Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Ece. K. Açikgöz

7 Public Spending and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis of Developed Countries

Authors: Bernur Acikgoz


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of public spending on economic growth and examine the sources of economic growth in developed countries since the 1990s. This paper analyses whether public spending effect on economic growth based on Cobb-Douglas Production Function with the two econometric models with Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and Dynamic Fixed Effect (DFE) for 21 developed countries (high-income OECD countries), over the period 1990-2013. Our models results are parallel to each other and the models support that public spending has an important role for economic growth. This result is accurate with theories and previous empirical studies.

Keywords: public spending, economic growth, panel data, ARDL models

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6 Evaluation of the Nursing Management Course in Undergraduate Nursing Programs of State Universities in Turkey

Authors: Oznur Ispir, Oya Celebi Cakiroglu, Esengul Elibol, Emine Ceribas, Gizem Acikgoz, Hande Yesilbas, Merve Tarhan


This study was conducted to evaluate the academic staff teaching the 'Nursing Management' course in the undergraduate nursing programs of the state universities in Turkey and to assess the current content of the course. Design of the study is descriptive. Population of the study consists of seventy-eight undergraduate nursing programs in the state universities in Turkey. The questionnaire/survey prepared by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The data were obtained by screening the content of the websites of nursing education programs between March and May 2016. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The research performed within the study indicated that 58% of the undergraduate nursing programs from which the data were derived were included in the school of health, 81% of the academic staff graduated from the undergraduate nursing programs, 40% worked as a lecturer and 37% specialized in a field other than the nursing. The research also implied that the above-mentioned course was included in 98% of the programs from which it was possible to obtain data. The full name of the course was 'Nursing Management' in 95% of the programs and 98% stated that the course was compulsory. Theory and application hours were 3.13 and 2.91, respectively. Moreover, the content of the course was not shared in 65% of the programs reviewed. This study demonstrated that the experience and expertise of the academic staff teaching the 'Nursing Management' course was not sufficient in the management area, and the schedule and content of the course were not sufficient although many nursing education programs provided the course. Comparison between the curricula of the course revealed significant differences.

Keywords: nursing, nursing management, nursing management course, undergraduate program

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5 Sustaining the Social Memory in a Historic Neighborhood: The Case Study of Uch Dukkan Neighborhood in Ardabil City in Azerbaijani Region of Iran

Authors: Yousef Daneshvar Rouyandozagh, Ece. K. Açikgöz


Conservation of historical urban patterns in the traditional neighborhoods is a part of creating integrated urban environments that are socially more sustainable. Urbanization reflects on life conditions and social, physical, economical characteristics of the society. In this regard, historical zones and traditional regions are affected by dramatic interventions on these characteristics. This article focuses on the Uch Dukkan neighborhood located in Ardabil City in Azarbaijani region of Iran, which has been up to such interventions that leaded its transformation from the past to the present. After introducing a brief inventory of the main elements of the historical zone and the neighborhood; this study explores the changes and transformations in different periods; and their impacts on the quality of the environment and its social sustainability. The survey conducted in the neighborhood as part of this research study revealed that the Uch Dukkan neighborhood and the unique architectural heritage that it possesses have become more inactive physically and functionally in a decade. This condition requires an exploration and comparison of the present and the expected transformations of the meaning of social space from the most private unit to the urban scale. From this token, it is argued that an architectural point of view that is based on space order; use and meaning of space as a social and cultural image, should not be ignored. Based on the interplay between social sustainability, collective memory, and the urban environment, study aims to make the invisible portion of ignorance clear, that ends up with a weakness in defining the collective meaning of the neighborhood as a historic urban district. It reveals that the spatial possessions of the neighborhood are valuable not only for their historical and physical characteristics, but also for their social memory that is to be remembered and constructed further.

Keywords: urban integrity, social sustainability, collective memory, social decay

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4 Modelling the Behavior of Commercial and Test Textiles against Laundering Process by Statistical Assessment of Their Performance

Authors: M. H. Arslan, U. K. Sahin, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, I. Gocek, I. Erdem


Various exterior factors have perpetual effects on textile materials during wear, use and laundering in everyday life. In accordance with their frequency of use, textile materials are required to be laundered at certain intervals. The medium in which the laundering process takes place have inevitable detrimental physical and chemical effects on textile materials caused by the unique parameters of the process inherently existing. Connatural structures of various textile materials result in many different physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics. Because of their specific structures, these materials have different behaviors against several exterior factors. By modeling the behavior of commercial and test textiles as group-wise against laundering process, it is possible to disclose the relation in between these two groups of materials, which will lead to better understanding of their behaviors in terms of similarities and differences against the washing parameters of the laundering. Thus, the goal of the current research is to examine the behavior of two groups of textile materials as commercial textiles and as test textiles towards the main washing machine parameters during laundering process such as temperature, load quantity, mechanical action and level of water amount by concentrating on shrinkage, pilling, sewing defects, collar abrasion, the other defects other than sewing, whitening and overall properties of textiles. In this study, cotton fabrics were preferred as commercial textiles due to the fact that garments made of cotton are the most demanded products in the market by the textile consumers in daily life. Full factorial experimental set-up was used to design the experimental procedure. All profiles always including all of the commercial and the test textiles were laundered for 20 cycles by commercial home laundering machine to investigate the effects of the chosen parameters. For the laundering process, a modified version of ‘‘IEC 60456 Test Method’’ was utilized. The amount of detergent was altered as 0.5% gram per liter depending on varying load quantity levels. Datacolor 650®, EMPA Photographic Standards for Pilling Test and visual examination were utilized to test and characterize the textiles. Furthermore, in the current study the relation in between commercial and test textiles in terms of their performance was deeply investigated by the help of statistical analysis performed by MINITAB® package program modeling their behavior against the parameters of the laundering process. In the experimental work, the behaviors of both groups of textiles towards washing machine parameters were visually and quantitatively assessed in dry state.

Keywords: behavior against washing machine parameters, performance evaluation of textiles, statistical analysis, commercial and test textiles

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3 Obtaining Composite Cotton Fabric by Cyclodextrin Grafting

Authors: U. K. Sahin, N. Erdumlu, C. Saricam, I. Gocek, M. H. Arslan, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, B. Kalav


Finishing is an important part of fabric processing with which a wide range of features are imparted to greige or colored fabrics for various end-uses. Especially, by the addition or impartation of nano-scaled particles to the fabric structure composite fabrics, a kind of composite materials can be acquired. Composite materials, generally shortened as composites or in other words composition materials, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more component materials with significantly different physical, mechanical or chemical characteristics remaining separate and distinctive at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the end product structure. Therefore, the technique finishing which is one of the fundamental methods to be applied on fabrics for obtainment of composite fabrics with many functionalities was used in the current study with the same purpose. However, regardless of the finishing materials applied, the efficient life of finished product on offering desired feature is low, since the durability of finishes on the material is limited. Any increase in durability of these finishes on textiles would enhance the life of use for textiles, which will result in happier users. Therefore, in this study, since higher durability was desired for the finishing materials fixed on the fabrics, nano-scaled hollow structured cyclodextrins were chemically imparted by grafting to the structure of conventional cotton fabrics by the help of finishing technique in order to be fixed permanently. By this way, a processed and functionalized base fabric having potential to be treated in the subsequent processes with many different finishing agents and nanomaterials could be obtained. Henceforth, this fabric can be used as a multi-functional fabric due to the encapturing ability of cyclodextrins to molecules/particles via physical/chemical means. In this study, scoured and rinsed woven bleached plain weave 100% cotton fabrics were utilized because textiles made of cotton are the most demanded textile products in the textile market by the textile consumers in daily life. Cotton fabric samples were immersed in treating baths containing β-cyclodextrin and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and to reduce the curing temperature the catalyst sodium hypophosphite monohydrate was used. All impregnated fabric samples were pre-dried. The reaction of grafting was performed in dry state. The treated and cured fabric samples were rinsed with warm distilled water and dried. The samples were dried for 4 h and weighed before and after finishing and rinsing. Stability and durability of β-cyclodextrins on fabric surface against external factors such as washing as well as strength of functionalized fabric in terms of tensile and tear strength were tested. Presence and homogeneity of distribution of β-cyclodextrins on fabric surface were characterized.

Keywords: cotton fabric, cyclodextrine, improved durability, multifunctional composite textile

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2 A Laundry Algorithm for Colored Textiles

Authors: H. E. Budak, B. Arslan-Ilkiz, N. Cakmakci, I. Gocek, U. K. Sahin, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, M. H. Arslan


The aim of this study is to design a novel laundry algorithm for colored textiles which have significant decoloring problem. During the experimental work, bleached knitted single jersey fabric made of 100% cotton and dyed with reactive dyestuff was utilized, since according to a conducted survey textiles made of cotton are the most demanded textile products in the textile market by the textile consumers and for coloration of textiles reactive dyestuffs are the ones that are the most commonly used in the textile industry for dyeing cotton-made products. Therefore, the fabric used in this study was selected and purchased in accordance with the survey results. The fabric samples cut out of this fabric were dyed with different dyeing parameters by using Remazol Brilliant Red 3BS dyestuff in Gyrowash machine at laboratory conditions. From the alternative reactive-dyed cotton fabric samples, the ones that have high tendency to color loss were determined and examined. Accordingly, the parameters of the dyeing process used for these fabric samples were evaluated and the dyeing process which was chosen to be used for causing high tendency to color loss for the cotton fabrics was determined in order to reveal the level of improvement in color loss during this study clearly. Afterwards, all of the untreated fabric samples cut out of the fabric purchased were dyed with the dyeing process selected. When dyeing process was completed, an experimental design was created for the laundering process by using Minitab® program considering temperature, time and mechanical action as parameters. All of the washing experiments were performed in domestic washing machine. 16 washing experiments were performed with 8 different experimental conditions and 2 repeats for each condition. After each of the washing experiments, water samples of the main wash of the laundering process were measured with UV spectrophotometer. The values obtained were compared with the calibration curve of the materials used for the dyeing process. The results of the washing experiments were statistically analyzed with Minitab® program. According to the results, the most suitable washing algorithm to be used in terms of the parameters temperature, time and mechanical action for domestic washing machines for minimizing fabric color loss was chosen. The laundry algorithm proposed in this study have the ability of minimalizing the problem of color loss of colored textiles in washing machines by eliminating the negative effects of the parameters of laundering process on color of textiles without compromising the fundamental effects of basic cleaning action being performed properly. Therefore, since fabric color loss is minimized with this washing algorithm, dyestuff residuals will definitely be lower in the grey water released from the laundering process. In addition to this, with this laundry algorithm it is possible to wash and clean other types of textile products with proper cleaning effect and minimized color loss.

Keywords: color loss, laundry algorithm, textiles, domestic washing process

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1 Fabrication of Electrospun Green Fluorescent Protein Nano-Fibers for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Yakup Ulusu, Faruk Ozel, Numan Eczacioglu, Abdurrahman Ozen, Sabriye Acikgoz


GFP discovered in the mid-1970s, has been used as a marker after replicated genetic study by scientists. In biotechnology, cell, molecular biology, the GFP gene is frequently used as a reporter of expression. In modified forms, it has been used to make biosensors. Many animals have been created that express GFP as an evidence that a gene can be expressed throughout a given organism. Proteins labeled with GFP identified locations are determined. And so, cell connections can be monitored, gene expression can be reported, protein-protein interactions can be observed and signals that create events can be detected. Additionally, monitoring GFP is noninvasive; it can be detected by under UV-light because of simply generating fluorescence. Moreover, GFP is a relatively small and inert molecule, that does not seem to treat any biological processes of interest. The synthesis of GFP has some steps like, to construct the plasmid system, transformation in E. coli, production and purification of protein. GFP carrying plasmid vector pBAD–GFPuv was digested using two different restriction endonuclease enzymes (NheI and Eco RI) and DNA fragment of GFP was gel purified before cloning. The GFP-encoding DNA fragment was ligated into pET28a plasmid using NheI and Eco RI restriction sites. The final plasmid was named pETGFP and DNA sequencing of this plasmid indicated that the hexa histidine-tagged GFP was correctly inserted. Histidine-tagged GFP was expressed in an Escherichia coli BL21 DE3 (pLysE) strain. The strain was transformed with pETGFP plasmid and grown on LuiraBertoni (LB) plates with kanamycin and chloramphenicol selection. E. coli cells were grown up to an optical density (OD 600) of 0.8 and induced by the addition of a final concentration of 1mM isopropyl-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and then grown for additional 4 h. The amino-terminal hexa-histidine-tag facilitated purification of the GFP by using a His Bind affinity chromatography resin (Novagen). Purity of GFP protein was analyzed by a 12 % sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The concentration of protein was determined by UV absorption at 280 nm (Varian Cary 50 Scan UV/VIS spectrophotometer). Synthesis of GFP-Polymer composite nanofibers was produced by using GFP solution (10mg/mL) and polymer precursor Polyvinylpyrrolidone, (PVP, Mw=1300000) as starting materials and template, respectively. For the fabrication of nanofibers with the different fiber diameter; a sol–gel solution comprising of 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80 g PVP (depending upon the desired fiber diameter) and 100 mg GFP in 10 mL water: ethanol (3:2) mixtures were prepared and then the solution was covered on collecting plate via electro spinning at 10 kV with a feed-rate of 0.25 mL h-1 using Spellman electro spinning system. Results show that GFP-based nano-fiber can be used plenty of biomedical applications such as bio-imaging, bio-mechanic, bio-material and tissue engineering.

Keywords: biomaterial, GFP, nano-fibers, protein expression

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