Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: Ellen A. Kalinga

32 Customization of Moodle Open Source LMS for Tanzania Secondary Schools’ Use

Authors: Ellen A. Kalinga

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Moodle is an open source learning management system that enables creation of a powerful and flexible learning environment. Many organizations, especially learning institutions have customized Moodle open source LMS for their own use. In general open source LMSs are of great interest due to many advantages they offer in terms of cost, usage and freedom to customize to fit a particular context. Tanzania Secondary School e-Learning (TanSSe-L) system is the learning management system for Tanzania secondary schools. TanSSe-L system was developed using a number of methods, one of them being customization of Moodle Open Source LMS. This paper presents few areas on the way Moodle OS LMS was customized to produce a functional TanSSe-L system fitted to the requirements and specifications of Tanzania secondary schools’ context.

Keywords: LMS, Moodle, e-learning, Tanzania, secondary school

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31 Towards the Ideal Life: Quantitative Study on the Impact of Social Enterprises towards Their Employees

Authors: Joseph Daniel Lumain

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The Philippine business sector has witnessed the emergence of a new category that distinguishes itself from the common framework that most enterprises utilize as this new emerging player incorporates social needs as part of its mission and goals. Various literature has manifested the relevance of social enterprises as an instrument towards poverty alleviation, as it concretely increases the capabilities of individuals. This study aims to identify whether or not social enterprises creates an impact towards their employees by positively influencing their respective perceptions on their capabilities on income, health and education. Utilizing Amartya Sen’s Capabilities Framework, this study is grounded on the relationships between social enterprises and increased capabilities, and increased capabilities and developing towards living a life they truly desire. The data gathered was analyzed quantitatively, supplemented by qualitative interviews with one to two employees from the social enterprise itself. Focusing on three social enterprises found within GKonomics, or the platform of Gawad Kalinga for social enterprise development, this purposive study was able to show that employees’ perceptions on their employment positively influenced their perceptions on their capabilities, and that this result affected their improvement towards living a life they desire.

Keywords: social enterprise, Amartya Sen, capabilities framework, Gawad Kalinga

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30 Teachers Handbook: A Key to Imparting Teaching in Multilingual Classrooms at Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences (KISS)

Authors: Sushree Sangita Mohanty

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The pedagogic system, which is used to work with indigenous groups, who have equally different socio-economic, socio-cultural & multi-lingual conditions with differing cognitive capabilities, makes the education situation complex. As a result, educating the indigenous people became just the dissemination of facts and information, but advancement in knowledge and possibilities somewhere hides. This gap arises complexities due to the language barrier and the teachers from a conventional background of teaching practices are unable to understand or connect with the students in the schools. This paper presents the research work of the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) project that has developed a creative pedagogic endeavor for the students of Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences (KISS) for facilitating Multilingual Education (MLE) teaching. KISS is a home for 25,000 indigenous children. The students enrolled here are from 62 different indigenous communities who speak around 24 different languages with geographical articulation. The book contents include concept, understanding languages, similitudes among languages, the need of mother tongue in teaching and learning, skill development (Listening-Speaking-Reading-Writing), teachers activities for teaching in multilingual schools, the process of teaching, training format of multilingual teaching and procedures for basic data collection regarding multilingual schools and classroom handle.

Keywords: indigenous, multi-lingual, pedagogic, teachers, teaching practices

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29 Neoliberal Policies and International Organizations: The OECD and Higher Education Policy

Authors: Ellen Holtmaat

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With an ever increasing influence of international organizations (IOs) on national policies and with the expectation that IOs are the transmission belts of world ideologies it is interesting to see to what extent IOs express a specific ideology and what determines the dominance of this ideology. This thesis looks at the OECD as IO and higher education as a field of policy. Evidence is found that the OECD promotes neoliberal developments in higher education and that its position is influenced by business, dominant countries and the dominant beliefs that are carried by the people working for the OECD that form an epistemic community. These results can possibly be extrapolated to other IOs.

Keywords: higher education, international organizations, neoliberal, OECD

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28 Offshorability and the Lobby for Immigrant Labor

Authors: Ellen A. Holtmaat

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Research on lobbying for immigration is limited and the influence of offshorability on lobbying for immigration has not extensively been assessed. This research focuses on the U.S. and argues that offshorable firms have an ‘outside-option’ when they are in need of labor, which makes them less likely to lobby for immigration in the lower-skilled sectors. Higher-skilled offshorable sectors settle often in the U.S., as the U.S. has a comparative advantage in these sectors. The companies compete globally and demand world’s best labor, which induces them to lobby for immigration. This relationship is assessed using lobby data available from the 1995 Lobby Disclosure Act. Some evidence of the relationship is found and the research suggests that offshorability might also in general influence lobbying.

Keywords: immigration, lobbying, non-tradable sector, offshoring

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27 On Musical Information Geometry with Applications to Sonified Image Analysis

Authors: Shannon Steinmetz, Ellen Gethner

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In this paper, a theoretical foundation is developed for patterned segmentation of audio using the geometry of music and statistical manifold. We demonstrate image content clustering using conic space sonification. The algorithm takes a geodesic curve as a model estimator of the three-parameter Gamma distribution. The random variable is parameterized by musical centricity and centric velocity. Model parameters predict audio segmentation in the form of duration and frame count based on the likelihood of musical geometry transition. We provide an example using a database of randomly selected images, resulting in statistically significant clusters of similar image content.

Keywords: sonification, musical information geometry, image, content extraction, automated quantification, audio segmentation, pattern recognition

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26 Simulations of Welding and Heat Treatment through Steel Production Process

Authors: He Gao, Ellen Vd Aa, Tony Vd Veldt

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After liquid steel is cast and hot-rolled, welding is extensively applied at different production lines, e.g. pickling, cold rolling, galvanising and packaging. However, welding problems are inevitable and frequently reported from production, which leads to a line stop associated with considerable costs. In this work, a thorough numerical process model is created to simulate a laser welding, heat treatment and external tension process. The welding model is firstly validated with thermocouple and weld fusion measurements. Then the weld history is predefined to a heat treatment model to study stress relaxation and redistribution. The welded and heat-treated workpiece is subsequently subject to external tension, and a critical condition for a safe process is determined.

Keywords: laser welding, heat treatment, FEM, AHSS

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25 Accessibility and Visibility through Space Syntax Analysis of the Linga Raj Temple in Odisha, India

Authors: S. Pramanik

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Since the early ages, the Hindu temples have been interpreted through various Vedic philosophies. These temples are visited by pilgrims which demonstrate the rituals and religious belief of communities, reflecting a variety of actions and behaviors. Darsana a direct seeing, is a part of the pilgrimage activity. During the process of Darsana, a devotee is prepared for entry in the temple to realize the cognizing Truth culminating in visualizing the idol of God, placed at the Garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum). For this, the pilgrim must pass through a sequential arrangement of spaces. During the process of progress, the pilgrims visualize the spaces differently from various points of views. The viewpoints create a variety of spatial patterns in the minds of pilgrims coherent to the Hindu philosophies. The space organization and its order are perceived by various techniques of spatial analysis. A temple, as examples of Kalinga stylistic variations, has been chosen for the study. This paper intends to demonstrate some visual patterns generated during the process of Darsana (visibility) and its accessibility by Point Isovist Studies and Visibility Graph Analysis from the entrance (Simha Dwara) to The Sanctum sanctorum (Garbhagriha).

Keywords: Hindu temple architecture, point isovist, space syntax analysis, visibility graph analysis

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24 Study of Adsorption Isotherm Models on Rare Earth Elements Biosorption for Separation Purposes

Authors: Nice Vasconcelos Coimbra, Fábio dos Santos Gonçalves, Marisa Nascimento, Ellen Cristine Giese

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The development of chemical routes for the recovery and separation of rare earth elements (REE) is seen as a priority and strategic action by several countries demanding these elements. Among the possibilities of alternative routes, the biosorption process has been evaluated in our laboratory. In this theme, the present work attempts to assess and fit the solution equilibrium data in Langmuir, Freundlich and DKR isothermal models, based on the biosorption results of the lanthanum and samarium elements by Bacillus subtilis immobilized on calcium alginate gel. It was observed that the preference of adsorption of REE by the immobilized biomass followed the order Sm (III)> La (III). It can be concluded that among the studied isotherms models, the Langmuir model presented better mathematical results than the Freundlich and DKR models.

Keywords: rare earth elements, biosorption, Bacillus subtilis, adsorption isotherm models

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23 Dynamic Relaxation and Isogeometric Analysis for Finite Deformation Elastic Sheets with Combined Bending and Stretching

Authors: Nikhil Padhye, Ellen Kintz, Dan Dorci

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Recent years have seen a rising interest in study and applications of materially uniform thin-structures (plates/shells) subject to finite-bending and stretching deformations. We introduce a well-posed 2D-model involving finite-bending and stretching of thin-structures to approximate the three-dimensional equilibria. Key features of this approach include: Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS)-based spatial discretization for finite elements, method of dynamic relaxation to predict stable equilibria, and no a priori kinematic assumption on the deformation fields. The approach is validated against the benchmark problems,and the use of NURBS for spatial discretization facilitates exact spatial representation and computation of curvatures (due to C1-continuity of interpolated displacements) for this higher-order accuracy 2D-model.

Keywords: Isogeometric Analysis, Plates/Shells , Finite Element Methods, Dynamic Relaxation

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22 An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis on the Concept of Friends of Children in Conflict with the Law

Authors: Karla Kristine Bay, Jovie Ann Gabin, Allana Joyce Sasotona

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This research employed an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the experiences of Children in Conflict with the Law (CICL) which gave light to their concept of ‘friends’. Derived from this context are the following objectives of the study: 1) determining the differentiation of the forms of friends of the CICL; 2) presenting the process of attachment towards detachment in the formation of friendship; and 3) discussing the experiences, and reflections of the CICL on the ‘self’ out of their encounter with friendship. Using the data gathered from the individual drawings of the CICL of their representations of the self, family, friends, community, and Bahay Kalinga as subjects in the meaning-making process utilizing Filipino Psychology methods of pagtatanong-tanong (interview), and pakikipagkwentuhan (conversation), data analysis produced a synthesis of seventeen individual cases. Overall results generated three superordinate themes on the differentiation of the forms of friends which include friends with good influences, friends with bad influences, and friends within the family. While two superordinate themes were produced on the process of attachment towards detachment, namely social, emotional, and psychological experiences on the process of attachment, and emotional and psychological experiences on the process of detachment. Lastly, two superordinate themes were created on the experiences, and reflections of the CICL on the ‘self’ out of their encounter with friendship. This consists of the recognition of the ‘self’ as a responsible agent in developing healthy relationships between the self and others, and reconstruction of the self from the collective experiences of healing, forgiveness, and acceptance. These findings, together with supporting theories discussed the impact of friendship on the emergence of criminal behavior and other dispositions; springing from the child’s dissociation from the family that led to finding belongingness from an external group called friends.

Keywords: children in conflict with the law, criminal behavior, friends, interpretative phenomenological analysis

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21 Investigation of the Effects of Monoamine Oxidase Levels on the 20S Proteasome

Authors: Bhavini Patel, Aslihan Ugun-Klusek, Ellen Billet

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The two main contributing factors to familial and idiopathic form of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are oxidative stress and altered proteolysis. Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) plays a significant role in redox homeostasis by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) via deamination of for example, dopamine. The ROS generated induces chemical modification of proteins resulting in altered biological function. The ubiquitin-proteasome system, which consists of three different types or proteolytic activity, namely “chymotrypsin-like” activity (CLA), “trypsin-like” activity (TLA) and “post acidic-like” activity (PLA), is responsible for the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Defects in UPS are known to be strongly correlated to PD. Herein, the effect of ROS generated by MAO-A on proteasome activity and the effects of proteasome inhibition on MAO-A protein levels in WT, mock and MAO-A overexpressed (MAO-A+) SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines were investigated. The data in this study report increased proteolytic activity when MAO-A protein levels are significantly increased, in particular CLA and PLA. Additionally, 20S proteasome inhibition induced a decrease in MAO-A levels in WT and mock cells in comparison to MAO-A+ cells in which 20S proteasome inhibition induced increased MAO-A levels to be further increased at 48 hours of inhibition. This study supports the fact that MAO-A could be a potential pharmaceutical target for neuronal protection as data suggests that endogenous MAO-A levels may be essential for modulating cell death and survival.

Keywords: monoamine oxidase, neurodegeneration, Parkinson's disease, proteasome

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20 Geographic Information Systems and Remotely Sensed Data for the Hydrological Modelling of Mazowe Dam

Authors: Ellen Nhedzi Gozo

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Unavailability of adequate hydro-meteorological data has always limited the analysis and understanding of hydrological behaviour of several dam catchments including Mazowe Dam in Zimbabwe. The problem of insufficient data for Mazowe Dam catchment analysis was solved by extracting catchment characteristics and aerial hydro-meteorological data from ASTER, LANDSAT, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission SRTM remote sensing (RS) images using ILWIS, ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine geographic information systems (GIS) software. Available observed hydrological as well as meteorological data complemented the use of the remotely sensed information. Ground truth land cover was mapped using a Garmin Etrex global positioning system (GPS) system. This information was then used to validate land cover classification detail that was obtained from remote sensing images. A bathymetry survey was conducted using a SONAR system connected to GPS. Hydrological modelling using the HBV model was then performed to simulate the hydrological process of the catchment in an effort to verify the reliability of the derived parameters. The model output shows a high Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient that is close to 1 indicating that the parameters derived from remote sensing and GIS can be applied with confidence in the analysis of Mazowe Dam catchment.

Keywords: geographic information systems, hydrological modelling, remote sensing, water resources management

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19 Inclusive Business and Its Contribution to Farmers Wellbeing in Arsi Ethiopia: Empirical Evidence

Authors: Senait G. Worku, Ellen Mangnus

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Inclusive business models which integrates low-income people with companies value chain in a commercially viable way has gained momentum for the perceived potential to contribute to poverty alleviation and food security in developing countries. This article investigates the impact of Community Revenue Enhancement through Technology Extension (CREATE) project of Heineken brewery on smallholder farmers’ wellbeing in Arsi zone Oromia regional state of Ethiopia. CREATE is a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) between Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands and Heineken N.V. which source malt barely from smallholder farmers in three zones of Oromia. The study assessed the impact of CREATE on malt barley productivity, food security and new asset purchase in Arsi zone by comparing households that participate in the project with non-participating households using propensity score matching method. The finding indicated that households that participated in the CREATE project had higher malt barley productivity and purchased more new assets than non-participating households. However, there is no significant difference on food security status of participating and non-participating households indicating that the project has a profound impact on asset accumulation than on food security improvement.

Keywords: inclusive business, malt barley, propensity score matching, wellbeing

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18 Computationally Efficient Stacking Sequence Blending for Composite Structures with a Large Number of Design Regions Using Cellular Automata

Authors: Ellen Van Den Oord, Julien Marie Jan Ferdinand Van Campen

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This article introduces a computationally efficient method for stacking sequence blending of composite structures. The computational efficiency makes the presented method especially interesting for composite structures with a large number of design regions. Optimization of composite structures with an unequal load distribution may lead to locally optimized thicknesses and ply orientations that are incompatible with one another. Blending constraints can be enforced to achieve structural continuity. In literature, many methods can be found to implement structural continuity by means of stacking sequence blending in one way or another. The complexity of the problem makes the blending of a structure with a large number of adjacent design regions, and thus stacking sequences, prohibitive. In this work the local stacking sequence optimization is preconditioned using a method found in the literature that couples the mechanical behavior of the laminate, in the form of lamination parameters, to blending constraints, yielding near-optimal easy-to-blend designs. The preconditioned design is then fed to the scheme using cellular automata that have been developed by the authors. The method is applied to the benchmark 18-panel horseshoe blending problem to demonstrate its performance. The computational efficiency of the proposed method makes it especially suited for composite structures with a large number of design regions.

Keywords: composite, blending, optimization, lamination parameters

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17 Driver Take-Over Time When Resuming Control from Highly Automated Driving in Truck Platooning Scenarios

Authors: Bo Zhang, Ellen S. Wilschut, Dehlia M. C. Willemsen, Marieke H. Martens

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With the rapid development of intelligent transportation systems, automated platooning of trucks is drawing increasing interest for its beneficial effects on safety, energy consumption and traffic flow efficiency. Nevertheless, one major challenge lies in the safe transition of control from the automated system back to the human drivers, especially when they have been inattentive after a long period of highly automated driving. In this study, we investigated driver take-over time after a system initiated request to leave the platooning system Virtual Tow Bar in a non-critical scenario. 22 professional truck drivers participated in the truck driving simulator experiment, and each was instructed to drive under three experimental conditions before the presentation of the take-over request (TOR): driver ready (drivers were instructed to monitor the road constantly), driver not-ready (drivers were provided with a tablet) and eye-shut. The results showed significantly longer take-over time in both driver not-ready and eye-shut conditions compared with the driver ready condition. Further analysis revealed hand movement time as the main factor causing long response time in the driver not-ready condition, while in the eye-shut condition, gaze reaction time also influenced the total take-over time largely. In addition to comparing the means, large individual differences can be found especially in two driver, not attentive conditions. The importance of a personalized driver readiness predictor for a safe transition is concluded.

Keywords: driving simulation, highly automated driving, take-over time, transition of control, truck platooning

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16 Current Judicial Discourse Regarding the Impact of Alcohol Use Disorders on Crime in Canada

Authors: Ellen McClure

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It is generally well-known that a number of inmates suffer from some form of substance or alcohol use disorder. This study identifies, analyses, classifies and codifies the most recent Canadian criminal judgments involving an accused diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder specifically. From this research, patterns in judicial discourse and sentencing norms can be established, and these findings can be juxtaposed with existing relevant academic literature, particular attention will be given to this discussion at the sentencing stage, and the subsequent incarceration of those with alcohol use disorders. This topic will be explored with an overarching emphasis on the effects that a lack of conversation regarding a possible correlation between alcohol consumption and crime may have. Although comparisons may be made in order to clarify or highlight certain issues, particular attention will be paid to jurisdictions within Canada. This paper explores the existing judicial discourse in sentencing regarding the relationship between alcohol and crime, and how this might explain the higher incarceration rates of those suffering from alcohol use disorders in Canada. The research questions are as follows: (1) What are the existing judicial discourses in sentencing around the relationship between alcohol and crime? (2) To what extent has the current discourse on alcohol addiction among judges and legal academics contributed to the incarceration of alcoholics?The major findings of this research indicate a strong correlation between a lack of judicial discussion regarding the accused’s alcohol use disorder and an increased tendency to consider an alcohol use disorder as an aggravating factor. Furthermore, it was found that an 82% of judges who discussed the alcohol use disorder meaningfully referred to the disorder as a mitigating factor. This can be compared with 6.7% of judges who referred to the alcohol use disorder as a mitigating factor in cases where the disorder was not meaningfully discussed.

Keywords: alcohol use disorder, addiction, criminal justice, judicial discourse

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15 Lactational Amenorrhea Method for Family Planning: An Evaluation of Compliance in the Philippines

Authors: Ellen Bautista, Rebecca M. Flueckiger, Easter Dasmarinas, Rajeev Colaco, Fulbert Alec R. Gillego, Alma M. Lozada, Cristina Bisson

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Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) for family planning is at least 98% effective at preventing pregnancy when all criteria are met; (1) the mother is exclusively or nearly exclusively breastfeeding, (2) the mother is amenorrheic (not menstruating), and (3) the baby is six months old or younger. LAM is particularly suited for women interested in family planning accepted by religious authorities. As a majority catholic nation, LAM is a common and accepted form of family planning in the Philippines. The USAID funded, LuzonHealth project conducted a prospective evaluation in Legazpi City to inform the enhancement of guidelines aimed at increasing LAM compliance and encouraging a second form of contraceptive once LAM protection expires. LAM compliance, reasons for non-compliance, family planning referral and uptake of secondary modern family planning methods were tracked over a nine-month period among 521 postpartum women. The evaluation found that at three months postpartum, 97% of women either met LAM criteria or had shifted to a non-LAM modern family planning method. In month six 87% of women no longer met LAM criteria and of these only 35% had shifted to an alternative modern family planning method. This means that at six-months postpartum 65% of the women in this evaluation were not protected against pregnancy through modern family planning methods. By postpartum month nine, 70% of the women had been referred to family planning counseling, yet of those referred only 34% reported using modern family planning methods. This evaluation clearly indicates scale-up of non-LAM modern family planning does not sufficiently complement the scale-down of LAM compliance. There is a need to increase client knowledge and understanding of LAM as a temporary family planning method with a strong focus on preparing to shift to another form of modern family planning once LAM protection expires. Additionally, there is great need to restructure the referral mechanism to ensure efficacy and quality of care.

Keywords: Philippines, family planning, lactational amenorrhea method, contraceptives

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14 Organisational Culture and the Role of the Mental Health Nurse: An Ethnography of the New Graduate Nurse Experience

Authors: Mary-Ellen Hooper, Graeme Browne, Anthony Paul O'Brien

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Background: It has been reported that the experience of the organisational workplace culture for new graduate mental health nurses plays an important role in their attraction and retention to the discipline. Additionally, other research indicates that a negative workplace culture contributes to their dissatisfaction and attrition rate. Method: An ethnographic research design was applied to explore the subcultural experiences of new graduate nurses as they encounter mental health nursing. Data was collected between April and September 2017 across 6 separate Australian, NSW, mental health units. Data comprised of semi-structured interviews (n=24) and 31 episodes of field observation (62 hours). A total number of 26 new graduate and recent graduate nurses participated in the study – 14 new graduate nurses and 12 recently graduated nurses. Results: A key finding from this study was the New Graduate difficulty in articulating the role the of mental health nurse. Participants described a dichotomy between their ideological view of the mental health nurse and the reality of clinical practice. The participants’ ideological view of the mental health nurse involved providing holistic and individualised care within a flexible framework. Participants, however, described feeling powerless to change the recovery practices within the mental health service(s) because of their low status within the hierarchy. Resulting in participants choosing to fit into the existing culture, or considering leaving the field altogether. Conclusion: An incongruence between the values and ideals of an organisational culture and the reality shock of practice are shown to contribute to role ambiguity within its members. New graduate nurses entering the culture of mental health nursing describe role ambiguity resulting in dissatisfaction with practice. The culture and philosophy inherent to a service are posited to be crucial in creating positive experiences for graduate nurses.

Keywords: culture, mental health nurse, mental health nursing role, new graduate nurse

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13 Exploring the Subculture of New Graduate Nurses’ Everyday Experience in Mental Health Nursing: An Ethnography

Authors: Mary-Ellen Hooper, Anthony Paul O'Brien, Graeme Browne

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Background: It has been proposed that negative experiences in mental health nursing increase the risk of attrition for newly graduated nurses. The risk of nurse attrition is of particular concern with current nurse shortages worldwide continuing to rise. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the qualitative experiences of new graduate nurses as they enter mental health services in their first year of clinical practice. Method: An ethnographic research design was utilized in order to explore the sub-cultural experiences of new graduate nurses. Which included 31 separate episodes of field observation (62 hours) and (n=24) semi-structured interviews. A total number of 26 new graduates and recently graduated nurses participated in this study – 14 new graduate nurses and 12 recently graduate nurses. Data collection was conducted across 6 separate Australian, NSW, mental health units from April until September 2017. Results: A major theme emerging from the research is the new graduate nurses experience of communication in their nursing role, particularly within the context of the multidisciplinary team, and the barriers to sharing information related to care. This presentation describes the thematic structure of the major theme 'communication' in the context of the everyday experience of the New Graduate mental health nurse's participation in their chosen nursing discipline. The participants described diminished communication as a negative experience affecting their envisioned notion of holistic care, which they had associated with the role of the mental health nurse. Conclusion: The relationship between nurses and members of the multidisciplinary team plays a key role in the communication of patient care, patient-centeredness and inter-professional collaboration, potentially affecting the role of the mental health nurse, satisfaction of new graduate nurses, and patient care.

Keywords: culture, mental health nursing, multidisciplinary team, new graduate nurse

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12 The Role of Car Dealerships in Promoting Electric Vehicles: Covert Participatory Observations of Car Dealerships in Sweden

Authors: Anne Y. Faxer, Ellen Olausson, Jens Hagman, Ana Magazinius, Jenny J. Stier, Tommy Fransson, Oscar Enerback

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While electric vehicles (both battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids) have been on the market for around 6 years, they are still far from mainstream and the knowledge of them is still low among the public. This is likely one of the reasons that Sweden, having one of the highest penetrations of electric vehicles in Europe, still has a long way to go in reaching a fossil free vehicle fleet. Car dealerships are an important medium that connects consumers to vehicles, but somehow, their role in introducing electric vehicles has not yet been thoroughly studied. Research from other domains shows that salespeople can affect customer decisions in their choice of products. The aim of this study is to explore the role of car dealerships when it comes to promoting electric vehicles. The long-term goal is to understand how they could be a key in the effort of achieving a mass introduction of electric vehicles in Sweden. By emulating the customer’s experience, this study investigates the interaction between car salespeople and customers, particularly examining whether they present electric vehicles as viable options. Covert participatory observations were conducted for data collection from four different brands at in total twelve car dealers. The observers worked in pairs and played the role of a customer with needs that could be matched by an electric vehicle. The data was summarized in observation protocols and analyzed using thematic coding. The result shows that only one of twelve salespeople offered an electric vehicle as the first option. When environmental factors were brought up by the observers, the salespeople followed up with lower fuel consumption internal combustion engine vehicles rather than suggesting an electric vehicle. All salespeople possessed at least basic knowledge about electric vehicles but their interest of selling them were low in most cases. One of the reasons could be that the price of electric vehicles is usually higher. This could be inferred from the finding that salespeople tend to have a strong focus on price and economy in their dialogues with customers, regardless which type of car they were selling. In conclusion, the study suggests that car salespeople have the potential to help the market to achieve mass introduction of electric vehicles; however, their potential needs to be exploited further. To encourage salespeople to prioritize electric vehicles in the sales process, right incentives need to be in place.

Keywords: car dealerships, covert participatory observation, customer perspective , electric vehicle, market penetration

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11 The Presence of Dogs in Nursing Homes: Experiences Concerning the Mental Health of Residents

Authors: Ellen Dahl Gundersen, Berit Johannessen

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Introduction: Dementia and depression are common mental disorders of nursing home residents. The care of these residents consists of providing both physical, social and mental care. Too often, the physical needs are given priority, and municipal health services are urged to focus more on the patients mental and social needs. The presence of dogs may have positive impact on the mental health of nursing home residents by improving mood, social interaction and enjoyment of the visits. The voluntary organization Red Cross, has given priority to this subject by training and certifying dogs and owners (equipages), committed for regular visits at local nursing homes. Focus of this study: How do the dog owners and employees experience the presence of a dog equipage concerning the mental health of nursing home residents? Method: Individual interviews with 8-10 certified dog owners who are volunteers from Red Cross, contributing with regular visits at local nursing homes. Focus group interviews with 10 employees working in two different nursing homes. Preliminary results: Five to seven residents and one or two employees attended weekly dog equipage visits during a period of six months. The presence of an equipage seems to have made the residents calm and more social orientated with a lighter mood and better verbal expression. Some of the residents with dementia remembered the name of the dog from one week to another. The informants also reported positive outcome for the residents by their opportunity to give and get close through physical contact with a dog. Further, the presence of an equipage affected the atmosphere at the nursing home positively by promoting joy and initiating conversations about dogs. A conscious approach by the dog owners towards the residents seems to be of significance to this matter. The positive attitude and support from employees also seem to be of crucial importance for the maintenance of these visits. Conclusion: The presence of trained dog equipages in nursing homes seems to have had an overall positive impact on the mental health of residents. A conscious approach from the dog owners as well as positive support from employees seems to have a crucial impact on the success and maintenance of the visits. These findings correspond well to former research and can thereby give implications for more extended use of dogs as a mental health promoting initiative towards geriatric consumers of municipal health care services. Further research through larger studies is needed.

Keywords: animal assisted intervention, geriatric mental health, nursing home, resident

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10 Towards a Comprehensive Framework on Civic Competence Development of Teachers: A Systematic Review of Literature

Authors: Emilie Vandevelde, Ellen Claes

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This study aims to develop a comprehensive model for the civic socialization process of teachers. Citizenship has become one of the main objectives for the European education systems. It is expected that teachers are well prepared and equipped with the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes to also engage students in democratic citizenship. While a lot is known about young peoples’ civic competence development and how schools and teachers (don’t) support this process, less is known about how teachers themselves engage with (the teaching of) civics. Other than the civic socialization process of young adolescents that focuses on personal competence development, the civic socialization process of teachers includes the development of professional, civic competences. These professional competences make that they are able to prepare pupils to carry out their civic responsibilities in thoughtful ways. Existing models for the civic socialization process of young adolescents do not take this dual purpose into account. Based on these observations, this paper will investigate (1)What personal and professional civic competences teachers need to effectively teach civic education and (2) how teachers acquire these personal and professional civic competences. To answer the first research question, a systematic review of literature of existing civic education frameworks was carried out and linked to literature on teacher training. The second research question was addressed by adapting the Octagon model, developed by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), to the context of teachers. This was done by carrying out a systematic review of the recent literature linking three theoretical topics involved in teachers’ civic competence development: theories about the civic socialization process of young adolescents, Schulmans (1987) theoretical assumptions on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and Nogueira & Moreira’s (2012) framework for civic education teachers’ knowledge and literature on teachers’ professional development. This resulted in a comprehensive conceptual framework describing the personal and professional civic competences of civic education teachers. In addition, this framework is linked to the OctagonT model: a model that describes the processes through which teachers acquire these personal and professional civic competences. This model recognizes that teachers’ civic socialization process is influenced by interconnected variables located at different levels in a multi-level structure (the individual teacher (e.g., civic beliefs), everyday contacts (e.g., teacher educators, the intended, informal and hidden curriculum of the teacher training program, internship contacts, participation opportunities in teacher training, etc.) and the influence of the national educational context (e.g., vision on civic education)). Furthermore, implications for teacher education programs are described.

Keywords: civic education, civic competences, civic socialization, octagon model, teacher training

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9 The Significance of Urban Space in Death Trilogy of Alejandro González Iñárritu

Authors: Marta Kaprzyk

Abstract:

The cinema of Alejandro González Iñárritu hasn’t been subjected to a lot of detailed analysis yet, what makes it an exceptionally interesting research material. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the significance of urban space in three films of this Mexican director, that forms Death Trilogy: ‘Amores Perros’ (2000), ‘21 Grams’ (2003) and ‘Babel’ (2006). The fact that in the aforementioned movies the urban space itself becomes an additional protagonist with its own identity, psychology and the ability to transform and affect other characters, in itself warrants for independent research and analysis. Independently, such mode of presenting urban space has another function; it enables the director to complement the rest of characters. The basis for methodology of this description of cinematographic space is to treat its visual layer as a point of departure for a detailed analysis. At the same time, the analysis itself will be supported by recognised academic theories concerning special issues, which are transformed here into essential tools necessary to describe the world (mise-en-scène) created by González Iñárritu. In ‘Amores perros’ the Mexico City serves as a scenery – a place full of contradictions- in the movie depicted as a modern conglomerate and an urban jungle, as well as a labyrinth of poverty and violence. In this work stylistic tropes can be found in an intertextual dialogue of the director with photographies of Nan Goldin and Mary Ellen Mark. The story recounted in ‘21 Grams’, the most tragic piece in the trilogy, is characterised by almost hyperrealistic sadism. It takes place in Memphis, which on the screen turns into an impersonal formation full of heterotopias described by Michel Foucault and non-places, as defined by Marc Augé in his essay. By contrast, the main urban space in ‘Babel’ is Tokio, which seems to perfectly correspond with the image of places discussed by Juhani Pallasmaa in his works concerning the reception of the architecture by ‘pathological senses’ in the modern (or, even more adequately, postmodern) world. It’s portrayed as a city full of buildings that look so surreal, that they seem to be completely unsuitable for the humans to move between them. Ultimately, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate the coherence of the manner in which González Iñárritu designs urban spaces in his Death Trilogy. In particular, the author attempts to examine the imperative role of the cities that form three specific microcosms in which the protagonists of the Mexican director live their overwhelming tragedies.

Keywords: cinematographic space, Death Trilogy, film Studies, González Iñárritu Alejandro, urban space

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8 A Model for a Continuous Professional Development Program for Early Childhood Teachers in Villages: Insights from the Coaching Pilot in Indonesia

Authors: Ellen Patricia, Marilou Hyson

Abstract:

Coaching has been showing great potential to strengthen the impact of brief group trainings and help early childhood teachers solve specific problems at work with the goal of raising the quality of early childhood services. However, there have been some doubts about the benefits that village teachers can receive from coaching. It is perceived that village teachers may struggle with the thinking skills needed to make coaching beneficial. Furthermore, there are reservations about whether principals and supervisors in villages are open to coaching’s facilitative approach, as opposed to the directive approach they have been using. As such, the use of coaching to develop the professionalism of early childhood teachers in the villages needs to be examined. The Coaching Pilot for early childhood teachers in Indonesia villages provides insights for the above issues. The Coaching Pilot is part of the ECED Frontline Pilot, which is a collaboration project between the Government of Indonesia and the World Bank with the support from the Australian Government (DFAT). The Pilot started with coordinated efforts with the local government in two districts to select principals and supervisors who have been equipped with basic knowledge about early childhood education to take part in 2-days coaching training. Afterwards, the participants were asked to collect 25 hours of coaching early childhood teachers who have participated in the Enhanced Basic Training for village teachers. The participants who completed this requirement were then invited to come for an assessment of their coaching skills. Following that, a qualitative evaluation was conducted using in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion techniques. The evaluation focuses on the impact of the coaching pilot in helping the village teachers to develop in their professionalism, as well as on the sustainability of the intervention. Results from the evaluation indicated that although their low education may limit their thinking skills, village teachers benefited from the coaching that they received. Moreover, the evaluation results also suggested that with enough training and support, principals and supervisors in the villages were able to provide an adequate coaching service for the teachers. On top of that, beyond this small start, interest is growing, both within the pilot districts and even beyond, due to word of mouth of the benefits that the Coaching Pilot has created. The districts where coaching was piloted have planned to continue the coaching program, since a number of early childhood teachers have requested to be coached, and a number of principals and supervisors have also requested to be trained as a coach. Furthermore, the Association for Early Childhood Educators in Indonesia has started to adopt coaching into their program. Although further research is needed, the Coaching Pilot suggests that coaching can positively impact early childhood teachers in villages, and village principals and supervisors can become a promising source of future coaches. As such, coaching has a significant potential to become a sustainable model for a continuous professional development program for early childhood teachers in villages.

Keywords: coaching, coaching pilot, early childhood teachers, principals and supervisors, village teachers

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7 Critical Discourse Analysis Approach to the Post-Feminist Representations in Ecommerce Livestreamings of Lipsticks

Authors: Haiyan Huang, Jan Blommaert, Ellen Van Praet

Abstract:

The embrace of neoliberal economic system in China has engendered the entry of global commodity capitalism into domestic Chinese market and ushered in the post-feminism that is closely associated with consumerism from western culture. Chinese women are instilled and thus hold the belief of empowering themselves and expressing their individualism through consumption. To unravel the consumerist ideologies embedded in Li’s discursive practices, we rely on critical discourse analysis (CDA) as our research framework. The data analyses suggest that cosmopolitanism and class are two repeating themes when Li engages in persuading consumerist behaviors from the female audience. Through hints and cues such as “going on business trips”, “traveling abroad”, “international brands” and among others, Li provides the access to and possibility of imagining cosmopolitan and middle class identity for his audience. Such yearning for western culture and global citizen identity also implicates the aspiration for a well-off socioeconomic status, proving that post-feminism in China not only embodies western consumerism but also implicates the struggle of class movement. These defining elements of choice and freedom are well-situated in contemporary Chinese society where women are enjoying more educational and economic independence than before. However a closer examination reveals conflicts between hegemonic discourse of post-feminism and the status quo. First, propagating women’s power through consumption obscure the entrenched gender inequality in China. Philosophies such as employment discrimination, equal payment, education right, etc., the cornerstones of feminism did not exist in China, leading to historical gender issues unsolved. Second, the lengthy broadcastings (which normally last more than 2 hours) featured with big discounts on products beg the question who are the real audience of ecommerce livestreaming. Seemingly addressing to young well-off Chinese females, Li’s discursive practice can be targeting at young but not wealthy girls who aspire to mimic the lifestyle of middle class women. By selling the idea of empowering and constructing identity through consuming beauty products (e.g., lipsticks), capitalists are endeavoring to create the post-feminism illusion and cause anxieties among Chinese females. Through in-depth analyses of hegemonic discourse on ecommerce livestreaming of lipsticks, the paper contributes to a better understanding of post-feminism in contemporary China and meanwhile illustrates the problems Chinese women face in securing power and equality.

Keywords: Chinese women, critical discourse analysis, ecommerce livestreaming, post-feminism

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6 One Session Treatment (Ost) Is Equivalent to Multi-Session Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (Cbt) in Children with Specific Phobias (Aspect): Results for the UK, Non-inferiority, Randomised Controlled Trial With a Qualitative and a Health Economic Component

Authors: Barry Wright, Lucy Tindall, Alex Scott, Ellen Lee, Cindy Cooper, Katie Biggs, Penny Bee, Han-I Wang, Lina Gega, Emily Hayward, Kiera Solaiman, Dawn Teare, Thompson Davis, Jon Wilson, Karina Lovell, Dean McMillan, Amy Barr, Hannah Edwards, Jennifer Lomas, Chris Turtle, Steve Parrott, Catarina Teige, Tim Chater, Rebecca Hargate, Shezhad Ali, Sarah Parkinson, Simon Gilbody, David Marshall

Abstract:

Background: 5% to 10% children and young people (CYP) have specific phobias that impact upon daily functioning. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is recommended but has limitations. One Session Treatment (OST), a low-intensity alternative incorporating CBT principles, has demonstrated efficacy. Alleviating Specific Phobias Experienced by Children Trial (ASPECT) investigated the non-inferiority of OST compared to multi-session CBT for treating specific phobias in CYP. Methods: ASPECT was a pragmatic, multi-centre, non-inferiority randomised controlled trial in 26 CAMHS sites, three voluntary agency services and one university-based CYP well-being service. CYP aged 7- 16 years with specific phobia were randomised 1:1 to OST or CBT. Non-inferiority was assessed six-months post-randomisation using the Behavioural Avoidance Task (BAT). Secondary outcome measures included the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule, Child Anxiety Impact Scale, Revised Children’s Anxiety Depression Scale, goal-based outcome measure, EQ-5DY and CHU-9D, collected blind at baseline and six months. An economic evaluation and qualitative study were undertaken. Results: 268 CYP were randomised to One Session Treatment (OST) (n=134) or CBT (n=134). Mean BAT scores at six-months were similar across groups in both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) populations (CBT: 7.1 (ITT, n=76), 7.4 (PP, n=57), OST: 7.4 (ITT, n=73), 7.6 (PP, n=56), on the standardised scale adjusted mean difference for CBT compared to OST -0.123, 95% CI -0.449 to 0.202 (ITT), mean difference -0.204, 95% CI -0.579 to 0.171 (PP)). These findings were wholly below the standardised non-inferiority limit of 0.4, suggesting that OST is non-inferior to CBT. No between-group differences were found on secondary outcomes. OST marginally decreased mean service use costs and maintained similar mean Quality Adjusted Life Years compared to CBT. CYP, their parents and the therapists found the intervention acceptable. Conclusions: OST has similar clinical effectiveness to CBT for specific phobias in CYP and maybe a cost-saving alternative.

Keywords: one session therapy (OST), CBT, phobias, RCT

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5 Waste Analysis and Classification Study (WACS) in Ecotourism Sites of Samal Island, Philippines Towards a Circular Economy Perspective

Authors: Reeden Bicomong

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Ecotourism activities, though geared towards conservation efforts, still put pressures against the natural state of the environment. Influx of visitors that goes beyond carrying capacity of the ecotourism site, the wastes generated, greenhouse gas emissions, are just few of the potential negative impacts of a not well-managed ecotourism activities. According to Girard and Nocca (2017) tourism produces many negative impacts because it is configured according to the model of linear economy, operating on a linear model of take, make and dispose (Ellen MacArthur Foundation 2015). With the influx of tourists in an ecotourism area, more wastes are generated, and if unregulated, natural state of the environment will be at risk. It is in this light that a study on waste analysis and classification study in five different ecotourism sites of Samal Island, Philippines was conducted. The major objective of the study was to analyze the amount and content of wastes generated from ecotourism sites in Samal Island, Philippines and make recommendations based on the circular economy perspective. Five ecotourism sites in Samal Island, Philippines was identified such as Hagimit Falls, Sanipaan Vanishing Shoal, Taklobo Giant Clams, Monfort Bat Cave, and Tagbaobo Community Based Ecotourism. Ocular inspection of each ecotourism site was conducted. Likewise, key informant interview of ecotourism operators and staff was done. Wastes generated from these ecotourism sites were analyzed and characterized to come up with recommendations that are based on the concept of circular economy. Wastes generated were classified into biodegradables, recyclables, residuals and special wastes. Regression analysis was conducted to determine if increase in number of visitors would equate to increase in the amount of wastes generated. Ocular inspection indicated that all of the five ecotourism sites have their own system of waste collection. All of the sites inspected were found to be conducting waste separation at source since there are different types of garbage bins for all of the four classification of wastes such as biodegradables, recyclables, residuals and special wastes. Furthermore, all five ecotourism sites practice composting of biodegradable wastes and recycling of recyclables. Therefore, only residuals are being collected by the municipal waste collectors. Key informant interview revealed that all five ecotourism sites offer mostly nature based activities such as swimming, diving, site seeing, bat watching, rice farming experiences and community living. Among the five ecotourism sites, Sanipaan Vanishing Shoal has the highest average number of visitors in a weekly basis. At the same time, in the wastes assessment study conducted, Sanipaan has the highest amount of wastes generated. Further results of wastes analysis revealed that biodegradables constitute majority of the wastes generated in all of the five selected ecotourism sites. Meanwhile, special wastes proved to be the least generated as there was no amount of this type was observed during the three consecutive weeks WACS was conducted.

Keywords: Circular economy, ecotourism, sustainable development, WACS

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4 Selfie: Redefining Culture of Narcissism

Authors: Junali Deka

Abstract:

“Pictures speak more than a thousand words”. It is the power of image which can have multiple meanings the way it is read by the viewers. This research article is an outcome of the extensive study of the phenomenon of‘selfie culture’ and dire need of self-constructed virtual identity among youths. In the recent times, there has been a revolutionary change in the concept of photography in terms of both techniques and applications. The popularity of ‘self-portraits’ mainly depend on the temporal space and time created on social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram. With reference to Stuart’s Hall encoding and decoding process, the article studies the behavior of the users who post photographs online. The photographic messages (Roland Barthes) are interpreted differently by different viewers. The notion of ‘self’, ‘self-love and practice of looking (Marita Sturken) and ways of seeing (John Berger) got new definition and dimensional together. After Oscars Night, show host Ellen DeGeneres’s selfie created the most buzz and hype in the social media. The term was judged the word of 2013, and has earned its place in the dictionary. “In November 2013, the word "selfie" was announced as being the "word of the year" by the Oxford English Dictionary. By the end of 2012, Time magazine considered selfie one of the "top 10 buzzwords" of that year; although selfies had existed long before, it was in 2012 that the term "really hit the big time an Australian origin. The present study was carried to understand the concept of ‘selfie-bug’ and the phenomenon it has created among youth (especially students) at large in developing a pseudo-image of its own. The topic was relevant and gave a platform to discuss about the cultural, psychological and sociological implications of selfie in the age of digital technology. At the first level, content analysis of the primary and secondary sources including newspapers articles and online resources was carried out followed by a small online survey conducted with the help of questionnaire to find out the student’s view on selfie and its social and psychological effects. The newspapers reports and online resources confirmed that selfie is a new trend in the digital media and it has redefined the notion of beauty and self-love. The Facebook and Instagram are the major platforms used to express one-self and creation of virtual identity. The findings clearly reflected the active participation of female students in comparison to male students. The study of the photographs of few selected respondents revealed the difference of attitude and image building among male and female users. The study underlines some basic questions about the desire of reconstruction of identity among young generation, such as - are they becoming culturally narcissist; responsible factors for cultural, social and moral changes in the society, psychological and technological effects caused by Smartphone as well, culminating into a big question mark whether the selfie is a social signifier of identity construction.

Keywords: Culture, Narcissist, Photographs, Selfie

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3 Selling Electric Vehicles: Experiences from Car Salesmen in Sweden

Authors: Jens Hagman, Jenny Janhager Stier, Ellen Olausson, Anne Y. Faxer, Ana Magazinius

Abstract:

Sweden has the second highest electric vehicle (plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle) sales per capita in Europe but in relation to sales of internal combustion engine electric vehicles sales are still minuscular (< 4%). Much research effort has been placed on various technical and user focused barriers and enablers for adoption of electric vehicles. Less effort has been placed on investigating the retail (dealership-customer) sales process of vehicles in general and electric vehicles in particular. Arguably, no one ought to be better informed about needs and desires of potential electric vehicle buyers than car salesmen, originating from their daily encounters with customers at the dealership. The aim of this paper is to explore the conditions of selling electric vehicle from a car salesmen’s perspective. This includes identifying barriers and enablers for electric vehicle sales originating from internal (dealership and brand) and external (customer, government) sources. In this interview study five car brands (manufacturers) that sell both electric and internal combustion engine vehicles have been investigated. A total of 15 semi-structured interviews have been conducted (three per brand, in rural and urban settings and at different dealerships). Initial analysis reveals several barriers and enablers, experienced by car salesmen, which influence electric vehicle sales. Examples of as reported by car salesmen identified barriers are: -Electric vehicles earn car salesmen less commission on average compared to internal combustion engine vehicles. -It takes more time to sell and deliver an electric vehicle than an internal combustion engine vehicle. -Current leasing contracts entails relatively low second-hand value estimations for electric vehicles and thus a high leasing fee, which negatively affects the attractiveness of electric vehicles for private consumers in particular. -High purchasing price discourages many consumers from considering electric vehicles. -The education and knowledge level of electric vehicles differs between car salesmen, which could affect their self-confidence in meeting well prepared and question prone electric vehicle buyers. Examples of identified enablers are: -Company car tax regulation promotes sales of electric vehicles; in particular, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are sold extensively to companies (up to 95 % of sales). -Low operating cost of electric vehicles such as fuel and service is an advantage when understood by consumers. -The drive performance of electric vehicles (quick, silent and fun to drive) is attractive to consumers. -Environmental aspects are considered important for certain consumer groups. -Fast technological improvements, such as increased range are opening up a wider market for electric vehicles. -For one of the brands; attractive private lease campaigns have proved effective to promote sales. This paper gives insights of an important but often overlooked aspect for the diffusion of electric vehicles (and durable products in general); the interaction between car salesmen and customers at the critical acquiring moment. Extracted through interviews with multiple car salesmen. The results illuminate untapped potential for sellers (salesmen, dealerships and brands) to mitigating sales barriers and strengthening sales enablers and thus becoming a more important actor in the electric vehicle diffusion process.

Keywords: customer barriers, electric vehicle promotion, sales of electric vehicles, interviews with car salesmen

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