to rebar position (lower and upper reinforcement). It will also show how such techniques can detect structural features that would otherwise remain unseen, as well as moisture ingress.

Keywords: tunnel, GPR, health monitoring, moisture ingress, rebar position

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21 Determination of the Seed Vigor of Soybean Cultivated as Main and Second Crop in Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Engin Gökhan Kulan, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

Abstract:

This research was conducted to determine the difference in seed vigor between the seed lots cultivated in main and second crop of soybean in Turkey. Seeds from soybean cv. Cinsoy and Umut-2002 were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, emergence, cool test at 18°C for 10 days, and cold test at 10°C for 4 days and 25°C for 6 days. Result showed that the initial oil contents of Cinsoy and Umut-2002 and seeds were determined to be 19.8 and 20.1% in main crop, and 18.7 and 22.1% in second crop, respectively. It was determined that a clear difference between main and second crop soybean seed lots for seed vigor was found. Germination and emergence percentage were higher in the seed from second crop cultivation of the cultivars. There was no significant difference in germination percentage in cool and cold test while seedling growth was better in the seeds of second crop soybean. The highest seed vigor index (477.6) was found in the seeds of the cultivars grown at second crop. Standard germination percentage did not give a sensitive separation for determining seed vigor of soybean lots. It was concluded that second crop soybean seeds were found the most suitable for seed production while main crop soybean gave higher protein lower oil content.

Keywords: Glycine max L., germination, emergence, protein content, vigor test

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20 Seismic Performance of Slopes Subjected to Earthquake Mainshock Aftershock Sequences

Authors: Alisha Khanal, Gokhan Saygili

Abstract:

It is commonly observed that aftershocks follow the mainshock. Aftershocks continue over a period of time with a decreasing frequency and typically there is not sufficient time for repair and retrofit between a mainshock–aftershock sequence. Usually, aftershocks are smaller in magnitude; however, aftershock ground motion characteristics such as the intensity and duration can be greater than the mainshock due to the changes in the earthquake mechanism and location with respect to the site. The seismic performance of slopes is typically evaluated based on the sliding displacement predicted to occur along a critical sliding surface. Various empirical models are available that predict sliding displacement as a function of seismic loading parameters, ground motion parameters, and site parameters but these models do not include the aftershocks. The seismic risks associated with the post-mainshock slopes ('damaged slopes') subjected to aftershocks is significant. This paper extends the empirical sliding displacement models for flexible slopes subjected to earthquake mainshock-aftershock sequences (a multi hazard approach). A dataset was developed using 144 pairs of as-recorded mainshock-aftershock sequences using the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) database. The results reveal that the combination of mainshock and aftershock increases the seismic demand on slopes relative to the mainshock alone; thus, seismic risks are underestimated if aftershocks are neglected.

Keywords: seismic slope stability, mainshock, aftershock, landslide, earthquake, flexible slopes

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19 Wild Rice (Zizania sp.): A Potential Source for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Authors: Farooq Anwar, Gokhan Zengin, Khalid M. Alkharfy

Abstract:

Wild rice (Zizania sp.) is an annual cross-pollinated, emergent, aquatic grass that mainly grows naturally in the Great Lakes region of the North America. The nutritional quality attributes of wild rice are superior to the conventional brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) in terms of higher contents of important minerals (especially phosphorous, potassium, magnesium and calcium), B-complex vitamins, vitamin E and amino acids. In some parts of the world, wild rice is valued as a primary food source. The lipids content of wild rice is reported to be low in the range of 0.7 and 1.1%, however, the lipids are recognized as a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (including linoleic and α-linolenic acid) and phytosterols in addition to containing reasonably good amount of tocols. Besides, wild rice is reported to contain an appreciable amount of high-value compounds such as phenolics with antioxidant properties. Presence of such nutritional bioactives contributes towards medicinal benefits and multiple biological activities of this specialty rice. The present lecture is mainly designed to focus on the detailed nutritional attributes, profile of high-value bioactive components and pharmaceutical/biological activities of wild rice leading to exploring functional food and nutraceutical potential of this food commodity.

Keywords: alpha-linolenic acid, phenolics, phytosterols, tocols, wild rice lipids

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18 An Experimental Investigation of the Variation of Evaporator Efficiency According to Load Amount and Textile Type in Hybrid Heat Pump Dryers

Authors: Gokhan Sir, Muhammed Ergun, Onder Balioglu

Abstract:

Nowadays, laundry dryers containing heaters and heat pumps are used to provide fast and efficient drying. In this system, as the drying capacity changes, the sensible and latent heat transfer rate in the evaporator changes. Therefore, the drying time measured for the unit capacity increases as the drying capacity decreases. The objective of this study is to investigate the evaporator efficiency according to load amount and textile type in hybrid heat pump dryers. Air side flow rate and system temperatures (air side and refrigeration side) were monitored instantly, and the specific moisture extraction rate (SMER), evaporator efficiency, and heat transfer mechanism between the textile and hybrid heat pump system were examined. Evaporator efficiency of heat pump dryers for cotton and synthetic based textile types in load amounts of 2, 5, 8 and 10 kg were investigated experimentally. As a result, the maximum evaporator efficiency (%72) was obtained in drying cotton and synthetic based textiles with a capacity of 5 kg; the minimum evaporator efficiency (%40) was obtained in drying cotton and synthetic based textiles with a capacity of 2 kg. The experimental study also reveals that capacity-dependent flow rate changes are the major factor for evaporator efficiency.

Keywords: evaporator, heat pump, hybrid, laundry dryer, textile

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17 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant

Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

Abstract:

Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.

Keywords: Coke, iron oxide wastes, recycling, reduction

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16 Fatty Acid Composition, Total Sugar Content and Anti-Diabetic Activity of Methanol and Water Extracts of Nine Different Fruit Tree Leaves Collected from Mediterranean Region of Turkey

Authors: Sengul Uysal, Gokhan Zengin, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Sukru Karatas

Abstract:

In this research, we determined the total sugar content, fatty acid compositions and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of methanolic and water extracts of nine different fruit tree leaves. α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activity were determined by using Caraway-Somogyi–iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) and 4-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) as substrate, respectively. Total sugar content of the nine different fruit tree leaves varies from 281.02 mg GE/g (glucose equivalents) to 643.96 mg GE/g. Methanolic extract from avocado leaves had the strongest in α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, 69.21% and 96.26 %, respectively. Fatty acid composition of nine fruit tree leaves was characterized by GC (gas chromatography) and twenty-four components were identified. Among the tested fruit tree leaves, the main component was linolenic acid (49.09%). The level of essential fatty acids are over 50% in mulberry, grape and loquat leaves. PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) were major group of fatty acids present in oils of mulberry, fig, pomegranate, grape, and loquat leaves. Therefore, these oils can be considered as a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, avocado can be regarded as a new source for diabetic therapies.

Keywords: fatty acid compositions, total sugar contents, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, fruit tree leaves, Turkey

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15 Effects of Particle Size Distribution on Mechanical Strength and Physical Properties in Engineered Quartz Stone

Authors: Esra Arici, Duygu Olmez, Murat Ozkan, Nurcan Topcu, Furkan Capraz, Gokhan Deniz, Arman Altinyay

Abstract:

Engineered quartz stone is a composite material comprising approximately 90 wt.% fine quartz aggregate with a variety of particle size ranges and `10 wt.% unsaturated polyester resin (UPR). In this study, the objective is to investigate the influence of particle size distribution on mechanical strength and physical properties of the engineered stone slabs. For this purpose, granular quartz with two particle size ranges of 63-200 µm and 100-300 µm were used individually and mixed with a difference in ratios of mixing. The void volume of each granular packing was measured in order to define the amount of filler; quartz powder with the size of less than 38 µm, and UPR required filling inter-particle spaces. Test slabs were prepared using vibration-compression under vacuum. The study reports that both impact strength and flexural strength of samples increased as the mix ratio of the particle size range of 63-200 µm increased. On the other hand, the values of water absorption rate, apparent density and abrasion resistance were not affected by the particle size distribution owing to vacuum compaction. It is found that increasing the mix ratio of the particle size range of 63-200 µm caused the higher porosity. This led to increasing in the amount of the binder paste needed. It is also observed that homogeneity in the slabs was improved with the particle size range of 63-200 µm.

Keywords: engineered quartz stone, fine quartz aggregate, granular packing, mechanical strength, particle size distribution, physical properties.

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