Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: Clarissa Müller

62 The Retinoprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Fungal Ingredient 3,4-Dihydroxybenzalacetone through Inhibition of Retinal Müller and Microglial Activation

Authors: Yu-Wen Cheng, Jau-Der Ho, Liang-Huan Wu, Fan-Li Lin, Li-Huei Chen, Hung-Ming Chang, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, George Hsiao

Abstract:

Retina glial activation and neuroinflammation have been confirmed to cause devastating responses in retinodegenerative diseases. The expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) could be exerted as the crucial pathological factors in glaucoma- and blue light-induced retinal injuries. The present study aimed to investigate the retinoprotective effects and mechanisms of fungal ingredient 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) isolated from Phellinus linteus in the retinal glial activation and retinodegenerative animal models. According to the cellular studies, DBL significantly and concentration-dependently abrogated MMP-9 activation and expression in TNFα-stimulated retinal Müller (rMC-1) cells. We found the inhibitory activities of DBL were strongly through the STAT- and ERK-dependent pathways. Furthermore, DBL dramatically attenuated MMP-9 activation in the stimulated Müller cells exposed to conditioned media from LPS-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. On the other hand, DBL strongly suppressed LPS-induced production of NO and ROS and expression of iNOS in microglia BV-2 cells. Consistently, the phosphorylation of STAT was substantially blocked by DBL in LPS-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. In the evaluation of retinoprotective functions, the high IOP-induced scotopic electroretinographic (ERG) deficit and blue light-induced abnormal pupillary light response (PLR) were assessed. The deficit scotopic ERG responses markedly recovered by DBL in a rat model of glaucoma-like ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. DBL also reduced the aqueous gelatinolytic activity and retinal MMP-9 expression in high IOP-injured conditions. Additionally, DBL could restore the abnormal PLR and reduce retinal MMP-9 activation. In summary, DBL could ameliorate retinal neuroinflammation and MMP-9 activation by predominantly inhibiting STAT3 activation in the retinal Müller cells and microglia, which exhibits therapeutic potential for glaucoma and other retinal degenerative diseases.

Keywords: glaucoma, blue light, DBL, retinal Müller cell, MMP-9, STAT, Microglia, iNOS, ERG, PLR

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61 Characterization of Onboard Reliable Error Correction Code FORSDRAM Controller

Authors: N. Pitcheswara Rao

Abstract:

In the process of conveying the information there may be a chance of signal being corrupted which leads to the erroneous bits in the message. The message may consist of single, double and multiple bit errors. In high-reliability applications, memory can sustain multiple soft errors due to single or multiple event upsets caused by environmental factors. The traditional hamming code with SEC-DED capability cannot be address these types of errors. It is possible to use powerful non-binary BCH code such as Reed-Solomon code to address multiple errors. However, it could take at least a couple dozen cycles of latency to complete first correction and run at a relatively slow speed. In order to overcome this drawback i.e., to increase speed and latency we are using reed-Muller code.

Keywords: SEC-DED, BCH code, Reed-Solomon code, Reed-Muller code

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60 Characterization of Onboard Reliable Error Correction Code for SDRAM Controller

Authors: Pitcheswara Rao Nelapati

Abstract:

In the process of conveying the information there may be a chance of signal being corrupted which leads to the erroneous bits in the message. The message may consist of single, double and multiple bit errors. In high-reliability applications, memory can sustain multiple soft errors due to single or multiple event upsets caused by environmental factors. The traditional hamming code with SEC-DED capability cannot be address these types of errors. It is possible to use powerful non-binary BCH code such as Reed-Solomon code to address multiple errors. However, it could take at least a couple dozen cycles of latency to complete first correction and run at a relatively slow speed. In order to overcome this drawback i.e., to increase speed and latency we are using reed-Muller code.

Keywords: SEC-DED, BCH code, Reed-Solomon code, Reed-Muller code

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
59 Verifying the Performance of the Argon-41 Monitoring System from Fluorine-18 Production for Medical Applications

Authors: Nicole Virgili, Romolo Remetti

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to characterize, from radiation protection point of view, the emission into the environment of air contaminated by argon-41. In this research work, 41Ar is produced by a TR19PET cyclotron, operated at 19 MeV, installed at 'A. Gemelli' University Hospital, Rome, Italy, for fluorine-18 production. The production rate of 41Ar has been calculated on the basis of the scheduled operation cycles of the cyclotron and by utilising proper production algorithms. Then extensive Monte Carlo calculations, carried out by MCNP code, have allowed to determine the absolute detection efficiency to 41Ar gamma rays of a Geiger Muller detector placed in the terminal part of the chimney. Results showed unsatisfactory detection efficiency values and the need for integrating the detection system with more efficient detectors.

Keywords: Cyclotron, Geiger Muller detector, MCNPX, argon-41, emission of radioactive gas, detection efficiency determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
58 A Comparative Study of Euglena gracilis Cultivations for Improving Laminaribiose Phosphorylase Production

Authors: Akram Abi, Clarissa Müller, Hans-Joachim Jördening

Abstract:

Laminaribiose is a beta-1,3-glycoside which is used in the medical field for the treatment of dermatitis and also can be used as a building block for new pharmaceutics. The conventional process of laminaribiose production is the uneconomical process of hydrolysis of laminarin extracted from natural polysaccharides of plant origin. A more economical approach however is attainable by enzymatically synthesis of laminaribiose via a reverse phosphorylase reaction catalyzed by laminaribiose phosphorylase (LP) from Euglena gracilis. Different cultivation methods of Euglena gracilis and the effect on LP production have been investigated. Buffered/unbuffered heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivations of Euglena gracilis has been carried out. Changes of biomass and LP production, glucose level and pH, cell count and shape has been monitored in the course of time. The results obtained from experiments each in three repetitions, show that in the heterotrophic cultivation of Euglena gracilis not only more biomass is produced compared to mixotrophic cultivation, but also higher specific protein concentration is achieved. Furthermore, the LP activity test showed that the protein extracted from heterotrophically cultured cells has a higher LP activity. It was also observed that the cells develop in a distinctive different shape between these two cultures and have different length to width ratios. Taking the heterotrophic culture as the more efficient cultivation method in LP production, another comparative experiment between buffered and unbuffered heterothrophic culture was carried out that showed the unbuffered culture has advantages over the other one in respect of both LP production and resulting activity. A hetrotrophic cultivation of Euglena gracilis in a 5L bioreactor with controlled operating conditions showed a distinctive improvement of all the aspects of culture compared to the shaking flask cultivations. Biomass production was improved from 5 to more than 8 g/l (dry weight) which resulted in a specific protein concentration of 45 g/l in the heterotrophic cultivation in the bioreactor. In further attempts to improve LP production, different purification methods were tested and each method was checks through an activity assay. A laminaribiose yield of 35% was achieved which was by far the highest amount amongst different methods tested.

Keywords: euglena gracilis, heterotrophic culture, laminaribiose production, mixotrophic culture

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57 Analysis of Bed Load Sediment Transport Mataram-Babarsari Irrigation Canal

Authors: Agatha Padma Laksitaningtyas, Sumiyati Gunawan

Abstract:

Mataram Irrigation Canal has 31,2 km length, is the main irrigation canal in Special Region Province of Yogyakarta, connecting Progo River on the west side and Opak River on the east side. It has an important role as the main water carrier distribution for various purposes such as agriculture, fishery, and plantation which should be free from sediment material. Bed Load Sediment is the basic sediment that will make the sediment process on the irrigation canal. Sediment process is a simultaneous event that can make deposition sediment at the base of irrigation canal and can make the height of elevation water change, it will affect the availability of water to be used for irrigation functions. To predict the amount of drowning sediments in the irrigation canal using two methods: Meyer-Peter and Muller’s Method which is an energy approach method and Einstein Method which is a probabilistic approach. Speed measurement using floating method and using current meters. The channel geometry is measured directly in the field. The basic sediment of the channel is taken in the field by taking three samples from three different points. The result of the research shows that by using the formula Meyer -Peter Muller get the result of 60,75799 kg/s, whereas with Einsten’s Method get result of 13,06461 kg/s. the results may serve as a reference for dredging the sediments on the channel so as not to disrupt the flow of water in irrigation canal.

Keywords: bed load, sediment, irrigation, Mataram canal

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56 “The Unbearable Lightness of Being” Book as an Interdisciplinary Study Basis for Students’ Learning Process about Love and Politics at Old Communist Czechoslovakia

Authors: Clarissa Valença Travassos da Silva

Abstract:

In this article, it is intended to study the book “The unbearable Lightness of Being” by the Czech Republican writer Milan Kundera. The main objective is to be an interdisciplinary study basis for students in the world about love and politics at old communist Czechoslovakia. Love is presented by discussing the relationship between Tomas and Tereza and the discovery of true love. Furthermore, it is debated the Russian invasion in Czechoslovakia and the outcomes of it for the personages, all this related to the contradiction of lightness and heaviness in life. For the production of this didactic material, the researcher based her work on the original book, “The Unbearable Lightness of Being” by Kundera, Milan Kundera’s interviews, Friedrich Nietzche, Zygmunt Bauman and George Orwell, among Brazilian and international articles on the issue.

Keywords: lightness, heaviness, Russia, Czechoslovakia, love

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
55 Optimal Trajectories for Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Christian Rathgeber, Franz Winkler, Xiaoyu Kang, Steffen Müller

Abstract:

In this contribution two approaches for calculating optimal trajectories for highly automated vehicles are presented and compared. The first one is based on a non-linear vehicle model, used for evaluation. The second one is based on a simplified model and can be implemented on a current ECU. In usual driving situations both approaches show very similar results.

Keywords: trajectory planning, direct method, indirect method, highly automated driving

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
54 Tribological Characterization of Composites Based on Epoxy Resin Filled with Tailings of Scheelite

Authors: Clarissa D. M. O. Guimaraes, Mariza C. M. Fernandes, Francisco R. V. Diaz, Juliana R. Souza

Abstract:

The use of mineral fillers in the preparation of organic matrix composites can be an efficient alternative in minimizing the environmental damage generated in passive mineral beneficiation processes. In addition, it may represent a new material option for wind, construction, and aeronautical industries, for example. In this sense, epoxy resin composites with Tailings of Scheelite (TS) were developed. The composites were manufactured with 5%, 10% and 20% of TS in volume percentage, homogenized by mechanical mixing and molded in a silicon mold. In order to make the tribological evaluation, pin on disk tests were performed to analyze coefficient of friction and wear. The wear mechanisms were identified by SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. The coefficient of friction had a tendency to decrease with increasing amount of filler. The wear tends to increase with increasing amount of filler, although it exhibits a similar wear behavior. The results suggest characteristics that are potential used in many tribological applications.

Keywords: composites, mineral filler, tailings of scheelite, tribology

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53 Helping the Helper: Impact of Teaching Assistantship Program among Psychology Alumni

Authors: Clarissa Delariarte

Abstract:

With the aim of helping the poorest of the poor achieve quality education, Psychology students supported and served as teacher assistants to its Early Childhood Education Center in two barangays since the program began in 1999. Making use of qualitative approach, the impact of the program to 29 alumni who served as teacher assistants between 2000-2014 was assessed. Results show that the impact to the alumni is in cognitive as well as social-emotional in terms of feelings of deep satisfaction and sense of volunteerism which is being carried out in their respective workspaces. They also expressed positive feelings of inspiration, gratefulness and happiness. A wider perspective in life, being confident, creative and resourceful was also articulated as concrete impacts. It is concluded that the program had an impact on helping the helper and is a concrete manifestation of the academe being successful in its commitment of forming individuals into becoming integrated and compassionate in the service of the Church and Society. It implies that more opportunities of helping others be provided to students since, in the final analysis, is actually an opportunity of helping the helper be of better service to others.

Keywords: applied psychology, life skill, qualitative research, quality education

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52 Studies on Bioaccumulation of 51Cr by Ulva sp. and Ruppia maritima

Authors: Clarissa L. de Araujo, Kátia N. Suzuki, Wilson T. V. Machado, Luis F. Bellido, Alfredo V.B. Bellido

Abstract:

This study aims at contributing to the characterization of the process of biological incorporation of chromium by two benthonic species, the macroalgae Ulva sp. and the aquatic macrophyte Ruppia maritima, to subsidize future activities of monitoring the contamination of aquatic biota. This study is based on laboratory experiments to characterize the incorporation kinetics of the radiotracer 51Cr in two oxidation states (III and VI), under different salinities (7, 15, and 21 ‰). Samples of two benthonic species were collected on the margins of Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acclimated in the laboratory and subsequently subjected to experiments. In tests with 51Cr (III and IV), it was observed that accumulation of the metal in Ulva sp. has inverse relationship with salinity, while for R. maritima, the maximum accumulation occurs in salinity 21‰. In experiments with Cr(III), increases in the uptake of ion by both species were verified. The activity of Cr(III) was up to 19 times greater than the Cr(VI). As regards the potential for accumulation of metals, a better sensitivity of Ulva sp. for any chromium tri or hexavalent forms was verified, while for the Cr(VI) it will require low salinities and longer exposure (>24h). For R. maritima, the results showed the uptake of Cr(VI) increase along with time (>20h), because this species is more resistant for the hexavalent form and useful for any salinity as well.

Keywords: chromium, Cr-51, macroalgae, macrophyte, uptake

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51 Disturbance Observer for Lateral Trajectory Tracking Control for Autonomous and Cooperative Driving

Authors: Christian Rathgeber, Franz Winkler, Dirk Odenthal, Steffen Müller

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In this contribution a structure for high level lateral vehicle tracking control based on the disturbance observer is presented. The structure is characterized by stationary compensating side forces disturbances and guaranteeing a cooperative behavior at the same time. Driver inputs are not compensated by the disturbance observer. Moreover the structure is especially useful as it robustly stabilizes the vehicle. Therefore the parameters are selected using the Parameter Space Approach. The implemented algorithms are tested in real world scenarios.

Keywords: disturbance observer, trajectory tracking, robust control, autonomous driving, cooperative driving

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50 A Universal Hybrid Adsorbent Based on Chitosan for Water Treatment

Authors: Sandrine Delpeux-Ouldriane, Min Cai, Laurent Duclaux, Laurence Reinert, Fabrice Muller

Abstract:

A novel hybrid adsorbent, based on chitosan biopolymer, clays and activated carbon was prepared. Hybrid chitosan beads containing dispersed clays and activated carbons were prepared by precipitation in basic medium. Such a composite material is still very porous and presents a wide adsorption spectrum. The obtained composite adsorbent is able to handle all the pollution types including heavy metals, polar and hydrophobic organic molecules and nitrates. It could find a place of choice in tertiary water treatment processes or for an ‘at source’ treatment concerning chemical or pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: adsorption, chitosan, clay mineral, activated carbon

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49 A Design of the Organic Rankine Cycle for the Low Temperature Waste Heat

Authors: K. Fraňa, M. Müller

Abstract:

A presentation of the design of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with heat regeneration and super-heating processes is a subject of this paper. The maximum temperature level in the ORC is considered to be 110°C and the maximum pressure varies up to 2.5MPa. The selection process of the appropriate working fluids, thermal design and calculation of the cycle and its components are described. With respect to the safety, toxicity, flammability, price and thermal cycle efficiency, the working fluid selected is R134a. As a particular example, the thermal design of the condenser used for the ORC engine with a theoretical thermal power of 179 kW was introduced. The minimal heat transfer area for a completed condensation was determined to be approximately 520m2.

Keywords: organic rankine cycle, thermal efficiency, working fluids, environmental engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
48 Friction Estimation and Compensation for Steering Angle Control for Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Marcus Walter, Norbert Nitzsche, Dirk Odenthal, Steffen Müller

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This contribution presents a friction estimator for industrial purposes which identifies Coulomb friction in a steering system. The estimator only needs a few, usually known, steering system parameters. Friction occurs on almost every mechanical system and has a negative influence on high-precision position control. This is demonstrated on a steering angle controller for highly automated driving. In this steering system the friction induces limit cycles which cause oscillating vehicle movement when the vehicle follows a given reference trajectory. When compensating the friction with the introduced estimator, limit cycles can be suppressed. This is demonstrated by measurements in a series vehicle.

Keywords: friction estimation, friction compensation, steering system, lateral vehicle guidance

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47 Subsidiary Strategy and Importance of Standards: Re-Interpreting the Integration-Responsiveness Framework

Authors: Jo-Ann Müller

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The integration-responsiveness (IR) framework presents four distinct internationalization strategies which differ depending on the extent of pressure the company faces for local responsiveness and global integration. This study applies the framework to standards by examining differences in the relative importance of three types of standards depending on the role the subsidiary plays within the corporate group. Hypotheses are tested empirically in a two-stage procedure. First, the subsidiaries are grouped performing cluster analysis. In the second step, the relationship between cluster affiliation and subsidiary strategy is tested using multinomial Probit estimation. While the level of local responsiveness of a firm relates to the relative importance of national and international formal standards, the degree of vertical integration is associated with the application of internal company.

Keywords: FDI, firm-level data, standards, subsidiary strategy

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46 Testing a Moderated Mediation Model of Person–Organization Fit, Organizational Support, and Feelings of Violation

Authors: Chi-Tai Shen

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This study aims to examine whether perceived organizational support moderates the relationship between person–former organization fit and person–organization fit after the mediating effect of feelings of violation. A two-stage data collection method was used. Based on our research requirements, we only approached participants who were involuntary turnover from their former organizations and looking for a new job. Our final usable sample was comprised of a total of 264 participants from Taiwan. We followed Muller, Judd, and Yzerbyt, and Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes’s suggestions to test our moderated mediation model. This study found that employee perceived organizational support moderated the indirect effect of person–former organization fit on person–organization fit (through feelings of violation). Our study ends with a discussion of the main research findings and their limitations and presents suggestions regarding the direction of future studies and the empirical implications of the results.

Keywords: person–organization fit, feelings of violation, organizational support, moderated mediation

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45 Determinant Elements for Useful Life in Airports

Authors: Marcelo Müller Beuren, José Luis Duarte Ribeiro

Abstract:

Studies point that Brazilian large airports are not managing their assets efficiently. Therefore, organizations seek improvements to raise their asset’s productivity. Hence, identification of assets useful life in airports becomes an important subject, since its accuracy leads to better maintenance plans and technological substitution, contribution to airport services management. However, current useful life prediction models do not converge in terms of determinant elements used, as they are particular to the studied situation. For that reason, the main objective of this paper is to identify the determinant elements for a useful life of major assets in airports. With that purpose, a case study was held in the key airport of the south of Brazil trough historical data analysis and specialist interview. This paper concluded that most of the assets useful life are determined by technical elements, maintenance cost, and operational costs, while few presented influence of technological obsolescence. As a highlight, it was possible to identify the determinant elements to be considered by a model which objective is to identify the useful life of airport’s major assets.

Keywords: airports, asset management, asset useful life

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44 Basic One-Dimensional Modelica®-Model for Simulation of Gas-Phase Adsorber Dynamics

Authors: Adrian Rettig, Silvan Schneider, Reto Tamburini, Mirko Kleingries, Ulf Christian Muller

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Industrial adsorption processes are, mainly due to si-multaneous heat and mass transfer, characterized by a high level of complexity. The conception of such processes often does not take place systematically; instead scale-up/down respectively number-up/down methods based on existing systems are used. This paper shows how Modelica® can be used to develop a transient model enabling a more systematic design of such ad- and desorption components and processes. The core of this model is a lumped-element submodel of a single adsorbent grain, where the thermodynamic equilibria and the kinetics of the ad- and desorption processes are implemented and solved on the basis of mass-, momentum and energy balances. For validation of this submodel, a fixed bed adsorber, whose characteristics are described in detail in the literature, was modeled and simulated. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results from the literature. Therefore, the model development will be continued, and the extended model will be applied to further adsorber types like rotor adsorbers and moving bed adsorbers.

Keywords: adsorption, desorption, linear driving force, dynamic model, Modelica®, integral equation approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
43 Fungal Pigments For Fabrics Dyeing: Initial Tests Using Industrial Dyeing Conditions

Authors: Vicente A. Hernandez, Felipe Galleguillos, Rene Thibaut, Alejandro Muller

Abstract:

Natural pigments have been proposed as an eco-friendly alternative to artificial pigments. Among the diverse organisms able to synthesize natural pigments, several wood colonizing fungi produce extracellular pigments which have been tested to dye fabrics at laboratory conditions with good results. However, the dyeing conditions used at laboratory level not necessary meet the real conditions in which dyeing of fabrics is conducted at industrial level. In this work, yellow and red pigments from the fungi Penicillium murcianum and Talaromyces australis, respectively, were used to dye yarn and linen fabrics using dyeing processes optimized according to the standard conditions used at industrial level. After dyeing treatments, fabrics were tested for color fastness to wash and to wet and dry rubbing, but also to tensile strength tests. Satisfactory result was obtained with both yellow and red pigments in yarn and linen, when used alone or mixed to different proportions. According to these results, natural pigments synthesized by both wood colonizing fungi have a great potential to be used in dyeing processes at industrial level.

Keywords: natural pigments, fungal pigments, yarn, linen

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42 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis on a Few Bacteria and Fungi

Authors: M. Mehani, N. Salhi, T. Valeria, S. Ladjel

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Red River Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus widely distributed in Algeria and in the world. The value of its aromatic secondary metabolites offers new perspectives in the pharmaceutical industry. This strategy can contribute to the sustainable development of our country. Preliminary tests performed on the essential oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis showed that this oil has antibacterial activity vis-à-vis the bacterial strains (Enterococcus feacalis, Enterobacter cloaceai, Proteus microsilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and antifungic (Fusarium sporotrichioide and Fusarium graminearum). The culture medium used was nutrient broth Muller Hinton. The interaction between the bacteria and the essential oil is expressed by a zone of inhibition with diameters of MIC indirectly expression of. And we used the PDA medium to determine the fungal activity. The extraction of the aromatic fraction (essentially oil- hydrolat) of the fresh aerian part of the Eucalyptus camendulensis was performed by hydrodistillation. The average essential oil yield is 0.99%. The antimicrobial and fungal study of the essential oil and hydrosol showed a high inhibitory effect on the growth of pathogens.

Keywords: essential oil, Eucalyptus camendulensis, bacteria and fungi, red river gum

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41 Imputation of Urban Movement Patterns Using Big Data

Authors: Eusebio Odiari, Mark Birkin, Susan Grant-Muller, Nicolas Malleson

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Big data typically refers to consumer datasets revealing some detailed heterogeneity in human behavior, which if harnessed appropriately, could potentially revolutionize our understanding of the collective phenomena of the physical world. Inadvertent missing values skew these datasets and compromise the validity of the thesis. Here we discuss a conceptually consistent strategy for identifying other relevant datasets to combine with available big data, to plug the gaps and to create a rich requisite comprehensive dataset for subsequent analysis. Specifically, emphasis is on how these methodologies can for the first time enable the construction of more detailed pictures of passenger demand and drivers of mobility on the railways. These methodologies can predict the influence of changes within the network (like a change in time-table or impact of a new station), explain local phenomena outside the network (like rail-heading) and the other impacts of urban morphology. Our analysis also reveals that our new imputation data model provides for more equitable revenue sharing amongst network operators who manage different parts of the integrated UK railways.

Keywords: big-data, micro-simulation, mobility, ticketing-data, commuters, transport, synthetic, population

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40 Quantifying User-Related, System-Related, and Context-Related Patterns of Smartphone Use

Authors: Andrew T. Hendrickson, Liven De Marez, Marijn Martens, Gytha Muller, Tudor Paisa, Koen Ponnet, Catherine Schweizer, Megan Van Meer, Mariek Vanden Abeele

Abstract:

Quantifying and understanding the myriad ways people use their phones and how that impacts their relationships, cognitive abilities, mental health, and well-being is increasingly important in our phone-centric society. However, most studies on the patterns of phone use have focused on theory-driven tests of specific usage hypotheses using self-report questionnaires or analyses of smaller datasets. In this work we present a series of analyses from a large corpus of over 3000 users that combine data-driven and theory-driven analyses to identify reliable smartphone usage patterns and clusters of similar users. Furthermore, we compare the stability of user clusters across user- and system-initiated sessions, as well as during the hypothesized ritualized behavior times directly before and after sleeping. Our results indicate support for some hypothesized usage patterns but present a more complete and nuanced view of how people use smartphones.

Keywords: data mining, experience sampling, smartphone usage, health and well being

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39 Management of Acute Biliary Pathology at Gozo General Hospital

Authors: Kristian Bugeja, Upeshala A. Jayawardena, Clarissa Fenech, Mark Zammit Vincenti

Abstract:

Introduction: Biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, and gallstone pancreatitis are some of the most common surgical presentations at Gozo General Hospital (GGH). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines advise that suitable patients with acute biliary problems should be offered a laparoscopic cholecystectomy within one week of diagnosis. There has traditionally been difficulty in achieving this mainly due to the reluctance of some surgeons to operate in the acute setting, limited, timely access to MRCP and ERCP, and organizational issues. Methodology: A retrospective study was performed involving all biliary pathology-related admissions to GGH during the two-year period of 2019 and 2020. Patients’ files and electronic case summary (ECS) were used for data collection, which included demographic data, primary diagnosis, co-morbidities, management, waiting time to surgery, length of stay, readmissions, and reason for readmissions. NICE clinical guidance 188 – Gallstone disease were used as the standard. Results: 51 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 58 years, and 35 (68.6%) were female. The main diagnoses on admission were biliary colic in 31 (60.8%), acute cholecystitis in 10 (19.6%). Others included gallstone pancreatitis in 3 (5.89%), chronic cholecystitis in 2 (3.92%), gall bladder malignancy in 4 (7.84%), and ascending cholangitis in 1 (1.97%). Management included laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 34 (66.7%); conservative in 8 (15.7%) and ERCP in 6 (11.7%). The mean waiting time for laparoscopic cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis was 74 days – range being between 3 and 146 days since the date of diagnosis. Only one patient who was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and managed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy was done so within the 7-day time frame. Hospital re-admissions were reported in 5 patients (9.8%) due to vomiting (1), ascending cholangitis (1), and gallstone pancreatitis (3). Discussion: Guidelines were not met for patients presenting to Gozo General Hospital with acute biliary pathology. This resulted in 5 patients being re-admitted to hospital while waiting for definitive surgery. The local issues resulting in the delay to surgery need to be identified and steps are taken to facilitate the provision of urgent cholecystectomy for suitable patients.

Keywords: biliary colic, acute cholecystits, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, conservative management

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
38 Nilsson Model Performance in Estimating Bed Load Sediment, Case Study: Tale Zang Station

Authors: Nader Parsazadeh

Abstract:

The variety of bed sediment load relationships, insufficient information and data, and the influence of river conditions make the selection of an optimum relationship for a given river extremely difficult. Hence, in order to select the best formulae, the bed load equations should be evaluated. The affecting factors need to be scrutinized, and equations should be verified. Also, re-evaluation may be needed. In this research, sediment bed load of Dez Dam at Tal-e Zang Station has been studied. After reviewing the available references, the most common formulae were selected that included Meir-Peter and Muller, using MS Excel to compute and evaluate data. Then, 52 series of already measured data at the station were re-measured, and the sediment bed load was determined. 1. The calculated bed load obtained by different equations showed a great difference with that of measured data. 2. r difference ratio from 0.5 to 2.00 was 0% for all equations except for Nilsson and Shields equations while it was 61.5 and 59.6% for Nilsson and Shields equations, respectively. 3. By reviewing results and discarding probably erroneous measured data measurements (by human or machine), one may use Nilsson Equation due to its r value higher than 1 as an effective equation for estimating bed load at Tal-e Zang Station in order to predict activities that depend upon bed sediment load estimate to be determined. Also, since only few studies have been conducted so far, these results may be of assistance to the operators and consulting companies.

Keywords: bed load, empirical relation ship, sediment, Tale Zang Station

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37 Comparing Image Processing and AI Techniques for Disease Detection in Plants

Authors: Luiz Daniel Garay Trindade, Antonio De Freitas Valle Neto, Fabio Paulo Basso, Elder De Macedo Rodrigues, Maicon Bernardino, Daniel Welfer, Daniel Muller

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Agriculture plays an important role in society since it is one of the main sources of food in the world. To help the production and yield of crops, precision agriculture makes use of technologies aiming at improving productivity and quality of agricultural commodities. One of the problems hampering quality of agricultural production is the disease affecting crops. Failure in detecting diseases in a short period of time can result in small or big damages to production, causing financial losses to farmers. In order to provide a map of the contributions destined to the early detection of plant diseases and a comparison of the accuracy of the selected studies, a systematic literature review of the literature was performed, showing techniques for digital image processing and neural networks. We found 35 interesting tool support alternatives to detect disease in 19 plants. Our comparison of these studies resulted in an overall average accuracy of 87.45%, with two studies very closer to obtain 100%.

Keywords: pattern recognition, image processing, deep learning, precision agriculture, smart farming, agricultural automation

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36 Bird-Adapted Filter for Avian Species and Individual Identification Systems Improvement

Authors: Ladislav Ptacek, Jan Vanek, Jan Eisner, Alexandra Pruchova, Pavel Linhart, Ludek Muller, Dana Jirotkova

Abstract:

One of the essential steps of avian song processing is signal filtering. Currently, the standard methods of filtering are the Mel Bank Filter or linear filter distribution. In this article, a new type of bank filter called the Bird-Adapted Filter is introduced; whereby the signal filtering is modifiable, based upon a new mathematical description of audiograms for particular bird species or order, which was named the Avian Audiogram Unified Equation. According to the method, filters may be deliberately distributed by frequency. The filters are more concentrated in bands of higher sensitivity where there is expected to be more information transmitted and vice versa. Further, it is demonstrated a comparison of various filters for automatic individual recognition of chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita). The average Equal Error Rate (EER) value for Linear bank filter was 16.23%, for Mel Bank Filter 18.71%, the Bird-Adapted Filter gave 14.29%, and Bird-Adapted Filter with 1/3 modification was 12.95%. This approach would be useful for practical use in automatic systems for avian species and individual identification. Since the Bird-Adapted Filter filtration is based on the measured audiograms of particular species or orders, selecting the distribution according to the avian vocalization provides the most precise filter distribution to date.

Keywords: avian audiogram, bird individual identification, bird song processing, bird species recognition, filter bank

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35 Optical Characterization of Anisotropic Thiophene-Phenylene Co-Oligomer Micro Crystals by Spectroscopic Imaging Ellipsometry

Authors: Christian Röling, Elena Y. Poimanova, Vladimir V. Bruevich

Abstract:

Here we demonstrate a non-destructive optical technique to localize and characterize single crystals of semiconductive organic materials – Spectroscopic Imaging Ellipsometry. With a combination of microscopy and ellipsometry, it is possible to characterize even micro-sized thin film crystals on plane surface regarding anisotropy, optical properties, crystalline domains and thickness. The semiconducting thiophene-phenylene co-oligomer 1,4-bis(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophen]-5-yl)benzene (dHex-TTPTT) crystals were grown by solvent based self-assembly technique on silicon substrate with 300 nm thermally silicon dioxide. The ellipsometric measurements were performed with an Ep4-SE (Accurion). In an ellipsometric high-contrast image of the complete sample, we have localized high-quality single crystals. After demonstrating the uniaxial anisotropy of the crystal by using Müller-Matrix imaging ellipsometry, we determined the optical axes by rotating the sample and performed spectroscopic measurements (λ = 400-700 nm) in 5 nm intervals. The optical properties were described by using a Lorentz term in the Ep4-Model. After determining the dispersion of the crystals, we converted a recorded Delta and Psi-map into a 2D thickness image. Based on a quantitative analysis of the resulting thickness map, we have calculated the height of a molecular layer (3.49 nm).

Keywords: anisotropy, ellipsometry, SCFET, thin film

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34 Transition Metal Carbodiimide vs. Spinel Matrices for Photocatalytic Water Oxidation

Authors: Karla Lienau, Rafael Müller, René Moré, Debora Ressnig, Dan Cook, Richard Walton, Greta R. Patzke

Abstract:

The increasing demand for renewable energy sources and storable fuels underscores the high potential of artificial photosynthesis. The four electron transfer process of water oxidation remains the bottleneck of water splitting, so that special emphasis is placed on the development of economic, stable and efficient water oxidation catalysts (WOCs). Our investigations introduced cobalt carbodiimide CoNCN and its transition metal analogues as WOC types, and further studies are focused on the interaction of different transition metals in the convenient all-nitrogen/carbon matrix. This provides further insights into the nature of the ‘true catalyst’ for cobalt centers in this non-oxide environment. Water oxidation activity is evaluated with complementary methods, namely photocatalytically using a Ru-dye sensitized standard setup as well as electrocatalytically, via immobilization of the WOCs on glassy carbon electrodes. To further explore the tuning potential of transition metal combinations, complementary investigations were carried out in oxidic spinel WOC matrices with more versatile host options than the carbodiimide framework. The influence of the preparative history on the WOC performance was evaluated with different synthetic methods (e.g. hydrothermally or microwave assisted). Moreover, the growth mechanism of nanoscale Co3O4-spinel as a benchmark WOC was investigated with in-situ PXRD techniques.

Keywords: carbodiimide, photocatalysis, spinels, water oxidation

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33 Mapping Thermal Properties Using Resistivity, Lithology and Thermal Conductivity Measurements

Authors: Riccardo Pasquali, Keith Harlin, Mark Muller

Abstract:

The ShallowTherm project is focussed on developing and applying a methodology for extrapolating relatively sparsely sampled thermal conductivity measurements across Ireland using mapped Litho-Electrical (LE) units. The primary data used consist of electrical resistivities derived from the Geological Survey Ireland Tellus airborne electromagnetic dataset, GIS-based maps of Irish geology, and rock thermal conductivities derived from both the current Irish Ground Thermal Properties (IGTP) database and a new programme of sampling and laboratory measurement. The workflow has been developed across three case-study areas that sample a range of different calcareous, arenaceous, argillaceous, and volcanic lithologies. Statistical analysis of resistivity data from individual geological formations has been assessed and integrated with detailed lithological descriptions to define distinct LE units. Thermal conductivity measurements from core and hand samples have been acquired for every geological formation within each study area. The variability and consistency of thermal conductivity measurements within each LE unit is examined with the aim of defining a characteristic thermal conductivity (or range of thermal conductivities) for each LE unit. Mapping of LE units, coupled with characteristic thermal conductivities, provides a method of defining thermal conductivity properties at a regional scale and facilitating the design of ground source heat pump closed-loop collectors.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, ground source heat pumps, resistivity, heat exchange, shallow geothermal, Ireland

Procedia PDF Downloads 33