Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Farnaz Dehkhoda

22 Comparative Study of Music-Therapy Types on Anxiety in Early Stage Cancer Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Farnaz Dehkhoda

Abstract:

This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of active and receptive music-therapy on anxiety in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. 184 young adult patients, who were diagnosed with early stage cancer and were undergoing treatment, were divided into three groups. Two groups received music therapy as a parallel treatment and the third group was control group. In active music-therapy, a music specialist helped the patients to play guitar and sing. In the receptive music-therapy, patients preferred pre-recorded music played by MP3 player. The level of anxiety was measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory as pre-test and post-test. ANCOVA revealed that both types of music-therapy reduced anxiety level of patients and the active music-therapy intervention found to be more effective. The results suggest that music-therapy can be applied as an intervention method contemporary with cancer medical treatment, for improving quality of life in cancer patients by reducing their anxiety.

Keywords: Anxiety, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Music-therapy

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21 Shovadan; A Historical Heritage in the Architecture of the South West of Iran (Case Study: Dezfoul City)

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

Iranian architects had creative ways for constructing the buildings in each climate. Some of these architectural elements were made under the ground. Shovadan is one of these underground spaces in hot- humid regions in Dezfoul and Shoushtar city that had special functions and characteristics. In this paper some subjects such as the history of Shovadan, its elements and effective factors in the formation of Shovadan in Dezfool city are discussed.

Keywords: architecture, dezfoul city, Shovadan, south west of Iran

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20 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot–Humid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

This paper concentrates on the sustainable traditional architecture and urban planning in hot-humid regions of Iran. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate traditional architecture in hot-humid climate of Iran as a sample of sustainable architecture. Iranian traditional architecture has been able to response to environmental problems for a long period of time. Its features are based on climatic factors, local construction materials of hot-humid regions and culture. This paper concludes that Iranian traditional architecture can be addressed as a sustainable architecture.

Keywords: hot-humid climate, Iran, sustainable traditional architecture, urban planning

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19 An Approach to Analyze Testing of Nano On-Chip Networks

Authors: Farnaz Fotovvatikhah, Javad Akbari

Abstract:

Test time of a test architecture is an important factor which depends on the architecture's delay and test patterns. Here a new architecture to store the test results based on network on chip is presented. In addition, simple analytical model is proposed to calculate link test time for built in self-tester (BIST) and external tester (Ext) in multiprocessor systems. The results extracted from the model are verified using FPGA implementation and experimental measurements. Systems consisting 16, 25, and 36 processors are implemented and simulated and test time is calculated. In addition, BIST and Ext are compared in terms of test time at different conditions such as at different number of test patterns and nodes. Using the model the maximum frequency of testing could be calculated and the test structure could be optimized for high speed testing.

Keywords: test, nano on-chip network, JTAG, modelling

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18 Classifying ERP Implementation’s Risks in Banking Sectors Based on Different Implementation Phases

Authors: Farnaz Farzadnia, Ahmad Alibabaei

Abstract:

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are considered as complicated information systems. Many organizations failed implementing ERP systems because it is a very difficult, time-consuming and expensive process. Enterprise resource planning system is appropriate for organizations in all economic sectors. As banking is currently considered a non-typical area for ERP usage, there are very little studies on ERP implementation in banking. This paper presents a general risks taxonomy. In this research, after identifying implementation risks, a process quality management method has been applied to identify relations between risks of implementation ERP in banking sectors and implementation phases. Oracle application implementation method titled as AIM used in this research for classifying the risks. These findings will help managers to develop better strategies for supervising and controlling ERP implementation projects.

Keywords: AIM implementation, bank, enterprise resource planning, risk, process quality management method

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17 A New Full Adder Cell for High Performance Low Power Applications

Authors: Mahdiar Hosseighadiry, Farnaz Fotovatikhah, Razali Ismail, Mohsen Khaledian, Mehdi Saeidemanesh

Abstract:

In this paper, a new low-power high-performance full adder is presented based on a new design method. The proposed method relies on pass gate design and provides full-swing circuits with minimum number of transistors. The method has been applied on SUM, COUT and XOR-XNOR modules resulting on rail-to-rail intermediate and output signals with no feedback transistors. The presented full adder cell has been simulated in 45 and 32 nm CMOS technologies using HSPICE considering parasitic capacitance and compared to several well-known designs from literature. In addition, the proposed cell has been extensively evaluated with different output loads, supply voltages, temperatures, threshold voltages, and operating frequencies. Results show that it functions properly under all mentioned conditions and exhibits less PDP compared to other design styles.

Keywords: full adders, low-power, high-performance, VLSI design

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16 Exploitation of Terpenes as Guardians in Plant Biotechnology

Authors: Farzad Alaeimoghadam, Farnaz Alaeimoghadam

Abstract:

Plants are always being threatened by biotic and abiotic elements in their abode. Although they have inherited mechanisms to defend themselves, sometimes due to overpowering of their enemies or weakening of themselves, they just suffer from those elements. Human, as to help plants defend themselves, have developed several methods among which application of terpenes via plant biotechnology is promising. Terpenes are the most frequent and diverse secondary metabolites in plants. In these plants, terpenes are involved in different protective aspects. In this field, by utilizing biotechnological approaches on them, a delicate, precise, and an economic intervention will be achieved. In this review, first, the importance of terpenes as guardians in plants, which include their allelopathy effect, a call for alliances, and a mitigation impact on abiotic stresses will be pointed out. Second, problems concerning terpenes application in plant biotechnology comprising: damage to cell, undesirable terpene production and undesirable concentration and proportion of terpenes will be discussed. At the end, the approaches in plant biotechnology of terpenes including tampering with terpene gene sequences, compartmentalization, and localization and utilization of membrane transporters will be expressed. It is concluded with some useful notions concerning the topic.

Keywords: plant biotechnology, plant protection, terpenes, terpenoids

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15 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot-Arid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

The aim of sustainable architecture is to design buildings with the least adverse effects on the environment and provide better conditions for people. What building forms make the best use of land? This question was addressed in the late 1960s at the center of Land Use and Built Form Studies in Cambridge. This led to a number of influential papers which had a great influence on the practice of urban design. This paper concentrates on the results of sustainability caused by climatic conditions in Iranian traditional architecture in hot-arid regions. As people spent a significant amount of their time in houses, it was very important to have such houses to fulfill their needs physically and spiritually as well as satisfying their cultural and religious aspects of their lifestyles. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones, traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. These solutions have been able to response to the environmental problems for a long period of time. As a result, by considering the experience in traditional architecture of hot–arid climate in Iran, it is possible to attain sustainable architecture.

Keywords: hot-arid climate, Iran, sustainable traditional architecture, urban planning

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14 Crystalline Structure of Starch Based Nano Composites

Authors: Farid Amidi Fazli, Afshin Babazadeh, Farnaz Amidi Fazli

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In contrast with literal meaning of nano, researchers have been achieving mega adventures in this area and every day more nanomaterials are being introduced to the market. After long time application of fossil-based plastics, nowadays accumulation of their waste seems to be a big problem to the environment. On the other hand, mankind has more attention to safety and living environment. Replacing common plastic packaging materials with degradable ones that degrade faster and convert to non-dangerous components like water and carbon dioxide have more attractions; these new materials are based on renewable and inexpensive sources of starch and cellulose. However, the functional properties of them do not suitable for packaging. At this point, nanotechnology has an important role. Utilizing of nanomaterials in polymer structure will improve mechanical and physical properties of them; nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) has this ability. This work has employed a chemical method to produce NCC and starch bio nanocomposite containing NCC. X-Ray Diffraction technique has characterized the obtained materials. Results showed that applied method is a suitable one as well as applicable one to NCC production.

Keywords: biofilm, cellulose, nanocomposite, starch

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13 Fear of Covid-19 a Major Contributing Factor to Insomnia in General Iranian Population

Authors: Amin Nakhostin-Ansari, Samaneh Akbarour, Khosro Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Zahra Banafsheh Alemohammad, Farnaz Etesam, Arezu Najafi, Mahnaz Khalafehnilsaz

Abstract:

Introduction: The outbreak of coronavirus disease has considerably burdened the healthcare system in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of insomnia experienced by the general Iranian population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: A scale(FCV-19) was used for Fear of COVID-19, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-2 (GAD-2) for detailed characterization of insomnia and its patterns Results: In total, 675 people with insomnia with the mean age of 40.28 years (SD=11.15) participated in this study. Prevalence of difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), and early morning awakening (EMA) were 91.4%, 86.7%, and 77%, respectively. DIS, DMS, and EMA were more common in people with depression and anxiety. FCV-19 score was higher in those with more severe types of DIS, DMS, and EMA (P<0.001). FCV-19 was a risk factor for all patterns of insomnia (OR=1.19, 1.12, 1.02 for DIS, DMS, and EMA, respectively). Conclusion: fear of COVID-19 is a major factor to insomnia patterns. Investigation of COVID-19 fear in people with insomnia and the addition of attributed relieving or management strategies to conventional management of insomnia are reasonable approaches to improve the sleep condition of people in the pandemic.

Keywords: insomnia, difficulty maintaining sleep, COVID-19, Coronavirus

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12 An Investigation into the Impact of Techno-Entrepreneurship Education on Self-Employment

Authors: Farnaz Farzin, Julie C. Thomson, Rob Dekkers, Geoff Whittam

Abstract:

Research has shown that techno-entrepreneurship is economically significant. Therefore, it is suggested that teaching techno-entrepreneurship may be important because such programmes would prepare current and future generations of learners to recognize and act on high-technology opportunities. Education in techno-entrepreneurship may increase the knowledge of how to start one’s own enterprise and recognize the technological opportunities for commercialisation to improve decision-making about starting a new venture; also it influence decisions about capturing the business opportunities and turning them into successful ventures. Universities can play a main role in connecting and networking techno-entrepreneurship students towards a cooperative attitude with real business practice and industry knowledge. To investigate and answer whether education for techno-entrepreneurs really helps, this paper chooses a comparison of literature reviews as its method of research. Then, 6 different studies were selected. These particular papers were selected based on a keywords search and as their aim, objectives, and gaps were close to the current research. In addition, they were all based on the influence of techno-entrepreneurship education in self-employment and intention of students to start new ventures. The findings showed that teaching techno-entrepreneurship education may have an influence on students’ intention and their future self-employment, but which courses should be covered and the duration of programmes needs further investigation.

Keywords: techno entrepreneurship education, training, higher education, intention, self-employment

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11 Preparation of Biomedical Hydrogels Using Phenolic Compounds and Electron Beam Irradiation

Authors: Farnaz Sadeghi, Moslem Tavakol

Abstract:

In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare a physically cross-linked gel by cooling of tannic acid (TA)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution that subsequently convert to antibacterial chemically cross-linked hydrogel by using electron beam irradiation. PVA is known for its biocompatibility and hydrophilicity, and TA is known for being a natural compound which can serve as a cross-linking agent and a therapeutic agent. Swelling behavior, gel content, pore size, and mechanical properties of hydrogels which prepared at 14, 28, and 56 (kGy) with different ratios of polymers were investigated. PVA-TA hydrogel showed sustained release of tannic acid as approximately 20% and 50% of loaded TA released from the hydrogel after 4 and 72 h release time. We found that gel content decreased and the moisture retention capability increased by an increase in TA composition. In addition, PVA-TA hydrogels showed a good antibacterial activity against S.aureus. MTT analysis indicated that close to 83% of fibroblast cells remained viable after 48 h exposure to hydrogel extract. Moreover, the cooling of 10% PVA solution containing 0.5 and 0.75% w/v tannic acid to room and refrigerator, respectively, led to formation of physical gel that did not present any flow index after inversion of hydrogel cast. According to the results, the hydrogel prepared by electron beam irradiation of blended PVA-TA solution could be further investigated as a promising candidate for wound healing.

Keywords: poly vinyl alcohol, tannic acid, electron beam irradiation, hydrogel wound dressing

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10 Metabolic and Adaptive Laboratory Evolutionary Engineering (ALE) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Second Generation Biofuel Production

Authors: Farnaz Yusuf, Naseem A. Gaur

Abstract:

The increase in environmental concerns, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves and intense interest in achieving energy security has led to a global research effort towards developing renewable sources of fuels. Second generation biofuels have attracted more attention recently as the use of lignocellulosic biomass can reduce fossil fuel dependence and is environment-friendly. Xylose is the main pentose and second most abundant sugar after glucose in lignocelluloses. Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not readily uptake and use pentose sugars. For an economically feasible biofuel production, both hexose and pentose sugars must be fermented to ethanol. Therefore, it is important to develop S. cerevisiae host platforms with more efficient xylose utilization. This work aims to construct a xylose fermenting yeast strains with engineered oxido-reductative pathway for xylose metabolism. Engineered strain was further improved by adaptive evolutionary engineering approach. The engineered strain is able to grow on xylose as sole carbon source with the maximum ethanol yield of 0.39g/g xylose and productivity of 0.139g/l/h at 96 hours. The further improvement in strain development involves over expression of pentose phosphate pathway and protein engineering of xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase to change their cofactor specificity in order to reduce xylitol accumulation.

Keywords: biofuel, lignocellulosic biomass, saccharomyces cerevisiae, xylose

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9 Giant Achievements in Food Processing

Authors: Farnaz Amidi Fazli

Abstract:

After long period of human experience about food processing from raw eating to canning of food in the last century now it is time to use novel technologies which are sometimes completely different from common technologies. It is possible to decontaminate food without using heat or the foods are stored without using cold chain. Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is a non-thermal method of food preservation that uses short bursts of electricity, PEF can be used for processing liquid and semi-liquid food products. PEF processing offers high quality fresh-like liquid foods with excellent flavor, nutritional value, and shelf-life. High pressure processing (HPP) technology has the potential to fulfill both consumer and scientific requirements. The use of HPP for over 50 years has found applications in non-food industries. For food applications, ‘high pressure’ can be generally considered to be up to 600 MPa for most food products. After years, freezing has its high potential to food preservation due to new and quick freezing methods. Foods which are prepared by this technology have more acceptability and high quality comparing with old fashion slow freezing. Thus, quick freezing has further been adopted as a widespread commercial method for long-term preservation of perishable foods which improved both the health and convenience of everyone in the industrialised countries. Above parameters are achieved by Fluidised-bed freezing systems, freezing by immersion and Hydrofluidisation on the other hand new thawing methods like high-pressure, microwave, ohmic, and acoustic thawing have a key role in quality and adaptability of final product.

Keywords: quick freezing, thawing, high pressure, pulse electric, hydrofluidisation

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8 Study on the Efficiency of Some Antioxidants on Reduction of Maillard Reaction in Low Lactose Milk

Authors: Farnaz Alaeimoghadam, Farzad Alaeimoghadam

Abstract:

In low-lactose milk, due to lactose hydrolysis and its conversion to monosaccharides like glucose and galactose, the Maillard reaction (non-enzymatic browning) occurs more readily compared to non-hydrolyzed milk. This reaction incurs off-flavor and dark color, as well as a decrease in the nutritional value of milk. The target of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidants in diminishing the browning in low-lactose milk. In this research, three antioxidants, namely ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and pantothenic acid in the concentration range of 0-1 mM/L, either in combination with each other or separately, were added to low-lactose milk. After heat treatment (120 0C for 3 min.), milk samples incubated at 55 0C for one day and then stored at 4 0C for 9 days. Quality indices, including total phenol content, antioxidant activity, color indices, and sensory characters, were measured during intervals of 0, 2, 5, 7, and 9 days. Results of this research showed that the effect of storage time and adding antioxidants were significant on pH, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds either before or after heating, index L*, color change, and sensational characteristics (p < 0.05); however, acidity, a* and b* indices, chroma, and hue angle showed no significant changes (p > 0.05). The findings showed that the simultaneous application of gallic acid and ascorbic in the diminishing of non-enzymatic browning and color change, increasing pH, longevity, and antioxidant activity after heat treatment, and augmenting phenolic compounds before heat treatment was better than that of pantothenic acid.

Keywords: Maillard, low-lactose milk, non-enzymatic browning, natural antioxidant

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7 A Neurofeedback Learning Model Using Time-Frequency Analysis for Volleyball Performance Enhancement

Authors: Hamed Yousefi, Farnaz Mohammadi, Niloufar Mirian, Navid Amini

Abstract:

Investigating possible capacities of visual functions where adapted mechanisms can enhance the capability of sports trainees is a promising area of research, not only from the cognitive viewpoint but also in terms of unlimited applications in sports training. In this paper, the visual evoked potential (VEP) and event-related potential (ERP) signals of amateur and trained volleyball players in a pilot study were processed. Two groups of amateur and trained subjects are asked to imagine themselves in the state of receiving a ball while they are shown a simulated volleyball field. The proposed method is based on a set of time-frequency features using algorithms such as Gabor filter, continuous wavelet transform, and a multi-stage wavelet decomposition that are extracted from VEP signals that can be indicative of being amateur or trained. The linear discriminant classifier achieves the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 100% when the average of the repetitions of the signal corresponding to the task is used. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a fast, robust, and reliable feature/model determination as a neurofeedback parameter to be utilized for improving the volleyball players’ performance. The proposed measure has potential applications in brain-computer interface technology where a real-time biomarker is needed.

Keywords: visual evoked potential, time-frequency feature extraction, short-time Fourier transform, event-related spectrum potential classification, linear discriminant analysis

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6 Using of the Fractal Dimensions for the Analysis of Hyperkinetic Movements in the Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Sadegh Marzban, Mohamad Sobhan Sheikh Andalibi, Farnaz Ghassemi, Farzad Towhidkhah

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Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by the tremor at rest, rigidity, akinesia or bradykinesia and postural instability, affects the quality of life of involved individuals. The concept of a fractal is most often associated with irregular geometric objects that display self-similarity. Fractal dimension (FD) can be used to quantify the complexity and the self-similarity of an object such as tremor. In this work, we are aimed to propose a new method for evaluating hyperkinetic movements such as tremor, by using the FD and other correlated parameters in patients who are suffered from PD. In this study, we used 'the tremor data of Physionet'. The database consists of fourteen participants, diagnosed with PD including six patients with high amplitude tremor and eight patients with low amplitude. We tried to extract features from data, which can distinguish between patients before and after medication. We have selected fractal dimensions, including correlation dimension, box dimension, and information dimension. Lilliefors test has been used for normality test. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed rank test were also done to find differences between patients before and after medication, depending on whether the normality is detected or not. In addition, two-way ANOVA was used to investigate the possible association between the therapeutic effects and features extracted from the tremor. Just one of the extracted features showed significant differences between patients before and after medication. According to the results, correlation dimension was significantly different before and after the patient's medication (p=0.009). Also, two-way ANOVA demonstrates significant differences just in medication effect (p=0.033), and no significant differences were found between subject's differences (p=0.34) and interaction (p=0.97). The most striking result emerged from the data is that correlation dimension could quantify medication treatment based on tremor. This study has provided a technique to evaluate a non-linear measure for quantifying medication, nominally the correlation dimension. Furthermore, this study supports the idea that fractal dimension analysis yields additional information compared with conventional spectral measures in the detection of poor prognosis patients.

Keywords: correlation dimension, non-linear measure, Parkinson’s disease, tremor

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5 The Study of Genetic Diversity in Canola Cultivars of Kashmar-Iran Region

Authors: Seyed Habib Shojaei, Reza Eivazi, Mir Sajad Shojaei, Alireza Akbari, Pooria Mazloom, Seyede Mitra Sadati, Mir Zeinalabedin Shojaei, Farnaz Farbakhsh

Abstract:

To study the genetic diversity in rapeseeds and agronomic traits, an experiment was conducted using multivariate statistical methods at Agricultural Research Station of Kashmar in 2012-2013.In this experiment, ten genotypes of rapeseed in a Randomized Complete Block designs with three replications were evaluated. The following traits were studied: seed yield, number of days to the fifty percent of flowering, plant height, number of pods on main stem, length of the pod, seed yield per plant, number of seed in pod, harvest index, weight of 100 seeds, number of pods on lateral branch, number of lateral branches. In analyzing the variance, differences between cultivars were significant. The average comparative revealed that the most valuable variety was Licord regarding to the traits while the least valuable variety was Opera. In stepwise regression, harvest index, grain yield per plant and number of pods per lateral branches were entering to model. Correlation analysis showed that the grain yield with the number of pods per lateral branches and seed yield per plant have positive and significant correlation. In the factor analysis, the first five components explained more than 83% of the variance in the data. In the first factor, seed yield and the number of pods per lateral branches were of the highest importance. The traits, seed yield per plant, and pod per main stem were of a great significance in the second factor. Moreover, in the third factor, plant height and the number of lateral branches were more important. In the fourth factor, plant height and one hundred seeds weight were of the highest variance. Finally, days to fifty percent of flowering and one hundred seeds weight were more important in fifth factor.

Keywords: rapeseed, variance analysis, regression, factor analysis

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4 Effects of Nutrient Source and Drying Methods on Physical and Phytochemical Criteria of Pot Marigold (Calendula offiCinalis L.) Flowers

Authors: Leila Tabrizi, Farnaz Dezhaboun

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of plant nutrient source and different drying methods on physical and phytochemical characteristics of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae) flowers, a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications in Research Laboratory of University of Tehran in 2010. Different nutrient sources (vermicompost, municipal waste compost, cattle manure, mushroom compost and control) which were applied in a field experiment for flower production and different drying methods including microwave (300, 600 and 900 W), oven (60, 70 and 80oC) and natural-shade drying in room temperature, were tested. Criteria such as drying kinetic, antioxidant activity, total flavonoid content, total phenolic compounds and total carotenoid of flowers were evaluated. Results indicated that organic inputs as nutrient source for flowers had no significant effects on quality criteria of pot marigold except of total flavonoid content, while drying methods significantly affected phytochemical criteria. Application of microwave 300, 600 and 900 W resulted in the highest amount of total flavonoid content, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, respectively, while oven drying caused the lowest amount of phytochemical criteria. Also, interaction effect of nutrient source and drying method significantly affected antioxidant activity in which the highest amount of antioxidant activity was obtained in combination of vermicompost and microwave 900 W. In addition, application of vermicompost combined with oven drying at 60oC caused the lowest amount of antioxidant activity. Based on results of drying trend, microwave drying showed a faster drying rate than those oven and natural-shade drying in which by increasing microwave power and oven temperature, time of flower drying decreased whereas slope of moisture content reduction curve showed accelerated trend.

Keywords: drying kinetic, medicinal plant, organic fertilizer, phytochemical criteria

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3 Forecasting Residential Water Consumption in Hamilton, New Zealand

Authors: Farnaz Farhangi

Abstract:

Many people in New Zealand believe that the access to water is inexhaustible, and it comes from a history of virtually unrestricted access to it. For the region like Hamilton which is one of New Zealand’s fastest growing cities, it is crucial for policy makers to know about the future water consumption and implementation of rules and regulation such as universal water metering. Hamilton residents use water freely and they do not have any idea about how much water they use. Hence, one of proposed objectives of this research is focusing on forecasting water consumption using different methods. Residential water consumption time series exhibits seasonal and trend variations. Seasonality is the pattern caused by repeating events such as weather conditions in summer and winter, public holidays, etc. The problem with this seasonal fluctuation is that, it dominates other time series components and makes difficulties in determining other variations (such as educational campaign’s effect, regulation, etc.) in time series. Apart from seasonality, a stochastic trend is also combined with seasonality and makes different effects on results of forecasting. According to the forecasting literature, preprocessing (de-trending and de-seasonalization) is essential to have more performed forecasting results, while some other researchers mention that seasonally non-adjusted data should be used. Hence, I answer the question that is pre-processing essential? A wide range of forecasting methods exists with different pros and cons. In this research, I apply double seasonal ARIMA and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), considering diverse elements such as seasonality and calendar effects (public and school holidays) and combine their results to find the best predicted values. My hypothesis is the examination the results of combined method (hybrid model) and individual methods and comparing the accuracy and robustness. In order to use ARIMA, the data should be stationary. Also, ANN has successful forecasting applications in terms of forecasting seasonal and trend time series. Using a hybrid model is a way to improve the accuracy of the methods. Due to the fact that water demand is dominated by different seasonality, in order to find their sensitivity to weather conditions or calendar effects or other seasonal patterns, I combine different methods. The advantage of this combination is reduction of errors by averaging of each individual model. It is also useful when we are not sure about the accuracy of each forecasting model and it can ease the problem of model selection. Using daily residential water consumption data from January 2000 to July 2015 in Hamilton, I indicate how prediction by different methods varies. ANN has more accurate forecasting results than other method and preprocessing is essential when we use seasonal time series. Using hybrid model reduces forecasting average errors and increases the performance.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), double seasonal ARIMA, forecasting, hybrid model

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2 Consumers Attitude toward the Latest Trends in Decreasing Energy Consumption of Washing Machine

Authors: Farnaz Alborzi, Angelika Schmitz, Rainer Stamminger

Abstract:

Reducing water temperatures in the wash phase of a washing programme and increasing the overall cycle durations are the latest trends in decreasing energy consumption of washing programmes. Since the implementation of the new energy efficiency classes in 2010, manufacturers seem to apply the aforementioned washing strategy with lower temperatures combined with longer programme durations extensively to realise energy-savings needed to meet the requirements of the highest energy efficiency class possible. A semi-representative on-line survey in eleven European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) was conducted by Bonn University in 2015 to shed light on consumer opinion and behaviour regarding the effects of the lower washing temperature and longer cycle duration in laundry washing on consumers’ acceptance of the programme. The risk of the long wash cycle is that consumers might not use the energy efficient Standard programmes and will think of this option as inconvenient and therefore switch to shorter, but more energy consuming programmes. Furthermore, washing in a lower temperature may lead to the problem of cross-contamination. Washing behaviour of over 5,000 households was studied in this survey to provide support and guidance for manufacturers and policy designers. Qualified households were chosen following a predefined quota: -Involvement in laundry washing: substantial, -Distribution of gender: more than 50 % female , -Selected age groups: -20–39 years, -40–59 years, -60–74 years, -Household size: 1, 2, 3, 4 and more than 4 people. Furthermore, Eurostat data for each country were used to calculate the population distribution in the respective age class and household size as quotas for the consumer survey distribution in each country. Before starting the analyses, the validity of each dataset was controlled with the aid of control questions. After excluding the outlier data, the number of the panel diminished from 5,100 to 4,843. The primary outcome of the study is European consumers are willing to save water and energy in a laundry washing but reluctant to use long programme cycles since they don’t believe that the long cycles could be energy-saving. However, the results of our survey don’t confirm that there is a relation between frequency of using Standard cotton (Eco) or Energy-saving programmes and the duration of the programmes. It might be explained by the fact that the majority of washing programmes used by consumers do not take so long, perhaps consumers just choose some additional time reduction option when selecting those programmes and this finding might be changed if the Energy-saving programmes take longer. Therefore, it may be assumed that introducing the programme duration as a new measure on a revised energy label would strongly influence the consumer at the point of sale. Furthermore, results of the survey confirm that consumers are more willing to use lower temperature programmes in order to save energy than accepting longer programme cycles and majority of them accept deviation from the nominal temperature of the programme as long as the results are good.

Keywords: duration, energy-saving, standard programmes, washing temperature

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1 Treatment of Neuronal Defects by Bone Marrow Stem Cells Differentiation to Neuronal Cells Cultured on Gelatin-PLGA Scaffolds Coated with Nano-Particles

Authors: Alireza Shams, Ali Zamanian, Atefehe Shamosi, Farnaz Ghorbani

Abstract:

Introduction: Although the application of a new strategy remains a remarkable challenge for treatment of disabilities due to neuronal defects, progress in Nanomedicine and tissue engineering, suggesting the new medical methods. One of the promising strategies for reconstruction and regeneration of nervous tissue is replacing of lost or damaged cells by specific scaffolds after Compressive, ischemic and traumatic injuries of central nervous system. Furthermore, ultrastructure, composition, and arrangement of tissue scaffolds are effective on cell grafts. We followed implantation and differentiation of mesenchyme stem cells to neural cells on Gelatin Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds coated with iron nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of stem cells to differentiate into motor neuron-like cells under topographical cues and morphogenic factors. Methods and Materials: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) was obtained by primary cell culturing of adult rat bone marrow got from femur bone by flushing method. BMMSCs were incubated with DMEM/F12 (Gibco), 15% FBS and 100 U/ml pen/strep as media. Then, BMMSCs seeded on Gel/PLGA scaffolds and tissue culture (TCP) polystyrene embedded and incorporated by Fe Nano particles (FeNPs) (Fe3o4 oxide (M w= 270.30 gr/mol.). For neuronal differentiation, 2×10 5 BMMSCs were seeded on Gel/PLGA/FeNPs scaffolds was cultured for 7 days and 0.5 µ mol. Retinoic acid, 100 µ mol. Ascorbic acid,10 ng/ml. Basic fibroblast growth factor (Sigma, USA), 250 μM Iso butyl methyl xanthine, 100 μM 2-mercaptoethanol, and 0.2 % B27 (Invitrogen, USA) added to media. Proliferation of BMMSCs was assessed by using MTT assay for cell survival. The morphology of BMMSCs and scaffolds was investigated by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Expression of neuron-specific markers was studied by immunohistochemistry method. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, and statistical significance was determined by Turkey’s test. Results: Our results revealed that differentiation and survival of BMMSCs into motor neuron-like cells on Gel/PLGA/FeNPs as a biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds were better than those cultured in Gel/PLGA in absence of FeNPs and TCP scaffolds. FeNPs had raised physical power but decreased capacity absorption of scaffolds. Well defined oriented pores in scaffolds due to FeNPs may activate differentiation and synchronized cells as a mechanoreceptor. Induction effects of magnetic FeNPs by One way flow of channels in scaffolds help to lead the cells and can facilitate direction of their growth processes. Discussion: Progression of biological properties of BMMSCs and the effects of FeNPs spreading under magnetic field was evaluated in this investigation. In vitro study showed that the Gel/PLGA/FeNPs scaffold provided a suitable structure for motor neuron-like cells differentiation. This could be a promising candidate for enhancing repair and regeneration in neural defects. Dynamic and static magnetic field for inducing and construction of cells can provide better results for further experimental studies.

Keywords: differentiation, mesenchymal stem cells, nano particles, neuronal defects, Scaffolds

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