Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 98

Search results for: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

98 Efficacy of Mixed Actinomycetes against Fusarium Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense

Authors: Jesryl B. Paulite, Irene Alcantara-Papa, Teofila O. Zulaybar, Jocelyn T. Zarate, Virgie Ugay

Abstract:

Banana is one of the major fruits in the Philippines in terms of volume of production and export earnings. The Philippines export of fresh Cavendish banana ranked No.1 with 22% share. One major threat to the industry is Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. It tops as a major concern today affecting the Philippine banana industry since 2002 up to the present in Mindanao. Because of environmental and health issues concerning the use of chemical pesticides in the control of diseases, utilization of microorganisms has been significant in recent years as a promising alternative. This study aims to evaluate the potential of actinomycetes to control Fusarium wilt in Cavendish banana. The in-vitro experiments was carried out in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) while field experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three treatments and three replications. Actinomycetes were isolated from mangrove soils in areas in Quezon and Bataan, Philippines. A total of 199 actinomycetes were isolated and 82 actinomycetes showed activity against the local Fusarium oxysporum (Foc) by agar plug assay. The test for antagonisms (AQ6, AQ30, and AQ121) of three best isolates Foc to were selected inhibiting Foc by 21.0mm, 22.0mm and 20.5mm, respectively. The same actinomycetes inhibited well Foc Tropical Race 4 showing 24.6 mm, 20.2mm and 19.0 mm zones of inhibition by agar plug assay, respectively. Combinations of the three isolates yielded an inhibition of 13.5 mm by cup cylinder assay. These findings led to the formulation of the mixed actinomycetes as biocontrol agents against Foc. A field experiment to evaluate the formulated mixed actinomycetes against Foc in a Foc infested field in Kinamayan, Sto Tomas, Davao Del Norte, Philippines. was conducted. Results showed that preventive method of application of the mixed actinomycetes against Foc showed promising results. A 56.66% mortality was observed in control set-up (no biocontrol agent added) compared to 33.33% mortality in preventive method. Further validation of the effectiveness of the mixed actinomycetes as biocontrol agent is presently being conducted in Asuncion, Davao Del Norte, Philippines.

Keywords: actinomycetes, biocontrol agents, cavendish banana, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

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97 Combined Aplication of Indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens and the AM Fungi as the Potential Biocontrol Agents of Banana Fusarium wilt

Authors: Eri Sulyanti, Trimurti Habazar, Eti Farda Husen, Abdi Dharma, Nasril Nasir

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In this study, combination of some biocontrol agents with different mechanisms was an alternative to improve the effectiveness of the biological control agents. Single and combined applications of indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens and Arbuscular Mychorrhizae Fungi (AM Fungi) isolates were tested to induce the resistance on susceptible Cavendish banana against F.oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 under greenhouse conditions. These isolates originally isolated from healthy banana rhizosphere at endemic Fusarium wilt areas in the centre of production banana in West Sumatra. These researches were conducted with Randomized Block Design with 16 treatments and 10 replications. The treatments were three indigenous isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Par1-Cv, Par4-Rj1, Par2-Jt1) and 3 isolates of AM Fungi (Gl1BuA4, Gl2BuA6, and Gl1KeP3. The biocontrol agents were applied as single agents and combination two of them. This study demonstrated that the application of combination biocontrol organisms Pseudomonas fluorescens and AM Fungi provided were more effective than single application. The combination of Par1-Cv and Gl1BuA4 isolates was the most effective to control Fusarium wilt and followed by the combination of Par1-Cv and Gl2BuA6 and Par2-Jt1 and Gl1P3.

Keywords: pseudomonad fluorescens (Pf), arbuscular mychorrhizae fungi (AM Fungi) indigenous isolates, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, soil rhizosphere

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96 Mechanisms Involved in Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt

Authors: Bensaid Fatiha

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The objective of our present work is the description of the antagonistic capacities of one strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens and the nonpathogenic fungic isolate Fusarium oxysporum against phytopathogenic agent Fusarium oxysporum F. Sp. lycopersici. This work has been achieved in two main parts: the first is interested on the in vitro antagonistic activities; the second was interested to study the soil receptiveness of fusarium wilt tomato. The use of strain of fluorescent Pseudomonas and a non-pathogenic strain of F. oxysporum in the different antagonism tests, has allowed assuring a certain bio-protection from the plants of tomatoes opposite to F. oxysporum F. Sp. lycopersici, agent of a wilt of tomato. These antagonistic have shown a substantial in vitro antagonistic activity on the three mediums (KB, PDA, KB+PDA) against F. oxysporum F. Sp. lycopersici, by inhibiting its growth mycelium with rate of inhibition going until 80 % with non-pathogen of Fusarium oxysporum and 60 % with strain of fluorescens Pseudomonas. Soil microbial balance, between the antagonistic population and that of pathogenic, can be modulated through microbiological variations or abiotic additives influencing directly or indirectly the metabolic behavior microbial. In this experiment, addition of glucose or EDTA, could increase or decrease the resistance of soil by activation of pathogenic or antagonists, as a result of modification and modulation in their metabolic activities.

Keywords: fluorescents, nonpathogenic, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium wilt, antagonism, biological control, soil receptivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
95 Physiological Insight into an Age Old Biocontrol Practice in Banana Cultivation

Authors: Susmita Goswami, Joyeeta Mitra, Indu Gaur, Neha Bhadauria, Shilpi Shilpi, Prabir K. Paul

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'Malbhog’, an indigenous banana variety, much prized for its flavour and delicacy suffers production losses due to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The pathogen enters young plants through feeder roots causing wilting of plants ultimately leading to death of plants. The pathogen spreads rapidly to other plants in the field. In eastern part of India, this variety escapes the onslaught of the pathogen when either co-cultivated or rotated with Amorphophallus campanulatus (yam). The present study provides an insight into the physiological aspect of the biocontrol by yam. In vitro application of sterile aqueous extract of yam tuber (100gm/100ml distilled water and its 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions) were mixed with PDA media which was substantially inoculated with spores of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The extract could significantly reduce germination of pathogen spores. Banana variety susceptible to Fusarium sp was raised in soil rite under aseptic conditions. Spores of the pathogen (106 spores/ml) were inoculated into the soil rite. The plants were spread with aqueous extract of yam. The control plants were treated with sterilized distilled water. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) were estimated in leaves and roots at interval of 24 hours for 5 days after treatment. The incidence of wilt disease was recorded after two weeks. The results demonstrated that yam extract could induce significant activity of PAL, PPO and POX along with accumulation of phenols in both roots and leaves of banana plants. However, significantly high activity of enzymes and phenol accumulation was observed in roots. The disease incidence was significantly low in yam treated plants. The results clearly demonstrated the control of the pathogen due to induction of defense mechanism in the host by the extract. The observed control of the pathogen in the field could possibly be due to induction of such defense responses in host by exudates leached into the soil from yam tubers. Yam extract could be a potential source of environment-friendly biocide against Panama wilt of banana.

Keywords: Amorphophallus campanulatus, banana, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX)

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94 The Inhibitory Effect of Trichoderma sp. on Mycelial Growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and Alternaria solani

Authors: A. Y. Benabdellah, W. Lakhdari, A. Dahliz, Y. Bouchikh, A. Soud, R. M'lik, H. Hammi

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The direct comparison tests on the culture medium, between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici revealed that the latest one could inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum mycelial over than 40% compared to the control and that after four days of incubation at 26° C. Moreover, beyond this period and at the end of six days, Trichoderma sp. invading the colonies of F. oxysporum on what it sporule, thus revealing its power is highly myco-parasitic. Almost similar results were obtained against Alternaria solani is also a pathogen which is not causing a lot of damage, but we found it more sensitive to Trichoderma sp. with a percentage of inhibition more than 50%. So due to the in vitro test of Trichoderma sp. against these aggressive pathogens by direct contact has been found that can inhibit their mycelial growth with high speed and a high inhibition rate.

Keywords: Trichoderma sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, Alternaria solani, biological control, antagonist

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93 Biocontrol Effectiveness of Indigenous Trichoderma Species against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici on Tomato

Authors: Hajji Lobna, Chattaoui Mayssa, Regaieg Hajer, M'Hamdi-Boughalleb Naima, Rhouma Ali, Horrigue-Raouani Najet

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In this study, three local isolates of Trichoderma (Tr1: T. viride, Tr2: T. harzianum and Tr3: T. asperellum) were isolated and evaluated for their biocontrol effectiveness under in vitro conditions and in greenhouse. In vitro bioassay revealed a biopotential control against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici and Meloidogyne javanica (RKN) separately. All species of Trichoderma exhibited biocontrol performance and (Tr1) Trichoderma viride was the most efficient. In fact, growth rate inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) was reached 75.5% with Tr1. Parasitism rate of root-knot nematode was 60% for juveniles and 75% for eggs with the same one. Pots experiment results showed that Tr1 and Tr2, compared to chemical treatment, enhanced the plant growth and exhibited better antagonism against root-knot nematode and root-rot fungi separated or combined. All Trichoderma isolates revealed a bioprotection potential against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici. When pathogen fungi inoculated alone, Fusarium wilt index and browning vascular rate were reduced significantly with Tr1 (0.91, 2.38%) and Tr2 (1.5, 5.5%), respectively. In the case of combined infection with Fusarium and nematode, the same isolate of Trichoderma Tr1 and Tr2 decreased Fusarium wilt index at 1.1 and 0.83 and reduced the browning vascular rate at 6.5% and 6%, respectively. Similarly, the isolate Tr1 and Tr2 caused maximum inhibition of nematode multiplication. Multiplication rate was declined at 4% with both isolates either tomato infected by nematode separately or concomitantly with Fusarium. The chemical treatment was moderate in activity against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici alone and combined.

Keywords: trichoderma spp., meloidogyne javanica, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.radicis lycopersici, biocontrol

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92 The Transcriptome of Carnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus) of Elicited Cells with Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Dianthi

Authors: Juan Jose Filgueira, Daniela Londono-Serna, Liliana Maria Hoyos

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Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is one of the most important products of exportation in the floriculture industry worldwide. Fusariosis is the disease that causes the highest losses on farms, in particular the one produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, called vascular wilt. Gene identification and metabolic routes of the genes that participate in the building of the plant response to Fusarium are some of the current targets in the carnation breeding industry. The techniques for the identifying of resistant genes in the plants, is the analysis of the transcriptome obtained during the host-pathogen interaction. In this work, we report the cell transcriptome of different varieties of carnation that present differential response from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi attack. The cells of the different hybrids produced in the outbreeding program were cultured in vitro and elicited with the parasite in a dual culture. The isolation and purification of mRNA was achieved by using affinity chromatography Oligo dT columns and the transcriptomes were obtained by using Illumina NGS techniques. A total of 85,669 unigenes were detected in all the transcriptomes analyzed and 31,000 annotations were found in databases, which correspond to 36.2%. The library construction of genic expression techniques used, allowed to recognize the variation in the expression of genes such as Germin-like protein, Glycosyl hydrolase family and Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. These have been reported in this study for the first time as part of the response mechanism to the presence of Fusarium oxysporum.

Keywords: Carnation, Fusarium, vascular wilt, transcriptome

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91 Effect of Garlic Powder Extract on Fungi Isolated from Diseased Irish Potato in Bokkos, Plateau State Nigeria

Authors: Musa Filibus Gugu

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An investigation was carried out on the effect of garlic powder extract on fungi associated with Irish potato rot in Bokkos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Diseased Irish potatoes were randomly collected from three markets in the study location and fungal species isolated. Isolated fungal species were Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pytophthora infestans. Frequency of occurrence for Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pytophthora infestans was 10%, 34%, and 56%, respectively, using sabauraud dextrose agar, after incubation for 4-7 days. Treatment of Pytophthora infestans with garlic powder extract at concentrations of 0.5g/ml, 0.4g/ml, 0.3gml, 0.2g/ml and 0.1g/ml showed 100%, 92%, 68%, 32% and 10% inhibition zones, respectively. Fusarium culmorum showed 100%, 90%, 40%, 9% and 0% inhibition zones when treated with garlic powder extract at concentrations of 0.5g/ml, 0.4g/ml, 0.3gml, 0.2g/ml and 0.1g/ml, respectively. Garlic powder extract concentrations of 0.5g/ml, 0.4g/ml, 0.3gml, 0.2g/ml and 0.1g/ml showed 100%, 98%, 55%, 30%, 0% inhibition zones, respectively on Fusarium oxysporum. Hence, Restriction of the radial growth of the fungal colonies suggests a good antifungal effect of garlic extract. This can be integrated into the treatment of fungal diseases of Irish potato in Bokkos, Nigeria, as this will help to reduce the indiscriminate use of fungicides, especially in an environment with a struggling economy.

Keywords: fungal rot, garlic extract, inhibition zone, Irish potato

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90 Chemical-Induced Mutation for Development of Resistance in Banana cv. Nanjangud rasabale

Authors: H. Kishor, G. Prabhuling, D. S. Ambika, D. P. Prakash

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The chemical mutagens have become important tool to enhance agronomic traits of banana crop. It is being used to develop fusarium resistance lines in various susceptible banana cultivars. There are several mutagens like EMS and NaN3 available for banana crop improvement and each mutagen has its own important role as positive or negative effects on growth and development of banana plants. Explants from shoot tip culture were treated with various EMS (0.30, 0.60, 0.90 and 0.12%) and NaN3 (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03%) concentrations. The putative mutants obtained after in vitro rooting were subjected for artificial inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. Screening putative mutants resistance to Panama disease was carried out by using syringe method of inoculation. It was observed that, EMS treated mutants were more susceptible compared to NaN3 treatment. Among the NaN3 doses 0.01% found to produce 3 resistant lines during preliminary screening under greenhouse conditions.

Keywords: Nanjangud rasabale, EMS, NaN3, putative mutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
89 Use of Different Plant Extracts in Fungal Disease Management of Onion (Allium cepa. L)

Authors: Shobha U. Jadhav

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Onion is most important vegetable crop grown throughout the world. Onion suffers from pest and fungal diseases but these fungicides cause pollution and disturb microbial balance of soil. Under integrated fungal disease management programme cost effective and eco- friendly component like plant extract are used to control plant pathogens. Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporium, Stemphylium vesicarium are soil-borne pathogens of onion. Effect of three different plant extracts (Ocimum sanctum L., Xanthium strumarium B. and H. Withania somnifera Dunal)at five different concentration Viz, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 percentage on these pathogens was studied by food poisoning technique. Ocimum sanctum gave 84.21% growth of Alternaria porri at 10% extract concentration and 10.52% growth in 100% extract concentration. As compared to Fusarium oxysporium and Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria porri give good inhibitory response. In Xanthium strumarium B. and H. at 10% extract concentration 46.42% growth and at 100% extract concentration 28.57% growth of Fusarium oxysporum was observed. Fusarium oxysporum give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium. In Withania somnifera Dunal in 10% extract concentration 84.21% growth and in 100% extract concentration 21.05% growth of Stemphylium vesicarium was recorded. Stemphylium vesicarium give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Fusarium oxysporum.

Keywords: pathogen, onion, plant, extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
88 Chemical Control Management Strategies for Corm Rot in Gladiolus communis L. under Field Conditions

Authors: Shahbaz Ahmad, Muhammad Ali, Sahar Naz

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Corm rot is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli and it causes remarkable losses to the growers. Experiment was conducted in order to find some viable recommendations for this agronomically as well as economically important problem. Four fungicides, namely Carbendazim, Mancozeb, Thiophanate methyl and Chlorothalonil were used to control corm rot in gladiolus field. Fungicides were applied singly as foliar, in irrigation as well as with sulphuric acid in variable doses. The results revealed that application of all fungicides was variably effective to control corm rot in acid mixed irrigation followed by fungicide in irrigation. The application of all fungicides in various combinations was observed to be ineffective at all three doses.

Keywords: gladiolus, corm rot, Fusarium oxysporum, fungicides

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87 Screening Maize for Compatibility with F. Oxysporum to Enhance Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze Resistance

Authors: Admire Isaac Tichafa Shayanowako, Mark Laing, Hussein Shimelis

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Striga asiatica is among the leading abiotic constraints to maize production under small-holder farming communities in southern African. However, confirmed sources of resistance to the parasitic weed are still limited. Conventional breeding programmes have been progressing slowly due to the complex nature of the inheritance of Striga resistance, hence there is a need for more innovative approaches. This study aimed to achieve partial resistance as well as to breed for compatibility with Fusarium oxysporum fsp strigae, a soil fungus that is highly specific in its pathogenicity. The agar gel and paper roll assays in conjunction with a glass house pot trial were done to select genotypes based on their potential to stimulate germination of Striga and to test the efficacy of Fusarium oxysporum as a biocontrol agent. Results from agar gel assays showed a moderate to high potential in the release of Strigalactones among the 33 OPVs. Maximum Striga germination distances from the host root of 1.38 cm and up to 46% germination were observed in most of the populations. Considerable resistance was observed in a landrace ‘8lines’ which had the least Striga germination percentage (19%) with a maximum distance of 0.93 cm compared to the resistant check Z-DPLO-DTC1 that had 23% germination at a distance of 1.4cm. The number of fusarium colony forming units significantly deferred (P < 0.05) amongst the genotypes growing between germination papers. The number of crown roots, length of primary root and fresh weight of shoot and roots were highly correlated with concentration of fusarium macrospore counts. Pot trials showed significant differences between the fusarium coated and the uncoated treatments in terms of plant height, leaf counts, anthesis-silks intervals, Striga counts, Striga damage rating and Striga vigour. Striga emergence counts and Striga flowers were low in fusarium treated pots. Plants in fusarium treated pots had non-significant differences in height with the control treatment. This suggests that foxy 2 reduces the impact of Striga damage severity. Variability within fusarium treated genotypes with respect to traits under evaluation indicates the varying degree of compatibility with the biocontrol.

Keywords: maize, Striga asiaitca, resistance, compatibility, F. oxysporum

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86 Morphological and Biological Identification of Fusarium Species Associated with Ear Rot Disease of Maize in Indonesia and Malaysia

Authors: Darnetty Baharuddin Salleh

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Fusarium ear rot disease is one of the most important diseases of maize and not only causes significant losses but also produced harmful mycotoxins to animals and humans. A total of 141 strains of Fusarium species were isolated from maize plants showing typical ear rot symptoms in Indonesia, and Malaysia by using the semi-selective medium (peptone pentachloronitrobenzene agar, PPA). These strains were identified morphologically. For strains in Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (Gfsc), the identification was continued by using biological identification. Three species of Fusarium were morphologically identified as Fusarium in Gibberella species complex (105 strains, 74.5%), F. verticillioides (78 strains), F. proliferatum (24 strains) and F. subglutinans (3 strains) and five species from other section (36 strains, 25.5%), F. graminearum (14 strains), F. oxysporum (8 strains), F. solani ( 1 strain), and F. semitectum (13 strains). Out of 105 Fusarium species in Gfsc, 63 strains were identified as MAT-1, 25 strains as MAT-2 and 17 strains could not be identified and in crosses with nine standard testers, three mating populations of Fusarium were identified as MP-A, G. moniliformis (68 strains, 64.76%), MP-D, G. intermedia (21 strains, 20%) and MP-E, G. subglutinans (3 strains, 2.9%), and 13 strains (12.38%) could not be identified. All trains biologically identified as MP-A, MP-D, and MP-E, were identified morphologically as F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans, respectively. Thus, the results of this study indicated that identification based on biological identification were consistent with those of morphological identification. This is the first report on the presence of MP-A, MP-D, and MP-E on ear rot-infected maize in Indonesia; MP-A and MP-E in Malaysia.

Keywords: Fusarium, MAT-1, MAT-2, MP-A, MP-D, MP-E

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85 Study of Pathogenicity and Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis by Isozymes Systemes

Authors: Abouamama Sidaoui, Noureddine Karkachi, Mebrouk Kihal

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The characteristics of Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. albedinis (Foa) isolates were investigated using electrophoretic studies of isozymes systems (esterase and phosphatase). All the (F.o.a) isolates were pathogenic to the date palm seedlings cultivar Deglet Nour, but they did not induce any disease symptoms on control plants. Fusarium sp. isolated from soil did not show aggression against these seedlings. The isoenzymes profiles revealed polymorphic bands. The data were subjected to analysis with the JMP method. The isolates were delineated into two main groups A and B which were divided into sub-groups. 19 isolates create the group A, and four isolates (E1, E2, E3 and M15A) formed the group B. Analysis of isozyme banding patterns was found to be a reliable marker technology, efficient, and effective tools to find the genetic variability among isolates isolated in different geographical areas.

Keywords: genetic diversity, Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. albedinis, isozyme analysis, pathogenicity

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84 Screening of Indigenous Rhizobacteria for Growth Promoting and Antagonistic Activity against Fusarium Oxysporoum in Tomato

Authors: Mohammed H. Abu-Dieyeh, Mohammad M. Zalloum

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Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to enhance plant growth and/or reduce plant damage due to soil-borne pathogens. Tomato is the highest consumable vegetable world-wide including Jordan. Fusarium oxysporum is a pathogen that causes well-known damages and losses to many vegetable crops including tomato. In this study, purification of 112 isolates of PGPR strains from rhizosphere environment of different regions in Jordan was accomplished. All bacterial isolates were In-vitro screened for antagonistic effects against F. oxysporum. The eleven most effective isolates that caused 30%-50% in-vitro growth reduction of F. oxysporum were selected. 8 out of 11 of these isolates were collected from Al-Halabat (arid-land). 7 isolates of Al-Halabat exerted 40-54% In-vitro growth reduction of F. oxysporum. Four-week-old seedlings of tomato cultivar (Anjara, the most susceptible indigenous cultivar to F. oxysporum) treated with PGPR5 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens), and exposed to F. oxysporum, showed no disease symptoms and no significant changes in biomasses or chlorophyll contents indicating a non-direct mechanism of action of PGPR on tomato plants. However PGPR3 (Bacillus sp.), PGPR4 (Bacillus cereus), and PGPR38 (Paenibacillus sp.) treated plants or PGPR treated and exposed to F. oxysporum showed a significant increasing growth of shoot and root biomasses as well as chlorophyll contents of leaves compared to control untreated plants or plants exposed to the fungus without PGPR treatment. A significant increase in number of flowers per plant was also recorded in all PGPR treated plants. The characterization of rhizobacterial strains were accomplished using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in addition to microscopic characterization. Further research is necessary to explore the potentiality of other collected PGPR isolates on tomato plants in addition to investigate the efficacy of the identified isolates on other plant pathogens and then finding a proper and effective methods of formulation and application of the successful isolates on selected crops.

Keywords: antagonism, arid land, growth promoting, rhizobacteria, tomato

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83 Potential for Biological Control of Postharvest Fungal Rot of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) Tubers in Storage with Trichoderma harzianum

Authors: Victor Iorungwa Gwa, Ebenezer Jonathan Ekefan

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Potential of Trichoderma harzianum for biological control of postharvest fungal rot of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) tubers in storage was studied. Pathogenicity test revealed the susceptibility of healthy looking yam tubers to Aspergillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonganae after fourteen days of inoculation. Treatments comprising A. niger, B. theobromae, and F. oxysporum each paired with T. harzianum and were arranged in completely randomized design and stored for five months. Experiments were conducted between December 2015 and April 2016 and December 2016 and April 2017. Results showed that tubers treated with the pathogenic fungi alone caused mean percentage rot of between 6.67 % (F. oxysporum) and 22.22 % (A. niger) while the paired treatments produced only between 2.22 % (T. harzianum by F. oxysporum) and 6.67 % (T. harzianum by A. niger). In the second year of storage, mean percentage rot was found to be between 13.33 % (F. oxysporum) and 28.89 % (A. niger) while in the paired treatment rot was only between 6.67 % (F. oxysporum) and 8.89% (A. niger). Tubers treated with antagonist alone produced 0.00 % and 2.22 % in the first and second year, respectively. Result revealed that there was a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in mean percentage rot between the first year and the second year except where B. theobromae was inoculated alone, A. niger and T. harzianum paired and B. theobromae and T. harzianum paired. The most antagonised fungus in paired treatment for both years was F. oxysporum f. sp. melonganae, while the least antagonised, was A. niger and B. theobromae. It is, therefore, concluded that T. harzianum has potentials to control rot causing pathogens of yam tubers in storage. This can compliment or provide better alternative ways of reducing rot in yam tubers than by the use of chemical fungicides which are not environmentally friendly.

Keywords: biological control, fungal rot, postharvest, Trichoderma harzianum, white yam

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82 Endophytic Fungi Recovered from Lycium arabicum as an Eco-Friendly Alternative for Fusarium Crown and Root Rot Disease Control and Tomato Growth Enhancement

Authors: Ahlem Nefzi, Rania Aydi Ben Abdallah, Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine, Ammar Nawaim, Rabiaa Haouala, Mejda Daami-Remadi

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Seven endophytic fungi were isolated from the wild Solanaceous species Lycium arabicum growing in the Tunisian Centre-East and were assessed for their ability to suppress Fusarium Crown and Root Rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) and to enhance plant growth. Fungal isolates were shown able to colonize tomato cv. Rio Grande roots, crowns, and stems. A significant promotion in all studied growth parameters (root length, shoot height, and roots and shoots fresh weight) was recorded in tomato plants treated with fungal conidial suspensions or their cell-free culture filtrates compared to FORL-inoculated or pathogen-free controls. I15 and I18 isolates were shown to be the most effective leading to 85.7-87.5 and 93.6-98.4% decrease in leaf and root damage index and the vascular discoloration extent, respectively, over FORL-inoculated and untreated control. These two bioactive and growth-promoting isolates (I15 and I18) were morphologically characterized and identified using rDNA sequencing gene as being Alternaria alternata (MF693801) and Fusarium fujikuroi (MF693802). These fungi significantly suppressed FORL mycelial growth and showed chitinolytic, proteolytic and amylase activities whereas only F. fujikuroi displayed a lipolytic activity. This study clearly demonstrated the potential use of fungi naturally associated with L. arabicum as biocontrol and bio-fertilizing agents.

Keywords: biocontrol, endophytic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, tomato promotion, Lycium arabicum

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
81 Antifungal Potential of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Infecting Kidney Beans

Authors: Zhazira Shemsheyeva, Zhanara Suleimenova, Olga Shemshura, Gulnaz Mombekova, Zhanar Rakhmetova

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Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). They not only provide nutrients to the plants (direct plant growth promotion) and protect plants against the phytopathogens (indirect plant growth promotion) but also increase the soil fertility. Indirectly PGPRs improve the plant growth by becoming a biocontrol agent for a fungal pathogen. The antifungal activities of the PGPrhizobacteria were assayed against different species of phytopathogenic fungi such as Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotiniasclerotiorum, and Botrytis cinerea. Pseudomonas putidaSM-1, Azotobacter sp., and Bacillus thuringiensis AKS/16 strains have been used in experimental tests on growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi infecting Kidney beans. Agar well diffusion method was used in this study. Diameters of the zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. It was found that Bacillus thuringiensis AKS/16 strain showed the lowest antifungal activity against all fungal pathogens tested. Zones of inhibition were 15-18 mm. In contrast, Pseudomonas putida SM-1 exhibited good antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium tricinctum by producing 29-30 mm clear zones of inhibition. The moderate inhibitory effect was shown by Azotobacter sp. against all fungal pathogens tested with zones of inhibition from24 to 26 mm. In summary, Pseudomonas putida SM-1 strain demonstrated the potential of controlling root rot diseases in kidney beans.

Keywords: PGPR, pseudomonas putida, kindey beans, antifungal activity

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80 Biological Control of Fusarium Crown and Root and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Growth Promotion Using Endophytic Fungi from Withania somnifera L.

Authors: Nefzi Ahlem, Aydi Ben Abdallah Rania, Jabnoun-Khiareddine Hayfa, Ammar Nawaim, Mejda Daami-Remadi

Abstract:

Fusarium Crown and Root Rot (FCRR) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) is a serious tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) disease in Tunisia. Its management is very difficult due to the long survival of its resting structures and to the luck of genetic resistance. In this work, we explored the wild Solanaceae species Withania somnifera, growing in the Tunisian Centre-East, as a potential source of biocontrol agents effective in FCRR suppression and tomato growth promotion. Seven fungal isolates were shown able to colonize tomato roots, crowns, and stems. Used as conidial suspensions or cell-free culture filtrates, all tested fungal treatments significantly enhanced tomato growth parameters by 21.5-90.3% over FORL-free control and by 27.6-93.5% over pathogen-inoculated control. All treatments significantly decreased the leaf and root damage index by 28.5-92.8 and the vascular browning extent 9.7-86.4% over FORL-inoculated and untreated control. The highest disease suppression ability (decrease by 86.4-92.8% in FCRR severity) over pathogen-inoculated control and by 81.3-88.8 over hymexazol-treated control) was expressed by I6 based treatments. This endophytic fungus was morphologically characterized and identified using rDNA sequencing gene as Fusarium sp. I6 (MG835371). This fungus was shown able to reduce FORL radial growth by 58.5–83.2% using its conidial suspension or cell-free culture filtrate. Fusarium sp. I6 showed chitinolytic, proteolytic and amylase activities. The current study clearly demonstrated that Fusarium sp. (I6) is a promising biocontrol candidate for suppressing FCRR severity and promoting tomato growth. Further investigations are required for elucidating its mechanism of action involved in disease suppression and plant growth promotion.

Keywords: antifungal activity, associated fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, Withania somnifera, tomato growth

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79 Induced Systemic Resistance in Tomato Plants against Fusarium Wilt Disease Using Biotic Inducers

Authors: Mostafa A. Amer, I. A. El-Samra, I. I. Abou-ElSeoud, S. M. El-Abd, N. K. Shawertamimi

Abstract:

Tomato Fusarium wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopercisi (FOL) is considered one of the most destructive diseases in Egypt. Effect of some biotic inducers such as Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum, Glomus intraradices and Glomus macrocarpum at seven different mixed treatments, was tested for their ability to induce resistance in tomato plants against the disease. According to pathogenicity tests, all the tested isolates of FOL showed wilt symptoms on both of the tested cultivars; however, they considerably varied in percentages of disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS). Castle Rock was more susceptible than Peto 86, which was relatively resistant. Pretreatment of both cultivars, under greenhouse conditions, with the tested biotic inducers alone or in combination with each other's, significantly increased the induction of chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase and reduced disease incidence and severity, compared with untreated noninoculated (C1) and untreated inoculated (C2) controls. Application of a combination of BMP, with GI and GM was the most effective in increasing the induction rated of the tested enzymes, compared with the other treatments. Induction of enzymes in most of the tested bioinducers treatments gradually increased, attaining maximum values after 48 or/and 72 hrs after challenging with FOL, then gradually declined. GI was the least effective bioinducer.

Keywords: F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, defense enzymes, induced systemic resistance, ISR, B. megaterium var. phosphaticum, G. macrocarpum, G. intraradices

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78 Enhancing Inhibition on Phytopathogens by Complex Using Biogas Slurry

Authors: Fang-Bo Yu, Li-Bo Guan, Sheng-Dao Shan

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Biogas slurry was mixed with six commercial fungicides and screening against 11 phytopathogens was carried out. Results showed that inhibition of biogas slurry was different for the test strains and no significant difference between treatments of Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia cerealis, F. graminearum and Septoria tritici was observed. However, significant differences were found among Penicillium sp., Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria sonali, F. oxysporum F. sp. melonis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The approach described here presents a promising alternative to current manipulation although some issues still need further examination. This study could contribute to the development of sustainable agriculture and better utilization of biogas slurry.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas slurry, phytopathogen, sustainable agriculture

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77 The Biofumigation Activity of Volatile Compounds Produced from Trichoderma afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0090 and Trichoderma afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0091 against Fusarium Infections in Fresh Chilies

Authors: Sarunpron Khruengsai, Patcharee Pripdeevech

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the fumigation activities of the volatile compounds produced by Trichoderma spp. against Fusarium oxysporum and F. proliferatum fungi that cause significant rot in fresh chilies. Two Trichoderma spp. were isolated from the leaves of Schefflera leucantha grown in Thailand and later identified as T. afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0090 and T. afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0091. Both in vitro and in vivo dual culture volatile assays were used to study the effects of the produced volatile compounds on mycelial growth. In vitro results showed that the volatile compounds produced by T. afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0090 significantly inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum, while the volatile compounds produced by T. afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0091 significantly inhibited the growth of F. proliferatum. The effectiveness of Trichoderma-derived volatile compounds in inhibiting the mycelial growth of the selected pathogens in the inoculated, fresh chili samples was further demonstrated in vivo. The volatile profiles of both Trichoderma spp. were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-three volatile compounds were detected from both strains. Among the major volatile compounds detected, phenyl ethyl alcohol was found to possess the strongest antifungal activity against both pathogens. The results support the possibility of using volatile compounds produced by T. afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0090 and T. afroharzianum MFLUCC19-0091 as alternative fumigants for preventing Fusarium rot of fresh chilies during the post-harvest period.

Keywords: antifungal activity, biocontrol, endophytic fungi, post-harvest

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76 Bioprotective Role of Soil Borne Bacillus Strains against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Agriculture Relevance

Authors: Asad Ali, Asif Jamal

Abstract:

The agriculture productivity losses due to microbial pathogens have been a serious issue in Pakistan and rest of the world. Present work was designed to isolate soil borne microorganisms having the antagonistic ability against notorious phytopathogens. From the initial collection of 23 bacterial isolates, two potent strains of Bacillus were screened on the basis of their comparative efficacy against devastating fungal pathogens. The strains AK-1 and AK-5 showed excellent inhibitory indexes against the majority of tested fungal strains. It was noted that both strains of Bacillus showed significant biocontrolling activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotricum falcatum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythopthora capsici and Rhizopus oryzae. The strain AK-1 was efficient to suppress Aspergillus species and Rhizopus oryzae while AK-5 expressed significant antagonistic activity against Fusarium, Botrytis and Colletotricum species. On the basis of in vitro assay, it can be postulated that the Bacillus strains AK-1 and AK-5 can be used as bio-protective agent against various plant diseases. In addition, their applications as natural pesticides could be very helpful to prevent the adverse effects of chemical pesticides.

Keywords: bacillus species, biocontrol agent, biopesticides, phytopathogens

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
75 Bioprotective Role of Soil Borne Bacillus Strain against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Agriculture Relevance

Authors: Asif Jamal, Asad Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq Ali

Abstract:

The agriculture productivity losses due to microbial pathogens have been a serious issue in Pakistan and rest of the world. Present work was designed to isolate soil borne microorganisms having the antagonistic ability against notorious phytopathogens. From the initial collection of 23 bacterial isolates, two potent strains of Bacillus were screened on the basis of their comparative efficacy against devastating fungal pathogens. The strains AK-1 and AK-5 showed excellent inhibitory indexes against the majority of tested fungal strains. It was noted that both strains of Bacillus showed significant biocontrolling activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotricum falcatum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythopthora capsici and Rhizopus oryzae. The strain AK-1 was efficient to suppress Aspergillus species and Rhizopus oryzae while AK-5 expressed significant antagonistic activity against Fusarium, Botrytis, and Colletotricum species. On the basis of in vitro assay, it can be postulated that the Bacillus strains AK-1 and AK-5 can be used as a bio-protective agent against various plant diseases. In addition, their applications as natural pesticides could be very helpful to prevent the adverse effects of chemical pesticides.

Keywords: biological control, Bacillus spp, fungal pathogens, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
74 Biocontrol of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot and Enhancement of Tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. Growth Using Solanum linnaeanum L. Extracts

Authors: Ahlem Nefzi, Rania Aydi Ben Abdallah, Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine, Nawaim Ammar, Sined Medimagh-Saidana, Mejda Daami-Remadi

Abstract:

In the present study, leaf, stem, and fruit aqueous extracts of native wild Solanum linnaeanum L. were screened for their ability to suppress Fusarium Crown and Root Rot disease and to enhance tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growth under greenhouse conditions. Leaf extract used at 30% w/v was the most effective in reducing leaf and root damage index by 92.3% and the extent of vascular discoloration by 97.56% compared to Fusarium oxyxporum f. sp radicis lycopersici -inoculated and untreated control. A significant promotion of growth parameters (root length, shoot height, root and shoot biomass and stem diameter) was recorded on tomato cv. Rio Grande seedlings by 40.3-94.1% as compared to FORL inoculated control and by 9.6-88.8% over pathogen-free control. All S. linnaeanum aqueous extracts tested significantly stimulated the germination by 10.2 to 80.1% relative to the untreated control. FORL mycelial growth, assessed using the poisoned food technique, varied depending on plant organs, extracts, and concentrations used. Butanolic extracts were the most active, leading to 60.81% decrease in FORL mycelial growth. HPLC analysis of butanolic extract revealed the presence of thirteen phenolic compounds. Thus, S. linnaeanum can be explored as a potential natural source of antifungal and biofertilizing compounds.

Keywords: antifungal activity, HPLC-MS analysis, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, tomato growth

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73 Improving the Digestibility of Agro-Industrial Co-Products by Treatment with Isolated Fungi in the Meknes-Morocco Region

Authors: Mohamed Benaddou, Mohammed Diouri

Abstract:

country, such as Morocco, generates a high quantity of agricultural and food industry residues. A large portion of these residues is disposed of by burning or landfilling. The valorization of this waste biomass as feed is an interesting alternative because it is therefore considered among the best sources of cheap carbohydrates. However, its nutritional yield without any pre-treatment is very low because lignin protects cellulose, the carbohydrate used as a source of energy by ruminants. Fungal treatment is an environmentally friendly, easy and inexpensive method. This study investigated the treatment of wheat straw (WS), cedar sawdust (CS) and olive pomace (OP) with fungi selected according to the source of Carbon for improving its digestibility. Two were selected in a culture medium in which cellulose was the only source of Carbon: Cosmospora Viridescens (C.vir) and Penicillium crustosum (P.crus), two were selected in a culture medium in which lignin is the only source of Carbon: Fusarium oxysporum (F.oxy) and Fusarium sp. (F. Sp), and two in a culture medium where cellulose and lignin are the two sources of Carbon at the same time: Fusarium solani (F. solani) and Penicillium chrysogenum (P.chryso). P.chryso degraded more CS cellulose. It is very important to notice that the delignification by F. Solani reached 70% after 12 weeks of treatment of wheat straw. Ligninase enzymatic was detected in F.solani, F.sp, F.oxysporum, which made it possible to delignify the treated substrates. Delignification by C.vir is negligible in all three substrates after 12 weeks of treatment. P.crus and P.chryso degraded the lignin very slightly in WC (it did not exceed 12% after 12 weeks of treatment) but in OP this delignification is slight reaching 25% and 13% for P.chryso and P.crus successively. P.chryso allowed 30% degradation of lignin from 4 weeks of treatment. The degradation of the lignin was able to reach the maximum within 8 weeks of treatment for most of the fungi except F. solani who continued the treatment after this period. Digestibility variation (IVTD.variation) is highly very significant from fungus to fungi, duration to time, substrate to substrate and its interactions (P <0.001). indeed, all the fungi increased digestibility after 12 weeks of treatment with a difference in the degree of this increase. F.solani and F.oxy increased digestibility more than the others. this digestibility exceeded 50% in CS and O.P but did not exceed 20% for WS after treatment with F.oxy. IVTD.Var was not exceeded 20% in W.S.cedar treated with P.chryso but reached 45% after 8 weeks of treatment in W.straw.

Keywords: lignin, cellulose, digestibility, fungi, treatment, lignocellulosic biomass

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72 Antagonist Study of Fungi Isolated from the Burned Forests of Region of Mila, Algeria

Authors: Abdelaziz Wided, Khiat Nawel, Khiat Inssaf

Abstract:

The present study was initiated to: Determine burned forest-inhabiting fungi in Zouagha, Terri Beinène, Mila and study the antagonistic activity of Trichoderma sp against Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp, Rhizoctonia sp, Alternaria sp. 18 fungal strains were isolated from Soil samples taken from the forest Zouagha (Burned) in the region Mila representing 6 genera: Trichoderma sp et Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp, Rhizoctonia sp, Alternaria sp, Rhizopus sp. The tests of dual culture method on culture medium (PDA) against Trichoderma sp et Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp, Rhizoctonia sp, Alternaria sp revealed that: Trichoderma sp could reduce l mycelium grouth of Fusarium sp23.13%, Penicillium sp33.13%, Rhizoctoniasp33.75 %and Alternaria sp 38.31% in comparaison with the witness after 6 days at room temperature. The strains of Fusarium sp ,Penicillium sp, Rhizoctonia sp et Alternaria sp showed differences sensibility to the antagoniste.

Keywords: isolation, identification, molds, burned soil of zouagha, antagonism, trichoderma sp

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71 Evaluation of Toxicity of Some Fungicides Against the Pathogen Fusarium sp.

Authors: M. Djekoun, H. Berrebah, M. R. Djebar

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Fusarium wilt attacks the plants of major economic interest including wheat. This disease causes many problems for farmers and economic loss resulting are often very heavy. Chemical control is currently one of the most effective ways to fight against these diseases. In this study, the efficacy of three fungicides (tebuconazole, thiram and fludioxonil - difenoconazole mixture) was tested, in vitro, on the phytopathogenic Fusarium sp. isolated from seeds of wheat. The active ingredients were tested at different concentrations: 0.06, 1.39, 2.79, 5.58, and 11.16 mg/l for tebuconazole, 0.035, 0.052, 0.105, 0.21, and 0.42 mg/l for thiram and finally, for the mixture fludioxonil- difenoconazole 4 concentrations were tested : 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/l. Toxicity responses were expressed as the effective concentration, which inhibits mycelial growth by 50%, (EC50). Of the three selected fungicides, thirame proved to be the most effective with EC50 value of the order of 0,15 mg/l followed by the mixture of fludioxonil- difenoconazole with 0,27 mg/l and finally tebuconazole with a value of 3.79 mg/l.

Keywords: Fusarium sp, thiram, tebuconazole, fludioxonil, difenoconazole, EC50

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70 Effects of Some Fungicides on Mycelial Growth of Fusarium spp.

Authors: M. Djekoun, H. Berrebah, M. R. Djebar

Abstract:

Fusarium wilt is destructive disease of cereal crops with small grains. It affects yields but also the quality of the crop and economic losses arising are often very heavy. Chemical control is currently one of the most effective ways to fight against these diseases. In this study, the efficacy of three fungicides (tebuconazole, thiram, and fludioxonil-difenoconazole mixture) was tested. In vitro, on the phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. isolated from seeds of wheat. The active ingredients were tested at different concentrations: 0.06, 1.39, 2.79, 5.58, and 11.16 mg/l for tebuconazole, 0.035, 0.052, 0.105, 0.21, and 0.42 mg/l for thiram and finally, for the mixture fludioxonil-difenoconazole 4 concentrations were tested: 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/l. Toxicity responses were expressed as effective concentration, which inhibits mycelial growth by 50%, (EC50). Of the three selected fungicides, thirame proved to be the most effective with EC50 value of the order of 0,15 mg/l followed by the mixture of fludioxonil-difenoconazole with 0,27mg/l and finally tebuconazole with a value of 3.79 mg/l.

Keywords: Fusarium spp., thiram, tebuconazole, fludioxonil, difenoconazole, percentage of inhibition, EC50

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69 Characterization of Common Maize Ear Rot Pathogens in Ilesa Nigeria and Their Potential Control Using Selected Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

Authors: Olumayowa M. Olowe, Michael D. Asemoloye Odunayo J. Olawuyi, Hilda Vasanthakaalam

Abstract:

Poor management of maize ear rot caused by fungal infection in Nigeria affected the quantity and quality of maize. This study, therefore, aims at characterizing and controlling Fusarium strains using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Maize ear showing rot symptoms were obtained from some selected farms located at Ilesa East and West using random sampling technique. Isolation of Fusarium pathogen from infected maize grain was done using direct pour plate method on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and was characterized based on morphological and molecular ITS-amplification methods. The reaction of PVASYN8F2, T2LCOMP1STR SYN-W-1, and T2LCOMP4 maize varieties, to the Fusarium ear rot pathogens and biocontrol efficacy of the mycorrhizal fungi were assessed on growth, yield, agronomic parameters and symptoms observed. The strains; olowILH1 and olowILH2 identified as Fusarium napiforme were the most dominant and virulent pathogens associated with the maize. They showed genetic similarity with documented ear rot pathogens on NCBI with accession numbers Fusarium proliferatum KT224027, KT224023, and Fusarium sp AY237110. They both exhibited varying inhibitory effects on the three maize varieties compare to control (uninfected plant) which had better growth characteristics. It was also observed that strain olowILH1 was more virulent than olowILH2. T2LCOMP4 was generally more susceptible to both fungal strains compared to the other two maize (T2LCOMP1STR SYN-W-1 and T2LCOMP4 ). In all, strain olowILH1 was more virulent than olowILH2, and Glomus clarum had higher inhibitory pathogenic effect against Fusarium strains compared to G. deserticola.

Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, disease management, Fusarium strains, identification

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