Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Elie Gaget

9 Imputation of Incomplete Large-Scale Monitoring Count Data via Penalized Estimation

Authors: Mohamed Dakki, Genevieve Robin, Marie Suet, Abdeljebbar Qninba, Mohamed A. El Agbani, Asmâa Ouassou, Rhimou El Hamoumi, Hichem Azafzaf, Sami Rebah, Claudia Feltrup-Azafzaf, Nafouel Hamouda, Wed a.L. Ibrahim, Hosni H. Asran, Amr A. Elhady, Haitham Ibrahim, Khaled Etayeb, Essam Bouras, Almokhtar Saied, Ashrof Glidan, Bakar M. Habib, Mohamed S. Sayoud, Nadjiba Bendjedda, Laura Dami, Clemence Deschamps, Elie Gaget, Jean-Yves Mondain-Monval, Pierre Defos Du Rau

Abstract:

In biodiversity monitoring, large datasets are becoming more and more widely available and are increasingly used globally to estimate species trends and con- servation status. These large-scale datasets challenge existing statistical analysis methods, many of which are not adapted to their size, incompleteness and heterogeneity. The development of scalable methods to impute missing data in incomplete large-scale monitoring datasets is crucial to balance sampling in time or space and thus better inform conservation policies. We developed a new method based on penalized Poisson models to impute and analyse incomplete monitoring data in a large-scale framework. The method al- lows parameterization of (a) space and time factors, (b) the main effects of predic- tor covariates, as well as (c) space–time interactions. It also benefits from robust statistical and computational capability in large-scale settings. The method was tested extensively on both simulated and real-life waterbird data, with the findings revealing that it outperforms six existing methods in terms of missing data imputation errors. Applying the method to 16 waterbird species, we estimated their long-term trends for the first time at the entire North African scale, a region where monitoring data suffer from many gaps in space and time series. This new approach opens promising perspectives to increase the accuracy of species-abundance trend estimations. We made it freely available in the r package ‘lori’ (https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lori) and recommend its use for large- scale count data, particularly in citizen science monitoring programmes.

Keywords: biodiversity monitoring, high-dimensional statistics, incomplete count data, missing data imputation, waterbird trends in North-Africa

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8 Design, Development by Functional Analysis in UML and Static Test of a Multimedia Voice and Video Communication Platform on IP for a Use Adapted to the Context of Local Businesses in Lubumbashi

Authors: Blaise Fyama, Elie Museng, Grace Mukoma

Abstract:

In this article we present a java implementation of video telephony using the SIP protocol (Session Initiation Protocol). After a functional analysis of the SIP protocol, we relied on the work of Italian researchers of University of Parma-Italy to acquire adequate libraries for the development of our own communication tool. In order to optimize the code and improve the prototype, we used, in an incremental approach, test techniques based on a static analysis based on the evaluation of the complexity of the software with the application of metrics and the number cyclomatic of Mccabe. The objective is to promote the emergence of local start-ups producing IP video in a well understood local context. We have arrived at the creation of a video telephony tool whose code is optimized.

Keywords: static analysis, coding complexity metric mccabe, Sip, uml

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7 Long Term Strength Behavior of Hemp-Concrete

Authors: Elie Awwad, Bilal Hamad, Mounir Mabsout, Helmi Khatib

Abstract:

The paper reports test results on the long-term behavior of sustainable hemp-concrete material prepared in research work conducted at the American University of Beirut. The tests results are in terms of compressive and splitting tensile tests conducted on standard 150x300 mm cylinders. A control mix without fibers, one polypropylene-concrete mix, and ten hemp-concrete mixes were prepared with different percentages of industrial hemp fibers and reduced coarse aggregate contents. The objective was to investigate the strength properties of hemp-reinforced concrete at 1.5 years age as compared with control mixes. The results indicated that both the compressive strength and the splitting tensile strength results of all tested cylinders increased as compared with the 28-days values. Also, the difference between the hemp-concrete samples and the control samples at 28 days was maintained at 1.5 years age indicating that hemp fibers did not exhibit any negative effect on the long-term strength properties of concrete.

Keywords: hemp-reinforced concrete, natural fibers, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength

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6 Regional Changes under Extreme Meteorological Events

Authors: Renalda El Samra, Elie Bou-Zeid, Hamza Kunhu Bangalath, Georgiy Stenchikov, Mutasem El Fadel

Abstract:

The regional-scale impact of climate change over complex terrain was examined through high-resolution dynamic downscaling conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, with initial and boundary conditions from a High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). The analysis was conducted over the eastern Mediterranean, with a focus on the country of Lebanon, which is characterized by a challenging complex topography that magnifies the effect of orographic precipitation. Four year-long WRF simulations, selected based on HiRAM time series, were performed to generate future climate projections of extreme temperature and precipitation over the study area under the conditions of the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5. One past WRF simulation year, 2008, was selected as a baseline to capture dry extremes of the system. The results indicate that the study area might be exposed to a temperature increase between 1.0 and 3ºC in summer mean values by 2050, in comparison to 2008. For extreme years, the decrease in average annual precipitation may exceed 50% at certain locations in comparison to 2008.

Keywords: HiRAM, regional climate modeling, WRF, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP)

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5 Improving the Compaction Properties and Shear Resistance of Sand Reinforced with COVID-19 Waste Mask Fibers

Authors: Samah Said, Muhsin Elie Rahhal

Abstract:

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, disposable plastic-based face masks were excessively used worldwide. Therefore, the production and consumption rates of these masks were significantly brought up, which led to severe environmental problems. The main purpose of this research is to test the possibility of reinforcing soil deposits with mask fibers to reuse pandemic-generated waste materials. When testing the compaction properties, the sand was reinforced with a fiber content that increased from 0% to 0.5%, with successive small increments of 0.1%. The optimum content of 0.1% remarkably increased the maximum dry density of the soil and dropped its optimum moisture content. Add to that, it was noticed that 15 mm and rectangular chips were, respectively, the optimum fiber length and shape to maximize the improvement of the sand compaction properties. Regarding the shear strength, fiber contents of 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% were adopted. The direct shear tests have shown that the highest enhancement was observed for the optimum fiber content of 0.25%. Similarly to compaction tests, 15 mm and rectangular chips were respectively the optimum fiber length and shape to extremely enhance the shear resistance of the tested sand.

Keywords: COVID-19, mask fibers, compaction properties, soil reinforcement, shear resistance

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4 Antimicrobial Activity of Ilex paraguariensis Sub-Fractions after Liquid-Liquid Partitioning

Authors: Sabah El-Sawalhi, Elie Fayad, Roula M. Abdel-Massih

Abstract:

Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate) is a medium to large tree commonly consumed by South Americans. Its leaves and stems are associated with different biological activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Yerba Mate against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and its action against some resistant bacteria with different resistance profiles. Yerba Mate aqueous extracts were prepared at 70°C for 2 hrs, and the microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Gram-positive bacteria exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity (MIC ranged between 0.468 mg/mL and 15 mg/mL) than Gram-negative bacteria. Yerba Mate was also extracted with acetone: water (1:1) and then further sub-fractionated with hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 0.78 to 2.5 mg/ml for the chloroform fraction, from 1.56 to 3.75 mg/ml for the ethyl acetate fraction, and 0.78 to 1.87 mg/ml for the water fraction. The water fraction also exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella species (MIC ranged from 1.56 mg/ml to 3.12 mg/ml). The water fraction exhibited the highest antibacterial activity among all the fractions obtained. More studies are needed to determine the molecule or molecules responsible for this activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, bacterial resistance, minimum inhibitory concentration, yerba mate

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3 Spatiotemporal Analysis of Visual Evoked Responses Using Dense EEG

Authors: Rima Hleiss, Elie Bitar, Mahmoud Hassan, Mohamad Khalil

Abstract:

A comprehensive study of object recognition in the human brain requires combining both spatial and temporal analysis of brain activity. Here, we are mainly interested in three issues: the time perception of visual objects, the ability of discrimination between two particular categories (objects vs. animals), and the possibility to identify a particular spatial representation of visual objects. Our experiment consisted of acquiring dense electroencephalographic (EEG) signals during a picture-naming task comprising a set of objects and animals’ images. These EEG responses were recorded from nine participants. In order to determine the time perception of the presented visual stimulus, we analyzed the Event Related Potentials (ERPs) derived from the recorded EEG signals. The analysis of these signals showed that the brain perceives animals and objects with different time instants. Concerning the discrimination of the two categories, the support vector machine (SVM) was applied on the instantaneous EEG (excellent temporal resolution: on the order of millisecond) to categorize the visual stimuli into two different classes. The spatial differences between the evoked responses of the two categories were also investigated. The results showed a variation of the neural activity with the properties of the visual input. Results showed also the existence of a spatial pattern of electrodes over particular regions of the scalp in correspondence to their responses to the visual inputs.

Keywords: brain activity, categorization, dense EEG, evoked responses, spatio-temporal analysis, SVM, time perception

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2 Influence of Different Sports on the Taste Perception and Acceptability of a Commercial Sports Drink among University Student-Athletes

Authors: Jana Daher, Ammar Olabi, Elie-Jacques Fares, Samer Kharrroubi, Tarek Gherbal

Abstract:

It has been previously suggested that the perception and acceptability of fluids significantly varies between exercise and non-exercise situations. The study investigates the influence of different types of sports on the taste perception and acceptability of a commercial sports drink. A sample of Gatorade – red orange flavor was evaluated pre and post exercise by 34 male university athletes (20 weightlifters, 14 runners) recruited from the American University of Beirut. Urine samples were collected from the participants to test for hydration. Sensory testing examined the change in the intensity of sweetness, saltiness, sourness, and the thirst-quenching ability of the drink as well as its acceptability with respect to the type of sport practiced. Results indicated that the acceptability of the drink increased as the hydration status of the athletes decreased (p<0.01). No significant change was found in the perception of the sensory attributes between exercise and non-exercise conditions. However, there were significant differences between the two sports groups in the ratings of the thirst-quenching ability of the drink where runners’ ratings increased after exercise while weightlifters’ ratings decreased after exercise (p<0.01). These findings suggest that exercise has a larger effect on the acceptability and overall liking of the beverage compared to other sensory attributes. An enhanced liking of the beverage is key for optimal replenishment of lost fluids and electrolytes after exercise.

Keywords: hedonic, liking, sweetness, thirst-quenching

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1 Influence of Bottom Ash on the Geotechnical Parameters of Clayey Soil

Authors: Tanios Saliba, Jad Wakim, Elie Awwad

Abstract:

Clayey soils exhibit undesirable problems in civil engineering project: poor bearing soil capacity, shrinkage, cracking, …etc. On the other hand, the increasing production of bottom ash and its disposal in an eco-friendly manner is a matter of concern. Soil stabilization using bottom ash is a new technic in the geo-environmental engineering. It can be used wherever a soft clayey soil is encountered in foundations or road subgrade, instead of using old technics such as cement-soil mixing. This new technology can be used for road embankments and clayey foundations platform (shallow or deep foundations) instead of replacing bad soil or using old technics which aren’t eco-friendly. Moreover, applying this new technic in our geotechnical engineering projects can reduce the disposal of the bottom ash problem which is getting bigger day after day. The research consists of mixing clayey soil with different percentages of bottom ash at different values of water content, and evaluates the mechanical properties of every mix: the percentages of bottom ash are 10% 20% 30% 40% and 50% with values of water content of 25% 35% and 45% of the mix’s weight. Before testing the different mixes, clayey soil’s properties were determined: Atterbeg limits, soil’s cohesion and friction angle and particle size distribution. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties and behavior of every mix, different tests are conducted: -Direct shear test in order to determine the cohesion and internal friction angle of every mix. -Unconfined compressive strength (stress strain curve) to determine mix’s elastic modulus and compressive strength. Soil samples are prepared in accordance with the ASTM standards, and tested at different times, in order to be able to emphasize the influence of the curing period on the variation of the mix’s mechanical properties and characteristics. As of today, the results obtained are very promising: the mix’s cohesion and friction angle vary in function of the bottom ash percentage, water content and curing period: the cohesion increases enormously before decreasing for a long curing period (values of mix’s cohesion are larger than intact soil’s cohesion) while internal friction angle keeps on increasing even when the curing period is 28 days (the tests largest curing period), which give us a better soil behavior: less cracks and better soil bearing capacity.

Keywords: bottom ash, Clayey soil, mechanical properties, tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 116