Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Firouz Amani

37 Using Linear Logistic Regression to Evaluation the Patient and System Delay and Effective Factors in Mortality of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Firouz Amani, Adalat Hoseinian, Sajjad Hakimian


Background: The mortality due to Myocardial Infarction (MI) is often occur during the first hours after onset of symptom. So, for taking the necessary treatment and decreasing the mortality rate, timely visited of the hospital could be effective in this regard. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of effective factors in mortality of MI patients by using Linear Logistic Regression. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, all patients with Acute MI who referred to the Ardabil city hospital were studied. All of died patients were considered as the case group (n=27) and we select 27 matched patients without Acute MI as a control group. Data collected for all patients in two groups by a same checklist and then analyzed by SPSS version 24 software using statistical methods. We used the linear logistic regression model to determine the effective factors on mortality of MI patients. Results: The mean age of patients in case group was significantly higher than control group (75.1±11.7 vs. 63.1±11.6, p=0.001).The history of non-cardinal diseases in case group with 44.4% significantly higher than control group with 7.4% (p=0.002).The number of performed PCIs in case group with 40.7% significantly lower than control group with 74.1% (P=0.013). The time distance between hospital admission and performed PCI in case group with 110.9 min was significantly upper than control group with 56 min (P=0.001). The mean of delay time from Onset of symptom to hospital admission (patient delay) and the mean of delay time from hospital admissions to receive treatment (system delay) was similar between two groups. By using logistic regression model we revealed that history of non-cardinal diseases (OR=283) and the number of performed PCIs (OR=24.5) had significant impact on mortality of MI patients in compare to other factors. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that of all studied factors, the number of performed PCIs, history of non-cardinal illness and the interval between onset of symptoms and performed PCI have significant relation with morality of MI patients and other factors were not meaningful. So, doing more studies with a large sample and investigated other involved factors such as smoking, weather and etc. is recommended in future.

Keywords: acute MI, mortality, heart failure, arrhythmia

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36 Effects of Array Electrode Placement on Identifying Localised Muscle Fatigue

Authors: Mohamed R. Al-Mulla, Bader Al-Bader, Firouz K. Ghaaedi, Francisco Sepulveda


Surface electromyography (sEMG) is utilised in numerous studies on muscle activity. In the beginning, single electrodes were utilised; however, the newest approach is to use an array of electrodes or a grid of electrodes to improve the accuracy of the recorded reading. This research focuses on electrode placement on the biceps brachii, using an array of electrodes placed longitudinal and diagonally on the muscle belly. Trials were conducted on four healthy males, with sEMG signal acquisition from fatiguing isometric contractions. The signal was analysed using the power spectrum density. The separation between the two classes of fatigue (non-fatigue and fatigue) was calculated using the Davies-Bouldin Index (DBI). Results show that higher separability between the fatigue content of the sEMG signal when placed longitudinally, in the same direction as the muscle fibers.

Keywords: array electrodes, biceps brachii, electrode placement, EMG, isometric contractions, muscle fatigue

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35 Change Point Analysis in Average Ozone Layer Temperature Using Exponential Lomax Distribution

Authors: Amjad Abdullah, Amjad Yahya, Bushra Aljohani, Amani Alghamdi


Change point detection is an important part of data analysis. The presence of a change point refers to a significant change in the behavior of a time series. In this article, we examine the detection of multiple change points of parameters of the exponential Lomax distribution, which is broad and flexible compared with other distributions while fitting data. We used the Schwarz information criterion and binary segmentation to detect multiple change points in publicly available data on the average temperature in the ozone layer. The change points were successfully located.

Keywords: binary segmentation, change point, exponentialLomax distribution, information criterion

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34 WormHex: Evidence Retrieval Tool of Social Media from Volatile Memory

Authors: Norah Almubairik, Wadha Almattar, Amani Alqarni


Social media applications are increasingly being used in our everyday communications. These applications utilise end-to-end encryption mechanisms, which make them suitable tools for criminals to exchange messages. These messages are preserved in the volatile memory until the device is restarted. Therefore, volatile forensics has become an important branch of digital forensics. In this study, the WormHex tool was developed to inspect the memory dump files of Windows and Mac-based workstations. The tool supports digital investigators to extract valuable data written in Arabic and English through web-based WhatsApp and Twitter applications. The results verify that social media applications write their data into the memory regardless of the operating system running the application, with there being no major differences between Windows and Mac.

Keywords: volatile memory, REGEX, digital forensics, memory acquisition

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33 Integrated Model for Enhancing Data Security Performance in Cloud Computing

Authors: Amani A. Saad, Ahmed A. El-Farag, El-Sayed A. Helali


Cloud computing is an important and promising field in the recent decade. Cloud computing allows sharing resources, services and information among the people of the whole world. Although the advantages of using clouds are great, but there are many risks in a cloud. The data security is the most important and critical problem of cloud computing. In this research a new security model for cloud computing is proposed for ensuring secure communication system, hiding information from other users and saving the user's times. In this proposed model Blowfish encryption algorithm is used for exchanging information or data, and SHA-2 cryptographic hash algorithm is used for data integrity. For user authentication process a user-name and password is used, the password uses SHA-2 for one way encryption. The proposed system shows an improvement of the processing time of uploading and downloading files on the cloud in secure form.

Keywords: cloud Ccomputing, data security, SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, Blowfish

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32 Integrated Model for Enhancing Data Security Processing Time in Cloud Computing

Authors: Amani A. Saad, Ahmed A. El-Farag, El-Sayed A. Helali


Cloud computing is an important and promising field in the recent decade. Cloud computing allows sharing resources, services and information among the people of the whole world. Although the advantages of using clouds are great, but there are many risks in a cloud. The data security is the most important and critical problem of cloud computing. In this research a new security model for cloud computing is proposed for ensuring secure communication system, hiding information from other users and saving the user's times. In this proposed model Blowfish encryption algorithm is used for exchanging information or data, and SHA-2 cryptographic hash algorithm is used for data integrity. For user authentication process a simple user-name and password is used, the password uses SHA-2 for one way encryption. The proposed system shows an improvement of the processing time of uploading and downloading files on the cloud in secure form.

Keywords: cloud computing, data security, SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, Blowfish

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31 Investigating Physician-Induced Demand among Mental Patients in East Azerbaijan, Iran: A Multilevel Approach of Hierarchical Linear Modeling

Authors: Hossein Panahi, Firouz Fallahi, Sima Nasibparast


Background & Aim: Unnecessary growth in health expenditures of developing countries in recent decades, and also the importance of physicians’ behavior in health market, have made the theory of physician-induced demand (PID) as one of the most important issues in health economics. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to investigate the hypothesis of induced demand among mental patients who receive services from either psychologists or psychiatrists in East Azerbaijan province. Methods: Using data from questionnaires in 2020 and employing the theoretical model of Jaegher and Jegers (2000) and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), this study examines the PID hypothesis of selected psychologists and psychiatrists. The sample size of the study, after removing the questionnaires with missing data, is 45 psychologists and 203 people of their patients, as well as 30 psychiatrists and 160 people of their patients. Results: The results show that, although psychiatrists are ‘profit-oriented physicians’, there is no evidence of inducing unnecessary demand by them (PID), and the difference between the behavior of employers and employee doctors is due to differences in practice style. However, with regard to psychologists, the results indicate that they are ‘profit-oriented’, and there is a PID effect in this sector. Conclusion: According to the results, it is suggested that in order to reduce competition and eliminate the PID effect, the admission of students in the field of psychology should be reduced, patient information on mental illness should be increased, and government monitoring and control over the national health system must be increased.

Keywords: physician-induced demand, national health system, hierarchical linear modeling methods, multilevel modela

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30 Urea Amperometric Biosensor Based on Entrapment Immobilization of Urease onto a Nanostructured Polypyrrol and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube

Authors: Hamide Amani, Afshin FarahBakhsh, Iman Farahbakhsh


In this paper, an amprometric biosensor based on surface modified polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed for the quantitative estimation of urea in aqueous solutions. The incorporation of urease (Urs) into a bipolymeric substrate consisting of PPy was performed by entrapment to the polymeric matrix, PPy acts as amperometric transducer in these biosensors. To increase the membrane conductivity, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were added to the PPy solution. The entrapped MWCNT in PPy film and the bipolymer layers were prepared for construction of Pt/PPy/MWCNT/Urs. Two different configurations of working electrodes were evaluated to investigate the potential use of the modified membranes in biosensors. The evaluation of two different configurations of working electrodes suggested that the second configuration, which was composed of an electrode-mediator-(pyrrole and multi-walled carbon nanotube) structure and enzyme, is the best candidate for biosensor applications.

Keywords: urea biosensor, polypyrrole, multi-walled carbon nanotube, urease

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29 Annotation Ontology for Semantic Web Development

Authors: Hadeel Al Obaidy, Amani Al Heela


The main purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of semantic web and the role that ontology and semantic annotation plays in the development of semantic web services. The paper focuses on semantic web infrastructure illustrating how ontology and annotation work to provide the learning capabilities for building content semantically. To improve productivity and quality of software, the paper applies approaches, notations and techniques offered by software engineering. It proposes a conceptual model to develop semantic web services for the infrastructure of web information retrieval system of digital libraries. The developed system uses ontology and annotation to build a knowledge based system to define and link the meaning of a web content to retrieve information for users’ queries. The results are more relevant through keywords and ontology rule expansion that will be more accurate to satisfy the requested information. The level of results accuracy would be enhanced since the query semantically analyzed work with the conceptual architecture of the proposed system.

Keywords: semantic web services, software engineering, semantic library, knowledge representation, ontology

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28 Higher Order Thinking Skills Workshop: Faculty Professional Development and Its Effect on Their Teaching Strategies

Authors: Amani Hamdan


A post-workshop of higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), for faculty from diverse academic disciplines, was conducted and the researcher surveyed the participants’ intentions and plans to include HOTS as a goal, as learning and teaching task in their practices. Follow-up interviews with a random sample of participants were used to determine if they fulfilled their intentions three 3 months after the workshop. The degree of planned and enacted HOTS then was analyzed against the post-workshop HOT ability and knowledge. This is one topic that has not been adequately explored in faculty professional development literature where measuring the effect of learning on their ability to use what they learned. This qualitative method study explored a group of male and female faculty members (n=85) enrolled in HOTS 2 day workshop. The results showed that 89% of faculty members although were mostly enthused to apply what they learned after a 3 months period they were caught up with routine presentations and lecturing.

Keywords: higher education, faculty development, Saudi Arabia, higher order thinking skills

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27 Computational Study of Passive Scalar Diffusion of a Counterflowing round Jet

Authors: Amani Amamou, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Georges Le Palec


Round jets have been widely studied due to their important application in industry. Many configurations of round jet were encountered in literature as free jet, co-flow jet, couterflowing jet and cross flow jet. In this paper, we are concerned with turbulent round jet in uniform counterflow stream which is known to enhance mixing and dispersion efficiency owing to flow reversal. This type of flow configuration is a typical application in environmental engineering such as the disposal of wastewater into seas or rivers. A computational study of a turbulent circular jet discharging into a uniform counterflow is conducted in order to investigate the characteristics of the diffusion field of the jet effluent. The investigation is carried out for three different cases of jet-to-current velocity ratios; low, medium and high velocity ratios. The Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) is used in the comparison with available experimental measurements. The decay of the center line velocity and the dynamic proprieties of the flow together with the centerline dilution of the passive scalar and the other characteristics of the concentration field are computationally analyzed in this paper.

Keywords: Counterflow stream, jet, velocity, concentration

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26 Numerical Investigation of a Slightly Oblique Round Jet Flowing into a Uniform Counterflow Stream

Authors: Amani Amamou, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Philippe Bournot, Georges Le Palec


A counterflowing jet is a particular configuration of turbulent jets issuing into a moving ambient which has not carried much attention in literature compared with jet in a coflow or in a crossflow. This is due to the marked instability of the jet in a counterflow coupled with experimental and theoretical difficulties related to the flow inversion phenomenon. Nevertheless, jets in a counterflow are encountered in many engineering applications which required enhanced mixing as combustion, process and environmental engineering. In this work, we propose to investigate a round turbulent jet flowing into a uniform counterflow stream through a numerical approach. A hydrodynamic and thermal study of a slightly oblique round jets issuing into a uniform counterflow stream is carried out for different jet-to-counterflow velocity ratios ranging between 3.1 and 15. It is found that even a slight inclination of the jet in the vertical direction of the flow affects the structure and the velocity field of the counterflowing jet. In addition, the evolution of passive scalar temperature and pertinent length scales are presented at various velocity ratios, confirming that the flow is sensitive to directional perturbations.

Keywords: jet, counterflow, velocity, temperature, jet inclination

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25 Involvement in Health Policy and Political Efficacy among Hospital Nurses in Jordan: A Descriptive Survey

Authors: Raeda F. Abualrub, Amani Abdulnabi


Aim: The aims of this study were to (a) examine the levels of nurses' political efficacy and involvement in health policy; and (b) explore the relationships between political efficacy, involvement in health policy, and participants’ background variables. Background: Nurses as citizens and health care providers have the right to express their opinions and beliefs in regard to issues that are concerned with the health care system or the public health domain. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional design using was utilized. A self-administered questionnaire (Political Efficacy Scale & Involvement in Health Policy Scale) was completed by a convenience sample of 302 nurses. Results: The results of this study showed low levels of involvement in health policy and political efficacy and a positive weak correlation between political efficacy and involvement in health policy. The perceived level of political efficacy was associated positively with nurses’ age and experience. Conclusions: Nurse administrators and managers may empower, support, and encourage nurses to enhance their involvement in health policy. Implications for Nursing Management: The findings have implications for nursing leaders and administrators to design appropriate strategies to enhance nurses’ involvement in health policy development.

Keywords: health policy, Jordan, nurses, political efficacy

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24 Early Recognition and Grading of Cataract Using a Combined Log Gabor/Discrete Wavelet Transform with ANN and SVM

Authors: Hadeer R. M. Tawfik, Rania A. K. Birry, Amani A. Saad


Eyes are considered to be the most sensitive and important organ for human being. Thus, any eye disorder will affect the patient in all aspects of life. Cataract is one of those eye disorders that lead to blindness if not treated correctly and quickly. This paper demonstrates a model for automatic detection, classification, and grading of cataracts based on image processing techniques and artificial intelligence. The proposed system is developed to ease the cataract diagnosis process for both ophthalmologists and patients. The wavelet transform combined with 2D Log Gabor Wavelet transform was used as feature extraction techniques for a dataset of 120 eye images followed by a classification process that classified the image set into three classes; normal, early, and advanced stage. A comparison between the two used classifiers, the support vector machine SVM and the artificial neural network ANN were done for the same dataset of 120 eye images. It was concluded that SVM gave better results than ANN. SVM success rate result was 96.8% accuracy where ANN success rate result was 92.3% accuracy.

Keywords: cataract, classification, detection, feature extraction, grading, log-gabor, neural networks, support vector machines, wavelet

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23 Productivity of Construction Companies Using the Management of Threats and Opportunities ‎in Construction Projects of Iran

Authors: Nima Amani, Ali Salehi Dastjerdi, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Ardalan Sabamehr


The cost overrun of the construction projects has always been one of the main problems of the construction companies caused by the risky nature of the construction projects. Therefore, today, the application of risk management is inevitable. Although in theory, the issue of risk management is divided into the opportunities and threats management, in practice, most of the projects have been focused on the threats management. However, considering the opportunities management and applying the opportunities-response strategies can lead to the improved profitability of the construction projects of the companies. In this paper, a new technique is developed to identify the opportunities in the construction projects using an improved protocol and propose the appropriate opportunities-response strategies to the construction companies to provide them with higher profitability. To evaluate the effectiveness of the protocol for selecting the most appropriate strategies in ‎response to the opportunities and threats, two projects from a construction company in Iran were ‎studied. Both projects selected were in mid-range in terms of size and similar in terms of time, ‎run time and costs. Finally, the output indicates that using the proposed opportunities-response strategies show that the company's profitability in the future can be increased approximately for similar projects.

Keywords: opportunities management, risk-response strategy, opportunity-response strategy, productivity, risk management

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22 The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care and Swaddling Method on Venipuncture Pain in Premature Infant: Randomized Clinical Trials

Authors: Faezeh Jahanpour, Shahin Dezhdar, Saeedeh Firouz Bakht, Afshin Ostovar


Objective: The hospitalized premature babies often undergo various painful procedures such as venous sampling. The Kangaroo mother care (KMC) method is one of the pain reduction methods, but as mother’s presence is not always possible, this research was done to compare the effect of swaddling and KMC method on venous sampling pain on premature neonates. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 90 premature infants selected and randomly alocated into three groups; Group A (swaddling), Group B (the kangaroo care), and group C (the control). From 10 minutes before blood sampling to 2 minutes after that in group A, the infant was wrapped in a thin sheet, and in group B, the infant was under Kangaroo care. In all three groups, the heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation in time intervals of 30 seconds before, during, 30-60-90, and 120 seconds after sampling were measured and recorded. The infant’s face was video recorded since sampling till 2 minutes and the videos were checked by a researcher who was unaware of the kind of intervention and the pain assessment tools for infants (PIPP) for time intervals of 30 seconds were completed. Data analyzed by t-test, Q square, Repeated Measure ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Post-hoc and Bonferroni test. Results: Findings revealed that the pain was reduced to a great extent in swaddling and kangaroo method compared to that in control group. But there was not a significant difference between kangaroo and swaddling care method (P ≥ 0.05). In addition, the findings showed that the heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation was low and stable in swaddling and Kangaroo care method and returned to base status faster, whereas, the changes were severe in control group and did not return to base status even after 120 seconds. Discussion: The results of this study showed that there was not a meaningful difference between swaddling and kangaroo care method on physiological indexes and pain in infants. Therefore, swaddling method can be a good substitute for kangaroo care method in this regard.

Keywords: Kangaroo mother care, neonate, pain, premature, swaddling, venipuncture,

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21 The Effect of Teaching Science Strategies Curriculum and Evaluating on Developing the Efficiency of Academic Self in Science and the Teaching Motivation for the Student Teachers of the Primary Years

Authors: Amani M. Al-Hussan


The current study aimed to explore the effects of science teaching strategies course (CURR422) on developing academic self efficacy and motivation towards teaching it in female primary classroom teachers in College of Education in Princess Nora Bint AbdulRahman University. The study sample consisted (48) female student teachers. To achieve the study aims, the researcher designed two instruments: Academic Self Efficacy Scale & Motivation towards Teaching Science Scale while maintaining the validity and reliability of these instruments.. Several statistical procedures were conducted i.e. Independent Sample T-test, Eta Square, Cohen D effect size. The results reveal that there were statistically significant differences between means of pre and post test for the sample in favor of post test. For academic self efficacy scale, Eta square was 0.99 and the effect size was 27.26. While for the motivation towards teaching science scale, Eta was 0.99 and the effect size was 51.72. These results indicated high effects of independent variable on the dependent variable.

Keywords: academic self efficiency, achievement, motivation, primary classroom teacher, science teaching strategies course, evaluation

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20 Modeling the Performance of Natural Sand-Bentonite Barriers after Infiltration with Polar and Non-Polar Hydrocarbon Leachates

Authors: Altayeb Qasem, Mousa Bani Baker, Amani Nawafleh


The complexity of the sand-bentonite liner barrier system calls for an adequate model that reflects the conditions depending on the barrier materials and the characteristics of the permeates which lead to hydraulic conductivity changes when liners infiltrated with polar, no-polar, miscible and immiscible liquids. This paper is dedicated to developing a model for evaluating the hydraulic conductivity in the form of a simple indicator for the compatibility of the liner versus leachate. Based on two liner compositions (95% sand: 5% bentonite; and 90% sand: 10% bentonite), two pressures (40 kPa and 100 kPa), and three leachates: water, ethanol and biofuel. Two characteristics of the leacahtes were used: viscosity of permeate and its octanol-water partitioning coefficient (Kow). Three characteristics of the liners mixtures were evaluated which had impact on the hydraulic conductivity of the liner system: the initial content of bentonite (%), the free swelling index, and the shrinkage limit of the initial liner’s mixture. Engineers can use this modest tool to predict a potential liner failure in sand-bentonite barriers.

Keywords: liner performance, sand-bentonite barriers, viscosity, free swelling index, shrinkage limit, octanol-water partitioning coefficient, hydraulic conductivity, theoretical modeling

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19 Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphism and Its Association with Cardiovascular Heart Disease Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Amani Ashari, Julia Omar, Arif Hashim, Shahrul Hamid


Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism has influence on serum lipids which relates to cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency distribution of APOE alleles among Malaysian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) and their association with serum lipid profiles. A total of 115 patients were recruited in which 78 patients had Type 2 DM without CAD and 37 patients had Type 2 DM with CAD. The APOE polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The APOE ɛ3 allele was the most common one in both groups. There was no significant association between the APOE genotypes and the CAD status in Type 2 DM using Pearson χ2 test. Further analysis indicated there were no significant differences in all lipid parameters between E2, E3 and E4 subgroups in both groups. The study showed that the E4 allele carriers of Type 2 DM with CAD patients had higher LDL-C level and lower HDL-C level compared to the other allele carriers. However, analyses showed these levels were not statistically different. The study also showed that the Type 2 DM with CAD group with E2 allele had higher triglyceride (TG). In conclusion, further study with larger sample size is needed to confirm role of E4 as a marker of CAD among Type 2 DM patients in Malaysian population.

Keywords: Apolipoprotein E, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, lipids

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18 Parental Perceptions and Practices toward Childhood Asthma

Authors: Amani K. Abu-Shaheen, Abdullah Nofal, Humariya Heena


Introduction: Parental perceptions and practices are important for improving the asthma outcomes in children; indeed, evidence shows that parents of asthmatic children harbor considerable misperceptions of the disease. Objective: To identify the prevalence of asthma and to investigate the perceptions and practices of parents toward asthma and its management in Saudi children. Methods: A two-stage cross-sectional survey of 2000 parents of children aged 3–15 years from schools located in all five districts of Riyadh province located in central Saudi Arabia, was conducted. Data collection was accomplished using a self-administered questionnaire based on information obtained from the literature. Results: Of 1450 children whose parents participated in the study, 600 had asthma, dyspnea, or chest allergy. The overall number of children with parental reports of ever having been diagnosed with asthma was 478 (32.9%). The majority of parents (321, 53.5%) believed that asthma was a hereditary disease. Of these parents, 361 (60.3%) were concerned about side effects of inhaled steroids, and 192 (32%) about development of dependency on asthma medications. Three hundred sixty seven (61.2%) parents reported that they could treat the asthma attack at home and almost 76% of parents went to pediatric emergency department during asthma attack. Conclusions: In this study, the overall prevalence of children whose parents reported that they were diagnosed with asthma was high (32.9%). Furthermore, parents of children with asthma had misperceptions regarding asthma and exhibited ineffective practices in its management. To improve asthma care and compliance, adequate education should be provided to parents.

Keywords: asthma, management, parents, quality of life

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17 Coffee Consumption: Predictors, Prevalence, Awareness, and Trend among Saudi University Students

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan, Hanan A. Alfawaz, Sobhy M. Yakout, Malak N. K. Khattak, Amani A. Alsaikhan, Areej A. Almousa, Taghreed A. Alsuwailem, Taghreed M. Almjlad, Nada A. Alamri, Sahar G. Alshammari, Nasser M. Al-Daghri


The consumption of coffee as a beverage is increasing in every part of the world. However, its excessive intake might exert negative effects. Our objective was to demonstrate the prevalence and awareness of coffee consumption among Saudi students and its determinants among this section of the population. Nine hundred thirty female students participated from various departments of King Saud University in a survey-based study using a face-to-face interview. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of coffee consumption (88.2%) among students in the Riyadh region. Certain situations such as exams were associated with increased frequency of coffee intake combined with unhealthy dietary habits of adding other ingredients such as sugar and spices in amount more than needed. Unmarried and fresh year students with high academic grades were associated with higher coffee consumption. The main determinants of coffee consumption among university students were high BMI and increased family income level. Continued awareness and basic knowledge, along with understanding the importance of reading food labels, should be provided to young generations. The university students must be cautioned to limit excessive coffee consumption and maintain healthy dietary habits.

Keywords: academic performance, BMI, coffee, health awareness

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16 Field Trips inside Digital Game Environments

Authors: Amani Alsaqqaf, Frederick W. B. Li


Field trips are essential methods of learning in different subjects, and in recent times, there has been a reduction in the number of field trips (FTs) across all learning levels around the world. Virtual field trips (VFTs) in game environments provide FT experience based on the experiential learning theory (ELT). A conceptual framework for designing virtual field trip games (VFTGs) is developed with an aim to support game designers and educators to produce an effective FT experience where technology would enhance education. The conceptual framework quantifies ELT as an internal economy to link learning elements to game mechanics such as feedback loops which leads to facilitating VFTGs design and implementation. This study assesses the conceptual framework for designing VFTGs by investigating the possibility of applying immersive VFTGs in a secondary classroom and compare them with traditional learning that uses video clips and PowerPoint slides from the viewpoint of students’ perceived motivation, presence, and learning. The assessment is achieved by evaluating the learning performance and learner experience of a prototype VFT game, Island of Volcanoes. A quasi-experiment was conducted with 60 secondary school students. The findings of this study are that the VFTG enhanced learning performance to a better level than did the traditional way of learning, and in addition, it provided motivation and a general feeling of presence in the VFTG environment.

Keywords: conceptual framework, game-based learning, game design, virtual field trip game

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15 Healthy Lifestyle and Risky Behaviors amongst Students of Physical Education High Schools

Authors: Amin Amani, Masomeh Reihany Shirvan, Mahla Nabizadeh Mashizi, Mohadese Khoshtinat, Mohammad Elyas Ansarinia


The purpose of this study is the relationship between a healthy lifestyle and risky behavior in physical education students of Bojnourd schools. The study sample consisted of teenagers studying in second and third grade of Bojnourd's high schools. According to level sampling, 604 students studying in the second grade, and 600 students studying in third grade were tested from physical education schools in Bojnourd. For sample selection, populations were divided into 4 area including north, East, West and South. Then according to the number of students of each area, sample size of each level was determined. Two questionnaires were used to collect data in this study which were consisted of three parts: The demographic data, Iranian teenagers' risk taking (IARS) and prevention methods with emphasize on the importance of family role were examined. The Central and dispersion indices, such as standard deviation, multiple variance analysis, and multivariate regression analysis were used. Results showed that the observed F is significant (P ≤ 0.01) and 21% of variance related to risky behavior is explained by the lack of awareness. Given the significance of the regression, the coefficients of risky behavior in teenagers in prediction equation showed that each of teenagers' risky behavior can have an impact on healthy lifestyle.

Keywords: healthy lifestyle, high-risk behavior, students, physical education

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14 An Investigation of Rainfall Changes in KanganCity During Years 1964 to 2003

Authors: Borzou Faramarzi, Farideh Azimi, Azam Gohardoust, Abbas Ghasemi Ghasemvand, Maryam Mirzaei, Mandana Amani


In this study, attempts were made to examine and analyze the trend for rainfall changes in Kangan City, Booshehr Province, during the time span 1964 to 2003, using seven rainfall threshold indices based on 50 climate extremes indices approved by WMO–CCL/CLIVAR. These indices include days with heavy precipitations, days with rainfalls, frequency of rainfall threshold values, intensity of rainfall threshold values, percentage of rainfall threshold values, successive days of rainfall, and successive days with no precipitation. Results are indicative of the fact that Kangan City climatic conditions have become more dried than before. Indices days with heavy precipitations and days with rainfalls do not show a certain trend in Kangan City. Frequency, intensity, and percentage of rainfall threshold values in the station under investigation do not indicate a certain trend. In analysis of time series of rainfall extreme indices, generally, it was revealed that Kangan City is influenced by general factors of global warming. Calculation of values for the next 10 years based on ARIMA models demonstrates a continuation of warming trends in Kangan City. On the whole, rainfall conditions in Kangan City have experienced more dry periods compared to the past, the trend which is also observable for next 10 years.

Keywords: climatic indices, climate change, extreme temperature and precipitation, time series

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13 The Patterns of Ideology of the Jordanian Media women’s Discourse, Lana Mamkgh as an Example

Authors: Amani Hassan Yousef Abu Atieh


This study aims to examine the patterns of ideology reflected in the written discourse of women writers in the media of Jordan, Lana Mamkgh taken as an example. This study critically analyzes the discursive, linguistic, and cognitive representations that she employs as an agent in the institutionalized discourse of the media. Grounded in van Dijk’s critical discourse analysis approach of SociocognitiveDiscourse Studies, the present study builds a multilayer framework that encompasses van Dijk’s triangle: discourse, society, and cognition. The study attempts to analyze, at both micro and macro levels, the underlying cognitive processes and structures, mainly ideology and discursive strategies that are functional in the production of women’s discourse in terms of meaning, forms, and functions. Cognitive processes that social actors adopt are underlined by both personal mental models of experience/context and semantic on the one hand and the social cognition of the shared system of knowledge on the other. The study is based on qualitative research and adopts purposive sampling of a variety of opinion articles. National and feminist ideologies are amongst the main findings of the study. The study demonstrates the use of assertive, evaluative, and expressive linguistic and rhetorical devices, appealing to logic, ethics, and emotions of the addressee. The aim is to achieve the macro goal of dispensing political and social justice to the underprivileged. Hence, the voice of the Jordanian woman, viewed as underrepresented and invisible in the public arena, appear to have come through clearly.

Keywords: ideology, media, agency, women

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12 Age and Sex Identification among Egyptian Population Using Fingerprint Ridge Density

Authors: Nazih Ramadan, Manal Mohy-Eldine, Amani Hanoon, Alaa Shehab


Background and Aims: The study of fingerprints is widely used in providing a clue regarding identity. Age and gender identification from fingerprints is an important step in forensic anthropology in order to minimize the list of suspects search. The aim of this study was to determine finger ridge density and patterns among Egyptians, and to estimate age and gender using ridge densities. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 177 randomly-selected healthy Egyptian subjects (90 males and 87 females). They were divided into three age groups; Group (a): from 6-< 12 years, group (b) from 12-< 18 years and group (c) ≥ 18 years. Bilateral digital prints, from every subject, were obtained by the inking procedure. Ridge count per 25 mm² was determined together with assessment of ridge pattern type. Statistical analysis was done with references to different age and sex groups. Results: There was a statistical significant difference in ridge density between the different age groups; where younger ages had significantly higher ridge density than older ages. Females proved to have significantly higher ridge density than males. Also, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between age and ridge density. Ulnar loops were the most frequent pattern among Egyptians then whorls then arches then radial loops. Finally, different regression models were constructed to estimate age and gender from fingerprints ridge density. Conclusion: fingerprint ridge density can be used to identify both age and sex of subjects. Further studies are recommended on different populations, larger samples or using different methods of fingerprint recording and finger ridge counting.

Keywords: age, sex identification, Egyptian population, fingerprints, ridge density

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11 The Ideology of the Jordanian Media Women’s Discourse

Authors: Amani Hassan Yousef Abu Atieh


This study aims at examining the patterns of ideology reflected in the written discourse of women writers in the media of Jordan, Lana Mamkgh taken as an example. This study critically analyzes the discursive, linguistic, and cognitive representations that she employs as an agent in the institutionalized discourse of the media. Grounded in van Dijk’s critical discourse analysis approach of Socio cognitive Discourse Studies, the present study builds a multilayer framework that encompasses van Dijk’s triangle: discourse, society, and cognition. Specifically, the study attempts to analyze, at both micro and macro levels, the underlying cognitive processes and structures, mainly ideology and discursive strategies that are functional in the production of women’s discourse in terms of meaning, forms, and functions. Cognitive processes that social actors adopt are underlined by experience/context and semantic mental models on the one hand and the social cognition of the shared system of knowledge on the other. This study is based on qualitative research and adopts purposive sampling of a variety of opinion articles. National and feminist ideologies are amongst the prominent patterns that come forth in the texts selected for the study, demonstrating the use of assertive, evaluative, and expressive linguistic and rhetorical devices that appeal to the logic, ethics, and emotions of the addressee. The aim is to achieve the macro goal of dispensing political and social justice to the underprivileged highlighted in the writer's topics and texts. Further, the voice of the Jordanian woman, viewed as underrepresented and invisible in the public arena, appears to have come through clearly.

Keywords: ideology, women's discourse, discourse analysis, cognitive analysis

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10 Comparative Study between Two Methods for Extracting Pomegranate Juice and Their Effect on Product Quality

Authors: Amani Aljahani


The purpose of the study was to identify the physical and chemical properties of pomegranate juices and to evaluate their sensory quality. The samples were collected from the local markets and included four types of pomegranate produced in the western and southern region of the kingdom. The juices were extracted by manual squeezing and by centrifugal force. The juices were analyzed periodically for their content of organic acids, total acidity, glucose and fructose, total sugars, and the anthosianine. A panel of 30 judges evaluated the juices for their color, smell, taste, consistency and general acceptance using a prepared scale for that purpose. Result showed that pomegranate juices were acidic in nature (PH between 3.56–4.27). The major organic acids were citric, tartaric, malic, and oxalic aids total organic acidity was between 596.32–763.49 ng/100 ml and increased over storage time, however; total acidity almost stable over time except for the southern produced. The major monosaccharide's in pomegranate juices were glucose and fructose. Their concentration in the juice varied by storage. On the average glucose concentration was between 6.68–7.71 g/100 ml while fructose concentration was between 6.72–7.98 g/100 ml. total sugars content was 16% on the average and dropped by storage. Anthosianine concertration increased after five hours of storage then dropped and stabilized over time regardless of method of treatment. In addition, sensory evaluation of the juices showed general acceptance of them as of color, flavor, and constercy but the preferred one was with that of the western kind extracted by squeezing.

Keywords: extracting, pomegranate, juice, quality

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9 Real-Time Monitoring of Drinking Water Quality Using Advanced Devices

Authors: Amani Abdallah, Isam Shahrour


The quality of drinking water is a major concern of public health. The control of this quality is generally performed in the laboratory, which requires a long time. This type of control is not adapted for accidental pollution from sudden events, which can have serious consequences on population health. Therefore, it is of major interest to develop real-time innovative solutions for the detection of accidental contamination in drinking water systems This paper presents researches conducted within the SunRise Demonstrator for ‘Smart and Sustainable Cities’ with a particular focus on the supervision of the water quality. This work aims at (i) implementing a smart water system in a large water network (Campus of the University Lille1) including innovative equipment for real-time detection of abnormal events, such as those related to the contamination of drinking water and (ii) develop a numerical modeling of the contamination diffusion in the water distribution system. The first step included verification of the water quality sensors and their effectiveness on a network prototype of 50m length. This part included the evaluation of the efficiency of these sensors in the detection both bacterial and chemical contamination events in drinking water distribution systems. An on-line optical sensor integral with a laboratory-scale distribution system (LDS) was shown to respond rapidly to changes in refractive index induced by injected loads of chemical (cadmium, mercury) and biological contaminations (Escherichia coli). All injected substances were detected by the sensor; the magnitude of the response depends on the type of contaminant introduced and it is proportional to the injected substance concentration.

Keywords: distribution system, drinking water, refraction index, sensor, real-time

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8 Crossover Memories and Code-Switching in the Narratives of Arabic-Hebrew and Hebrew-English Bilingual Adults in Israel

Authors: Amani Jaber-Awida


This study examines two bilingual phenomena in the narratives of Arabic Hebrew and Hebrew-English bilingual adults in Israel: CO memories and code-switching (CS). The study examined these phenomena in the context of autobiographical memory, using a cue word technique. Student experimenters held two sessions in the homes of the participants. In separate language sessions, the participant was asked to look first at each of 16 cue words and then to state a concrete memory. After stating the memory, participants reported whether their memories were in the same language of the experiment session or different. Memories were classified as ‘Crossovers’ (CO) or ‘Same Language’ (SL) according to participants' self-reports. Participants were also required to elaborate about the setting, interlocutors and other languages involved in the specific memory. Beyond replicating the procedure of cuing technique, one memory from a specific lifespan period was chosen per participant, and the participant was required to provide further details about it. For the more detailed memories, CS count was conducted. Both bilingual groups confirmed the Reminiscence Bump phenomenon, retrieving more memories in the 10-30 age period. CO memories prevailed in second language sessions (L2). Same language memories were more abundant in first language sessions (L1). Higher CS frequency was found in L2 sessions. Finally, as predicted, 'individual' CS was prevalent in L2 sessions, but 'community-based' CS was not higher in L1 sessions. The two bilingual measures in this study, crossovers, and CS came from different research traditions, the former from an experimental paradigm in the psychology of autobiographical memory based on self-reported judgments, the latter a behavioral measure from linguistics. This merger of approaches offers new insight into the field of bilingual autobiographical memory. In addition, the study attempted to shed light on the investigation of motivations for CS, beginning with Walters’ SPPL Model and concluding with a distinction between ‘community-based’ and individual motivations.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-switching, crossover memories, narratives

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