Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Denisa Denglerova

9 Constructivism and Situational Analysis as Background for Researching Complex Phenomena: Example of Inclusion

Authors: Radim Sip, Denisa Denglerova

Abstract:

It’s impossible to capture complex phenomena, such as inclusion, with reductionism. The most common form of reductionism is the objectivist approach, where processes and relationships are reduced to entities and clearly outlined phases, with a consequent search for relationships between them. Constructivism as a paradigm and situational analysis as a methodological research portfolio represent a way to avoid the dominant objectivist approach. They work with a situation, i.e. with the essential blending of actors and their environment. Primary transactions are taking place between actors and their surroundings. Researchers create constructs based on their need to solve a problem. Concepts therefore do not describe reality, but rather a complex of real needs in relation to the available options how such needs can be met. For examination of a complex problem, corresponding methodological tools and overall design of the research are necessary. Using an original research on inclusion in the Czech Republic as an example, this contribution demonstrates that inclusion is not a substance easily described, but rather a relationship field changing its forms in response to its actors’ behaviour and current circumstances. Inclusion consists of dynamic relationship between an ideal, real circumstances and ways to achieve such ideal under the given circumstances. Such achievement has many shapes and thus cannot be captured by description of objects. It can be expressed in relationships in the situation defined by time and space. Situational analysis offers tools to examine such phenomena. It understands a situation as a complex of dynamically changing aspects and prefers relationships and positions in the given situation over a clear and final definition of actors, entities, etc. Situational analysis assumes creation of constructs as a tool for solving a problem at hand. It emphasizes the meanings that arise in the process of coordinating human actions, and the discourses through which these meanings are negotiated. Finally, it offers “cartographic tools” (situational maps, socials worlds / arenas maps, positional maps) that are able to capture the complexity in other than linear-analytical ways. This approach allows for inclusion to be described as a complex of phenomena taking place with a certain historical preference, a complex that can be overlooked if analyzed with a more traditional approach.

Keywords: constructivism, situational analysis, objective realism, reductionism, inclusion

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8 Journey to Inclusive School: Description of Crucial Sensitive Concepts in the Context of Situational Analysis

Authors: Denisa Denglerova, Radim Sip

Abstract:

Academic sources as well as international agreements and national documents define inclusion in terms of several criteria: equal opportunities, fulfilling individual needs, development of human resources, community participation. In order for these criteria to be met, the community must be cohesive. Community cohesion, which is a relatively new concept, is not determined by homogeneity, but by the acceptance of diversity among the community members and utilisation of its positive potential. This brings us to a central category of inclusion - appreciating diversity and using it to a positive effect. However, school diversity is a real phenomenon, which schools need to tackle more and more often. This is also indicated by the number of publications focused on diversity in schools. These sources present recent analyses of using identity as a tool of coping with the demands of a diversified society. The aim of this study is to identify and describe in detail the processes taking place in selected schools, which contribute to their pro-inclusive character. The research is designed around a multiple case study of three pro-inclusive schools. Paradigmatically speaking, the research is rooted in situational epistemology. This is also related to the overall framework of interpretation, for which we are going to use innovative methods of situational analysis. In terms of specific research outcomes this will manifest itself in replacing the idea of “objective theory” by the idea of “detailed cartography of a social world”. The cartographic approach directs both the logic of data collection and the choice of methods of their analysis and interpretation. The research results include detection of the following sensitive concepts: Key persons. All participants can contribute to promoting an inclusion-friendly environment; however, some do so with greater motivation than others. These could include school management, teachers with a strong vision of equality, or school counsellors. They have a significant effect on the transformation of the school, and are themselves deeply convinced that inclusion is necessary. Accordingly, they select suitable co-workers; they also inspire some of the other co-workers to make changes, leading by example. Employees with strongly opposing views gradually leave the school, and new members of staff are introduced to the concept of inclusion and openness from the beginning. Manifestations of school openness in working with diversity on all important levels. By this we mean positive manipulation with diversity both in the relationships between “traditional” school participants (directors, teachers, pupils) and school-parent relationships, or relationships between schools and the broader community, in terms of teaching methods as well as ways how the school culture affects the school environment. Other important detected concepts significantly helping to form a pro-inclusive environment in the school are individual and parallel classes; freedom and responsibility of both pupils and teachers, manifested on the didactic level by tendencies towards an open curriculum; ways of asserting discipline in the school environment.

Keywords: inclusion, diversity, education, sensitive concept, situational analysis

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7 Two and Three Layer Lamination of Nanofiber

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Karhankova, Ludmila Fridrichova

Abstract:

For their exceptional properties nanofibers, respectively, nanofiber layers are achieving an increasingly wider range of uses. Nowadays nanofibers are used mainly in the field of air filtration where they are removing submicron particles, bacteria, and viruses. Their efficiency is not changed in time, and the power consumption is much lower than that of electrically charged filters. Nanofibers are primarily used for converting and storage of energy in both air and liquid filtration, in food and packaging, protecting the environment, but also in health care which is made possible by their newly discovered properties. However, a major problem of the nanofiber layer is practically zero abrasion resistance; it is, therefore, necessary to laminate the nanofiber layer with another suitable material. Unfortunately, lamination of nanofiber layers is a major problem since the nanofiber layer contains small pores through which it is very difficult for adhesion to pass through. Therefore, there is still only a small percentage of products with these unique fibers 5.

Keywords: nanofiber layer, nanomembrane, lamination, electrospinning

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6 Early Warning Signals: Role and Status of Risk Management in Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Alexander Kelíšek, Denisa Janasová, Veronika Mitašová

Abstract:

Weak signals using is often associated with early warning. It is possible to find a link between early warning, respectively early problems detection and risk management. The idea of early warning is very important in the context of crisis management because of the risk prevention possibility. Weak signals are likened to risk symptoms. Nowadays, their usefulness as a tool of proactive problems solving is emphasized. Based on it, it is possible to use weak signals not only in strategic planning, project management, or early warning system, but also as a subsidiary element in risk management. The main question is how to effectively integrate weak signals into risk management. The main aim of the paper is to point out the possibilities of weak signals using in small and medium enterprises risk management.

Keywords: early warning system, weak signals, risk management, small and medium enterprises (SMEs)

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5 Baby Bed Sheets with a Nanofiber Membrane

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Knizkova, Vladimir Bajzik

Abstract:

Nowadays there are countless kinds of bedsheets or mattress covers for little children which should stop any liquid getting into the mattress. It is quite easy to wash the cover of the mattress, but it is almost impossible to clean the body of a mattress which is made of latex foam, wool or synthetic materials. Children bedsheets or mattress covers are often made with plastic coating which is not steam or air permeable and therefore is not very hygienic. This is our goal: by laminating a nanofiber membrane to a suitable bedsheet textile material, we can create a bedsheet which is waterproof but at the same time steam permeable and also partially breathable, thanks to the membrane. For the same reason, nanofiber membranes are widely used in outdoor clothing. The comfort properties and durability of the new nano-membrane bedsheet were studied. The following comfort properties were investigated: steam permeability - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 11902 hydrostatic resistances - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 811 and air permeability - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 9237. The durability or more precisely the wash resistance of the nano-membrane bedsheet was also measured by submitting the sheet to 30 washing cycles. The result of our work is a children's bedsheet with a nano-membrane. The nano-membrane is made of polyurethane to keep maximum flexibility and elasticity which are essential for this product. The comfort properties of this new bedsheet are very good especially its steam permeability and hydrostatic resistance.

Keywords: bed sheet, hydrostatic resistance, nanofiber membrane, water vapour permeable

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4 Bacterial Cellulose/Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Composites for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Adrian Ionut Nicoara, Denisa Ionela Ene, Alina Maria Holban, Cristina Busuioc

Abstract:

At present, the development of materials with biomedical applications is a domain of interest that will produce a full series of benefits in engineering and medicine. In this sense, it is required to use a natural material, and this paper is focused on the development of a composite material based on bacterial cellulose – hydroxyapatite and silver nanoparticles with applications in hard tissue. Bacterial cellulose own features like biocompatibility, non-toxicity character and flexibility. Moreover, the bacterial cellulose can be conjugated with different forms of active silver to possess antimicrobial activity. Hydroxyapatite is well known that can mimic at a significant level the activity of the initial bone. The material was synthesized by using an ultrasound probe and finally characterized by several methods. Thereby, the morphological properties were analyzed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Because the synthesized material has medical application in restore the tissue and to fight against microbial invasion, the samples were tested from the biological point of view by evaluating the biodegradability in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and simulated body fluid (SBF) and moreover the antimicrobial effect was performed on Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, and fungi Candida albicans. The results reveal that the obtained material has specific characteristics for bone regeneration.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, biomaterials, hydroxyapatite, scaffolds materials

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3 The Development of a Nanofiber Membrane for Outdoor and Activity Related Purposes

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Knizkova

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a nanofiber membrane for sport and outdoor use at the Technical University of Liberec (TUL) and the following cooperation with a private Czech company which launched this product onto the market. For making this membrane, Polyurethan was electrospun on the Nanospider spinning machine, and a wire string electrode was used. The created nanofiber membrane with a nanofiber diameter of 150 nm was subsequently hydrophobisied using a low vacuum plasma and Fluorocarbon monomer C6 type. After this hydrophobic treatment, the nanofiber membrane contact angle was higher than 125o, and its oleophobicity was 6. The last step was a lamination of this nanofiber membrane with a woven or knitted fabric to create a 3-layer laminate. Gravure printing technology and polyurethane hot-melt adhesive were used. The gravure roller has a mesh of 17. The resulting 3-layer laminate has a water vapor permeability Ret of 1.6 [Pa.m2.W-1] (– measured in compliance with ISO 11092), it is 100% windproof (– measured in compliance with ISO 9237), and the water column is above 10 000 mm (– measured in compliance with ISO 20811). This nanofiber membrane which was developed in the laboratories of the Technical University of Liberec was then produced industrially by a private company. A low vacuum plasma line and a lamination line were needed for industrial production, and the process had to be fine-tuned to achieve the same parameters as those achieved in the TUL laboratories. The result of this work is a newly developed nanofiber membrane which offers much better properties, especially water vapor permeability, than other competitive membranes. It is an example of product development and the consequent fine-tuning for industrial production; it is also an example of the cooperation between a Czech state university and a private company.

Keywords: nanofiber membrane, start-up, state university, private company, product

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2 Management of Postoperative Pain, Intercultural Differences Among Registered Nurses: Czech Republic and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Denisa Mackova, Andrea Pokorna

Abstract:

The management of postoperative pain is a meaningful part of quality care. The experience and knowledge of registered nurses in postoperative pain management can be influenced by local know-how. Therefore, the research helps to understand the cultural differences between two countries with the aim of evaluating the management of postoperative pain management among the nurses from the Czech Republic and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Both countries have different procedures on managing postoperative pain and the research will provide an understanding of both the advantages and disadvantages of the procedures and also highlight the knowledge and experience of registered nurses in both countries. Between the Czech Republic and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the expectation is for differing results in the usage of opioid analgesia for the patients postoperatively and in the experience of registered nurses with Patient Controlled Analgesia. The aim is to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of registered nurses and to merge the data with the postoperative pain management in the early postoperative period in the Czech Republic and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Also, the aim is to assess the knowledge and experience of registered nurses by using Patient Controlled Analgesia and epidural analgesia treatment in the early postoperative period. The criteria for those providing input into the study, are registered nurses, working in surgical settings (standard departments, post-anesthesia care unit, day care surgery or ICU’s) caring for patients in the postoperative period. Method: Research is being conducted by questionnaires. It is a quantitative research, a comparative study of registered nurses in the Czech Republic and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Questionnaire surveys were distributed through an electronic Bristol online survey. Results: The collection of the data in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been completed successfully, with 550 respondents, 77 were excluded and 473 respondents were included for statistical data analysis. The outcome of the research is expected to highlight the differences in treatment through Patient Controlled Analgesia, with more frequent use in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A similar assumption is expected for treatment conducted by analgesia. We predict that opioids will be used more regularly in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, whilst therapy through NSAID’s being the most common approach in the Czech Republic. Discussion/Conclusion: The majority of respondents from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were female registered nurses from a multitude of nations. We are expecting a similar split in gender between the Czech Republic respondents; however, there will be a smaller number of nationalities. Relevance for research and practice: Output from the research will assess the knowledge, experience and practice of patient controlled analgesia and epidural analgesia treatment. Acknowledgement: This research was accepted and affiliated to the project: Postoperative pain management, knowledge and experience registered nurses (Czech Republic and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) – SGS05/2019-2020.

Keywords: acute postoperative pain, epidural analgesia, nursing care, patient controlled analgesia

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1 Graphene-Graphene Oxide Dopping Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Polyamide Composites

Authors: Daniel Sava, Dragos Gudovan, Iulia Alexandra Gudovan, Ioana Ardelean, Maria Sonmez, Denisa Ficai, Laurentia Alexandrescu, Ecaterina Andronescu

Abstract:

Graphene and graphene oxide have been intensively studied due to the very good properties, which are intrinsic to the material or come from the easy doping of those with other functional groups. Graphene and graphene oxide have known a broad band of useful applications, in electronic devices, drug delivery systems, medical devices, sensors and opto-electronics, coating materials, sorbents of different agents for environmental applications, etc. The board range of applications does not come only from the use of graphene or graphene oxide alone, or by its prior functionalization with different moieties, but also it is a building block and an important component in many composite devices, its addition coming with new functionalities on the final composite or strengthening the ones that are already existent on the parent product. An attempt to improve the mechanical properties of polyamide elastomers by compounding with graphene oxide in the parent polymer composition was attempted. The addition of the graphene oxide contributes to the properties of the final product, improving the hardness and aging resistance. Graphene oxide has a lower hardness and textile strength, and if the amount of graphene oxide in the final product is not correctly estimated, it can lead to mechanical properties which are comparable to the starting material or even worse, the graphene oxide agglomerates becoming a tearing point in the final material if the amount added is too high (in a value greater than 3% towards the parent material measured in mass percentages). Two different types of tests were done on the obtained materials, the hardness standard test and the tensile strength standard test, and they were made on the obtained materials before and after the aging process. For the aging process, an accelerated aging was used in order to simulate the effect of natural aging over a long period of time. The accelerated aging was made in extreme heat. For all materials, FT-IR spectra were recorded using FT-IR spectroscopy. From the FT-IR spectra only the bands corresponding to the polyamide were intense, while the characteristic bands for graphene oxide were very small in comparison due to the very small amounts introduced in the final composite along with the low absorptivity of the graphene backbone and limited number of functional groups. In conclusion, some compositions showed very promising results, both in tensile strength test and in hardness tests. The best ratio of graphene to elastomer was between 0.6 and 0.8%, this addition extending the life of the product. Acknowledgements: The present work was possible due to the EU-funding grant POSCCE-A2O2.2.1-2013-1, Project No. 638/12.03.2014, code SMIS-CSNR 48652. The financial contribution received from the national project ‘New nanostructured polymeric composites for centre pivot liners, centre plate and other components for the railway industry (RONERANANOSTRUCT)’, No: 18 PTE (PN-III-P2-2.1-PTE-2016-0146) is also acknowledged.

Keywords: graphene, graphene oxide, mechanical properties, dopping effect

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