Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 322

Search results for: Christian Doppler

322 Radar-Based Classification of Pedestrian and Dog Using High-Resolution Raw Range-Doppler Signatures

Authors: C. Mayr, J. Periya, A. Kariminezhad

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In this paper, we developed a learning framework for the classification of vulnerable road users (VRU) by their range-Doppler signatures. The frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar raw data is first pre-processed to obtain robust object range-Doppler maps per coherent time interval. The complex-valued range-Doppler maps captured from our outdoor measurements are further fed into a convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn the classification. This CNN has gone through a hyperparameter optimization process for improved learning. By learning VRU range-Doppler signatures, the three classes 'pedestrian', 'dog', and 'noise' are classified with an average accuracy of almost 95%. Interestingly, this classification accuracy holds for a combined longitudinal and lateral object trajectories.

Keywords: machine learning, radar, signal processing, autonomous driving

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
321 Investigation of the Unbiased Characteristic of Doppler Frequency to Different Antenna Array Geometries

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian

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Array signal processing techniques have been recently developing in a variety application of the performance enhancement of receivers by refraining the power of jamming and interference signals. In this scenario, biases induced to the antenna array receiver degrade significantly the accurate estimation of the carrier phase. Owing to the integration of frequency becomes the carrier phase, we have obtained the unbiased doppler frequency for the high precision estimation of carrier phase. The unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the power jamming and the other interference signals allows achieving the highly accurate estimation of phase carrier. In this study, we have rigorously investigated the unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the variation of the antenna array geometries. The simulation results have efficiently verified that the Doppler frequency remains also unbiased and accurate to the variation of antenna array geometries.

Keywords: array signal processing, unbiased doppler frequency, GNSS, carrier phase, and slowly fluctuating point target

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
320 Religious Tattoos Symbols amongst Underground Communities in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia: Their Functions and Significances

Authors: Constantius Tri Handoko

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Tattoos on the body of Christian youths seemed interesting as the majority of Christian look at tattoo and tattooing activity are prohibited. This research besides to understand the motivation behind why Christian youth in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia being tattooed also focus on the regard to what functions and meanings of the tattoos are. By using visual discourse analysis, the tattoos had relation to the informants’ social lives dimension, such as the Christian symbol tattoos expressed their spiritual life journey, a faith symbol to God, as personal symbols (identity), art expression, as well as fashion. On the other hands, tattoos also became a hatred symbol to Jesus and the Christian faith, since the tattoo wearers who were a former Christians felt disappointed to God as they thought God never help them to survive in their lives.

Keywords: tattoo, representation, identity, belief, Christian

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
319 Airborne SAR Data Analysis for Impact of Doppler Centroid on Image Quality and Registration Accuracy

Authors: Chhabi Nigam, S. Ramakrishnan

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This paper brings out the analysis of the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to study the impact of Doppler centroid on Image quality and geocoding accuracy from the perspective of Stripmap mode of data acquisition. Although in Stripmap mode of data acquisition radar beam points at 90 degrees broad side (side looking), shift in the Doppler centroid is invariable due to platform motion. In-accurate estimation of Doppler centroid leads to poor image quality and image miss-registration. The effect of Doppler centroid is analyzed in this paper using multiple sets of data collected from airborne platform. Occurrences of ghost (ambiguous) targets and their power levels have been analyzed that impacts appropriate choice of PRF. Effect of aircraft attitudes (roll, pitch and yaw) on the Doppler centroid is also analyzed with the collected data sets. Various stages of the RDA (Range Doppler Algorithm) algorithm used for image formation in Stripmap mode, range compression, Doppler centroid estimation, azimuth compression, range cell migration correction are analyzed to find the performance limits and the dependence of the imaging geometry on the final image. The ability of Doppler centroid estimation to enhance the imaging accuracy for registration are also illustrated in this paper. The paper also tries to bring out the processing of low squint SAR data, the challenges and the performance limits imposed by the imaging geometry and the platform dynamics on the final image quality metrics. Finally, the effect on various terrain types, including land, water and bright scatters is also presented.

Keywords: ambiguous target, Doppler Centroid, image registration, Airborne SAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
318 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

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Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

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317 Sympathetic Cooling of Antiprotons with Molecular Anions

Authors: Sebastian Gerber, Julian Fesel, Christian Zimmer, Pauline Yzombard, Daniel Comparat, Michael Doser

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Molecular anions play a central role in a wide range of fields: from atmospheric and interstellar science, anionic superhalogens to the chemistry of highly correlated systems. However, up to now the synthesis of negative ions in a controlled manner at ultracold temperatures, relevant for the processes in which they are involved, is currently limited to a few Kelvin by supersonic beam expansion followed by resistive, buffer gas or electron cooling in cryogenic environments. We present a realistic scheme for laser cooling of C2- molecules to sub-Kelvin temperatures, which has so far only been achieved for a few neutral diatomic molecules. The generation of a pulsed source of C2- and subsequent laser cooling techniques of C2- molecules confined in a Penning trap are reviewed. Further, laser cooling of one anionic species would allow to sympathetically cool other molecular anions, electrons and antiprotons that are confined in the same trapping potential. In this presentation the status of the experiment and the feasibility of C2- sympathetic Doppler laser cooling, photo-detachment cooling and AC-Stark Sisyphus cooling will be reviewed.

Keywords: antiprotons, anions, cooling of ions and molecules, Doppler cooling, photo-detachment, penning trap, Sisyphus cooling, sympathetic cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
316 Time-Frequency Feature Extraction Method Based on Micro-Doppler Signature of Ground Moving Targets

Authors: Ke Ren, Huiruo Shi, Linsen Li, Baoshuai Wang, Yu Zhou

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Since some discriminative features are required for ground moving targets classification, we propose a new feature extraction method based on micro-Doppler signature. Firstly, the time-frequency analysis of measured data indicates that the time-frequency spectrograms of the three kinds of ground moving targets, i.e., single walking person, two people walking and a moving wheeled vehicle, are discriminative. Then, a three-dimensional time-frequency feature vector is extracted from the time-frequency spectrograms to depict these differences. At last, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is trained with the proposed three-dimensional feature vector. The classification accuracy to categorize ground moving targets into the three kinds of the measured data is found to be over 96%, which demonstrates the good discriminative ability of the proposed micro-Doppler feature.

Keywords: micro-doppler, time-frequency analysis, feature extraction, radar target classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
315 Statically Fused Unbiased Converted Measurements Kalman Filter

Authors: Zhengkun Guo, Yanbin Li, Wenqing Wang, Bo Zou

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The statically fused converted position and doppler measurements Kalman filter (SF-CMKF) with additive debiased measurement conversion has been previously presented to combine the resulting states of converted position measurements Kalman filter (CPMKF) and converted doppler measurement Kalman filter (CDMKF) to yield the final state estimates under minimum mean squared error (MMSE) criterion. However, the exact compensation for the bias in the polar-to-cartesian and spherical-to-cartesian conversion are multiplicative and depend on the statistics of the cosine of the angle measurement errors. As a result, the consistency and performance of the SF-CMKF may be suboptimal in large-angle error situations. In this paper, the multiplicative unbiased position and Doppler measurement conversion for 2D (polar-to-cartesian) tracking are derived, and the SF-CMKF is improved to use those conversions. Monte Carlo simulations are presented to demonstrate the statistical consistency of the multiplicative unbiased conversion and the superior performance of the modified SF-CMKF (SF-UCMKF).

Keywords: measurement conversion, Doppler, Kalman filter, estimation, tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
314 FMCW Doppler Radar Measurements with Microstrip Tx-Rx Antennas

Authors: Yusuf Ulaş Kabukçu, Si̇nan Çeli̇k, Onur Salan, Mai̇de Altuntaş, Mert Can Dalkiran, Gökseni̇n Bozdağ, Metehan Bulut, Fati̇h Yaman

Abstract:

This study presents a more compact implementation of the 2.4GHz MIT Coffee Can Doppler Radar for 2.6GHz operating frequency. The main difference of our prototype depends on the use of microstrip antennas which makes it possible to transport with a small robotic vehicle. We have designed our radar system with two different channels: Tx and Rx. The system mainly consists of Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) source, low noise amplifiers, microstrip antennas, splitter, mixer, low pass filter, and necessary RF connectors with cables. The two microstrip antennas, one is element for transmitter and the other one is array for receiver channel, was designed, fabricated and verified by experiments. The system has two operation modes: speed detection and range detection. If the switch of the operation mode is ‘Off’, only CW signal transmitted for speed measurement. When the switch is ‘On’, CW is frequency-modulated and range detection is possible. In speed detection mode, high frequency (2.6 GHz) is generated by a VCO, and then amplified to reach a reasonable level of transmit power. Before transmitting the amplified signal through a microstrip patch antenna, a splitter used in order to compare the frequencies of transmitted and received signals. Half of amplified signal (LO) is forwarded to a mixer, which helps us to compare the frequencies of transmitted and received (RF) and has the IF output, or in other words information of Doppler frequency. Then, IF output is filtered and amplified to process the signal digitally. Filtered and amplified signal showing Doppler frequency is used as an input of audio input of a computer. After getting this data Doppler frequency is shown as a speed change on a figure via Matlab script. According to experimental field measurements the accuracy of speed measurement is approximately %90. In range detection mode, a chirp signal is used to form a FM chirp. This FM chirp helps to determine the range of the target since only Doppler frequency measured with CW is not enough for range detection. Such a FMCW Doppler radar may be used in border security of the countries since it is capable of both speed and range detection.

Keywords: doppler radar, FMCW, range detection, speed detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
313 The Impact of Judeo-Christian Myth and Celtic Myth in Selected Plays of William Shakespeare

Authors: Smriti Mary Gupta

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This article intends to show strong facts of ‘Judeo-Christian myth’ and ‘Celtic myth’ in selected plays of William Shakespeare. Giving the vast proliferation of Shakespeare studies we examine the strong impact of Bible in his plays. Inevitably, for instance, the study of Shakespeare and the Bible overlaps the study of Shakespeare and religion, which justify the use of Judeo-Christian myth in his works. There is some evidence that Shakespeare had read and used the ‘Geneva Bible’ in his works. The glimpse of parables and references of Biblical myth can be seen very clearly in Macbeth, King Lear and Measure for Measure. Defining a religion based on myths is difficult because it is built upon a belief of large number of people in the society. The Judeo-Christian myth which is based on the Bible, Celtic religious myth will also be discussed in this paper which had a strong impact on the audience of sixteenth century and it is still continuing at the present time.

Keywords: Celtic myth, Geneva Bible, Judeo-Christian myth, Shakespearean plays

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
312 Statistical Modeling of Mobile Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois

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Understanding the statistics of non-isotropic scattering multipath channels that fade randomly with respect to time, frequency, and space in a mobile environment is very crucial for the accurate detection of received signals in wireless and cellular communication systems. In this paper, we derive stochastic models for the probability density function (PDF) of the shift in the carrier frequency caused by the Doppler Effect on the received illuminating signal in the presence of a dominant line of sight. Our derivation is based on a generalized Clarke’s and a two-wave partially developed scattering models, where the statistical distribution of the frequency shift is shown to be consistent with the power spectral density of the Doppler shifted signal.

Keywords: Doppler shift, filtered Poisson process, generalized Clark’s model, non-isotropic scattering, partially developed scattering, Rician distribution

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311 Diagnosis of Gingivitis Based on Correlations of Laser Doppler Data and Gingival Fluid Cytology

Authors: A. V. Belousov, Yakushenko

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One of the main problems of modern dentistry is development a reliable method to detect inflammation in the gums on the stages of diagnosis and assessment of treatment efficacy. We have proposed a method of gingival fluid intake, which successfully combines accessibility, excluding the impact of the annoying and damaging the gingival sulcus factors and provides reliable results (patent of RF№ 2342956 Method of gingival fluid intake). The objects of the study were students - volunteers of Dentistry Faculty numbering 75 people aged 20-21 years. Cellular composition of gingival fluid was studied using microscope "Olympus CX 31" (Japan) with the calculation of epithelial leukocyte index (ELI). Assessment of gingival micro circulation was performed using the apparatus «LAKK–01» (Lazma, Moscow). Cytological investigation noted the highly informative of epithelial leukocyte index (ELI), which demonstrated changes in the mechanisms of protection gums. The increase of ELI occurs during inhibition mechanisms of phagocytosis and activation of epithelial desquamation. The cytological data correlate with micro circulation indicators obtained by laser Doppler flowmetry. We have identified and confirmed the correlations between parameters laser Doppler flowmetry and data cytology gingival fluid in patients with gingivitis.

Keywords: gingivitis, laser doppler flowmetry, gingival fluid cytology, epithelial leukocyte index (ELI)

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
310 THz Phase Extraction Algorithms for a THz Modulating Interferometric Doppler Radar

Authors: Shaolin Allen Liao, Hual-Te Chien

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Various THz phase extraction algorithms have been developed for a novel THz Modulating Interferometric Doppler Radar (THz-MIDR) developed recently by the author. The THz-MIDR differs from the well-known FTIR technique in that it introduces a continuously modulating reference branch, compared to the time-consuming discrete FTIR stepping reference branch. Such change allows real-time tracking of a moving object and capturing of its Doppler signature. The working principle of the THz-MIDR is similar to the FTIR technique: the incoming THz emission from the scene is split by a beam splitter/combiner; one of the beams is continuously modulated by a vibrating mirror or phase modulator and the other split beam is reflected by a reflection mirror; finally both the modulated reference beam and reflected beam are combined by the same beam splitter/combiner and detected by a THz intensity detector (for example, a pyroelectric detector). In order to extract THz phase from the single intensity measurement signal, we have derived rigorous mathematical formulas for 3 Frequency Banded (FB) signals: 1) DC Low-Frequency Banded (LFB) signal; 2) Fundamental Frequency Banded (FFB) signal; and 3) Harmonic Frequency Banded (HFB) signal. The THz phase extraction algorithms are then developed based combinations of 2 or all of these 3 FB signals with efficient algorithms such as Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithm. Numerical simulation has also been performed in Matlab with simulated THz-MIDR interferometric signal of various Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) to verify the algorithms.

Keywords: algorithm, modulation, THz phase, THz interferometry doppler radar

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309 Deciphering Chinese Calligraphy as the Architectural Essence of Tao Fong Shan Christian Center in Hong Kong

Authors: Chak Kwong Lau

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Many buildings in Hong Kong are graced with enchanting works of Chinese calligraphy. An excellent example is Tao Fong Shan Christian Center founded by a Norwegian missionary, Karl Ludvig Reichelt (1877-1952) in 1930. Adorned with many inspiring works of Chinese calligraphy, the center functions as a place for the study of Christianity where people of different religions can meet to have religious discussions and intellectual exchanges. This paper examines the pivotal role played by Chinese calligraphy in creating a significant context for the center to fulfill her visions and missions. The methodology of this research involves stylistic and textual analyses of works of calligraphy, in particular through an examination and interpretation of their extended meanings in terms of architectural symbology and social and cultural contexts. Findings showed that Chinese calligraphy was effectively used as a powerful vehicle for a purposeful development of contextual Christian spirituality in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Chinese calligraphy, Hong Kong architecture, Hong Kong calligraphy, Johannes Prip-Møller, Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Norwegian missionary, Tao Fong Shan Christian Center, traditional Chinese architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
308 The Orthodox Church's Heritage in Syria and the Journey of Syriac Music between Originality and Renewal

Authors: Marilyn Maksoud

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This article discusses the heritage of the Orthodox Church, additionally it describes the origins, composition, and characteristics of the Orthodox Christian cultural identity in Syria and the liturgical traditions of the Church in the literature. Also, the eight tunes and their original use, the historical and anthropological importance of the most important Orthodox churches in Syria, were discussed. Finally, the role and works of the composer Nuri Iskandar in reviving Christian music were mentioned. "Cultural dialogue" methodology based on the recognition of equal cultures, practical and bibliographic sources of books and articles in many languages German, French, Arabic, and English, in addition to my practical experience in chanting the Syriac Aramaic language in some churches in Syria and Russia. This study concluded that the roots of the characteristics of Orthodox Christian culture in Syria go back to the original eight Syriac melodies. Additionally, The originality of Major and Minor scales were tracked as an extension of Syriac Christian melodies originated thousands of years ago in Syrian land.

Keywords: church culture in Syria, Syriac orthodox music, Syriac orthodox church, Aramaic semitic language, Syriac, Syrian church melodies

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307 Religious Beliefs and Their Effects on the Use of Contraceptives in Female College Students

Authors: Amy Kless, Peter Reuter

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The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the teachings of religious doctrine on the use of contraceptives and its influence on the behavior of female college students. The religious doctrine of both Christian and non-Christian religions states that sexual intercourse shall only take place between people that are married. Additionally, the teachings of most Christian and non-Christian religions prohibit the use of contraceptives during sexual intercourse. Being away from home for the first time, students that grew up in religious households may stop attending church services or stop practicing religion entirety. The college years are also a time for sexual exploration. The desire for sexual exploration leaves many students, both religious and non-religious, with having to choose between abstaining from sexual intercourse or using a form of contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. Of 1,130 female students anonymously surveyed at a southern university between Spring 2016 and Fall 2020, 50% reported having religious beliefs. Less than 50% of the students who reported having religious beliefs attend church services on a regular basis. Nearly 75% of the same students reported having participated in sexual intercourse with close to 60% utilizing some form of contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. The data suggest that female college students do not follow religious teachings on abstinence from premarital sex or the ban on the use of contraceptives.

Keywords: contraceptives, females, intercourse, religion

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
306 Spiritual Warriors: Christian Testimony and Psychotherapy in Ritual Abuse Memoir

Authors: Jocelyn Cohen

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This paper identifies a powerful synchronicity of two traditions of life-story writing in the autobiographies of ritual abuse (RA) survivors, the Christian conversion narrative and the memoir of healing from childhood sexual trauma. Using methodologies from literary studies, history, and psychology, a close reading of three RA memoirs sheds light on a taboo and deeply suspect form of violence. Treatment of RA survivors and the unique role of psychotherapists, in particular, deserve far greater attention from multi-disciplinary scholars. Each story reflects salient characteristics of the Christian conversion narrative, a genre which originated in the US in the early 19th century with the serendipitous confluence of the simultaneous emergence of print culture and the basic structures of evangelicalism during the Second Great Awakening. The impulse of writing is thus to give testimony against the sin they witnessed and endured as young children during ritual violence perpetrated within the church. Importantly, RA is seen as an inherent if obscure aspect of Christian discourse itself, not in opposition to it, and not as an aberration. In RA's memoir, healing comes in part from the Christian narrative praxis of personal redemption, framed as prevailing in a war between good and evil. In other words, storytelling itself affects the healing, much as it does by means of each writer’s 'talking cure,' in the relationship with a psychotherapist who guides her through a repair of the life-story through the excavation of traumatic memories and their integration into the writer’s psyche. Integrating literary techniques into the psychotherapeutic relationship, therapists leverage the deep linguistic structures that clients possess as a resource to aid in their healing.

Keywords: memoir, psychotherapy, religion, trauma

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305 The Consistency of Gerhard Kittel’s “Christian” Antisemitism in His "Die Judenfrage" and "Meine Verteidigung"

Authors: Catherine Harrison

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Faced with arrest, imprisonment and the denazification process in 1945, Tübingen University’s Professor of Theology, Gerhard Kittel, refused to abandon the “Christian” antisemitism which he had first expounded in his Die Judenfrage [The Jewish Question] (1933 and 1934). At the heart of this paper is a critical engagement with Die Judenfrage, the first in English. Putting Die Judenfrage into dialogue with Kittel’s 1946, Meine Verteidigung [My Defence] (1945-6) exposes the remarkable consistency of Kittel’s idiosyncratic but closely argued Christian theology of antisemitism. Girdling his career as a foremost theologian, antisemite and enthusiastic supporter of Hitler and the NSDAP, the consistency between Die Judenfrage and Meine Verteidigung attests Kittel’s consistent and authentic, intellectual position. In both texts, he claims to be advancing Christian, as opposed to “vulgar” or racial, antisemitism. Yet, in the thirteen years which divide them, Kittel had mediated contact with Nazi illuminati Rudolph Hess, Alfred Rosenberg, Winnifred Wagner, Josef Goebbels and Baldur von Schirach, through his publications in various antisemitic journals. The paper argues: Die Judenfrage, as both a text and as a theme, is axiomatic to Kittel’s defence statement; and that Die Judenfrage constitutes the template of Kittel’s arcane, personal “Christian” antisemitism of which Meine Verteidigung is a faithful impression. Both are constructed on the same theologically chimeric and abstruse hypotheses regarding Volk, Spätjudentum [late Judaism] and Heilgeschichte [salvation history]. Problematising these and other definitional vagaries that make up Kittel’s “Christian” antisemitism highlight the remarkable theoretical consistency between Die Judenfrage and Meine Verteidigung. It is concluded that a deadly synergy of Nazi racial antisemitism and the New Testament antisemitism shaped Kittel’s judgement to the degree that, despite the slipstream of concentration camp footage which was shaking the foundations of post-war German academia, Meine Verteidigung is a simple restatement of the antisemitsm conveyed in Die Judenfrage.

Keywords: Gerhard Kittel, Third Reich theology, the Jewish Question, Nazi antisemitism

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304 Effective Parameter Selection for Audio-Based Music Mood Classification for Christian Kokborok Song: A Regression-Based Approach

Authors: Sanchali Das, Swapan Debbarma

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Music mood classification is developing in both the areas of music information retrieval (MIR) and natural language processing (NLP). Some of the Indian languages like Hindi English etc. have considerable exposure in MIR. But research in mood classification in regional language is very less. In this paper, powerful audio based feature for Kokborok Christian song is identified and mood classification task has been performed. Kokborok is an Indo-Burman language especially spoken in the northeastern part of India and also some other countries like Bangladesh, Myanmar etc. For performing audio-based classification task, useful audio features are taken out by jMIR software. There are some standard audio parameters are there for the audio-based task but as known to all that every language has its unique characteristics. So here, the most significant features which are the best fit for the database of Kokborok song is analysed. The regression-based model is used to find out the independent parameters that act as a predictor and predicts the dependencies of parameters and shows how it will impact on overall classification result. For classification WEKA 3.5 is used, and selected parameters create a classification model. And another model is developed by using all the standard audio features that are used by most of the researcher. In this experiment, the essential parameters that are responsible for effective audio based mood classification and parameters that do not significantly change for each of the Christian Kokborok songs are analysed, and a comparison is also shown between the two above model.

Keywords: Christian Kokborok song, mood classification, music information retrieval, regression

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303 A Pragma-Rhetorical Study of Christian Religious Pentecostal Sermons in Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Alaba Akinwotu

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Effectiveness in communication requires the deployment of pragmatic and rhetorical strategies in religious sermons. In spite of high volume of works in religious discourse, scholars have not adequately accounted for the persuasive and argumentation strategies employed in Christian religious Pentecostal sermons. This study examines communicative intentions and the pragma-rhetorical strategies deployed to maintain balance and effectiveness in selected sermons of Pastor E. A. Adeboye, Bishop D. Oyedepo and Pastor W. F. Kumuyi. Fifteen sermons, delivered orally and transcribed into the written mode, were selected and analysed using Jacob Mey’s theory of pragmeme, Aristotle’s rhetoric and the theory of argumentation by van Eemeren and Grootendorst. Speakers pract stating, encouraging, assuring, warning, condemning, directing, praising, thanking, etc. through rhetorical question, repetition, direct address, direct command and structural parallelism. They assume divine role by speaking authoritatively and they tactically and logically select words to legitimise their ideology. They also categorise and portray individuals and/or issues either as good or bad, sinner/sin or righteous/righteousness, etc. The study provides clearer insight into the pragmatic import and the communicative effectiveness of Christian Pentecostal sermons. Further research can juxtapose the pragma-rhetorical and argumentation strategies of preachers of two clearly differentiated movements within the Christian religion.

Keywords: argumentation, communicative intentions, pentecostal sermons, pragmeme, rhetoric

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302 Urban Refugees and Education in Developing Countries

Authors: Sheraz Akhtar

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In recent years, a massive influx of refugees into developing countries has placed significant constraints on the host government’s capacities to provide social services, including education, to all. As a result, the refugee communities often find themselves deprived of their rights to education in these host countries, particularly for those who to live outside camps in urban locations. While previous research has examined the educational experiences of refugees who have resettled in developed nations, there remains a dearth of research on the educational experiences of urban refugees in developing nations. This study examines this issue through a case study of Pakistani Christian refugees living in urban settings in Thailand. Using a combination of observations within community learning centres set up by international non-government organisations (INGOs) working with these communities, and interviews with young Pakistani Christian refugees and their families, the research aims to give greater voice to the Pakistani Christian refugee community living in Thailand, and better understand their educational aspirations.

Keywords: Education, Developing Countries , INGOs, Urban Refugees

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301 Liturgical Elements and Symbolism of Light in Christian Sacred Space

Authors: Zorana Sokol Gojnik, Igor Gojnik, Marina Simunic Bursic

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The light is one of the major themes of theology of sacred space. Christian theology, but also architecture in its complexity, is permeated by the symbolism of light from its beginning. The aim of this paper is to deeply analyse the symbolism of light in every single element of contemporary Christian sacred space such as altar, ambo, baptistery, tabernacle, confessionals, stations of the cross, etc. The research will be carried out using the methodology of research of literature and comparatively observation of contemporary examples of sacred architecture. The research will use the insights of analyzed literature and examples of sacred architecture in order to describe the background of the problem as well as to complement the received results with the reliable scientific findings. The paper will highlight the importance of symbolic and theological points of view in contemporary church design using the light as a building part of every single part of sacred architecture as there is an insight that, in contemporary sacred architecture, there is a lack of understanding of symbolic and theological aspect of light while designing new sacred spaces.

Keywords: architecture, liturgy, sacred architecture, theology of space

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300 Velocity Distribution in Density Currents Flowing over Rough Beds

Authors: Reza Nasrollahpour, Mohamad Hidayat Bin Jamal, Zulhilmi Bin Ismail

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Density currents are generated when the fluid of one density is released into another fluid with a different density. These currents occur in a variety of natural and man-made environments, and this emphasises the importance of studying them. In most practical cases, the density currents flow over the surfaces which are not plane; however, there have been limited investigations in this regard. This study uses laboratory experiments to analyse the influence of bottom roughness on the velocity distribution within these dense underflows. The currents are analysed over a plane surface and three different configurations of beam-roughened beds. The velocity profiles are collected using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry technique, and the distribution of velocity within these currents is formulated for the tested beds. The results indicate that the empirical power and Gaussian relations can describe the velocity distribution in the inner and outer regions of the profiles, respectively. Moreover, it is found that the bottom roughness is the primary controlling parameter in the inner region.

Keywords: density currents, velocity profiles, Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, bed roughness

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299 Well-Being in the Workplace: Do Christian Leaders Behave Differently?

Authors: Mariateresa Torchia, Helene Cristini, Hannele Kauppinen

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Leadership plays a vital role in organizations. Leaders provide directions and facilitate the processes that enable organizations to achieve their goals and objectives. However, while productivity and financial objectives are often given the greatest emphasis, leaders also have the responsibility for instituting standards of ethical conduct and moral values that guide the behavior of employees. Leaders’ behaviors such as support, empowerment and a high-quality relationship with their employees might not only prevent stress, but also improve employees’ stress coping meanwhile contributing to their affective well-being. Stemming from Girard’s Mimetic Theory, this study aims at understanding how leaders can foster well-being in organizations. To do so, we explore which is the role leaders play in conflict management, resentment management and negative emotions dissipation. Furthermore, we examine whether and to what extent religiosity impacts the way in which leaders operate in relation to employees’ well-being. Indeed, given that organizational values are crucial to ethical behavior and firms’ values may be steeled by a deep sense of spirituality and religious identification, there is a need to take a closer look at the role religion and spirituality play in influencing the way leaders impact employees’ well-being. Thus, religion might work as an overarching logic that provides a set of principles guiding leaders’ everyday practices and relations with employees. We answer our research questions using a qualitative approach. We interviewed 27 Christian leaders (members of the Christian Entrepreneurs and Leaders Association – EDC, a non-profit organization created in 1926 including 3,000 French Christian Leaders & Entrepreneurs). Our results show that well-being can have a different meaning in relation to the type of companies, size, culture, country of analysis. Moreover the values and believes of leaders influence the way they see and foster well-being among employees. Furthermore, leaders can have both a positive or negative impact on well-being. Indeed on the one side, they could increase well-being in the company while on the other hand, they could be the source of resentment and conflicts among employees. Finally, we observed that Christian leaders possess characteristics that are sometimes missing in leaders (humility, inability to compare with others, attempt to be coherent with their values and beliefs, interest in the common good instead of the personal interest, having tougher dilemmas, collectively undertaking the firm). Moreover the Christian leader believes that the common good should come before personal interest. In other words, to them, not only short –termed profit shouldn’t guide strategical decisions but also leaders should feel responsible for their employees’ well-being. Last but not least, the study is not an apologia of Christian, yet it discusses the implications of these values through the light of Girard’s mimetic theory for both theory and practice.

Keywords: Christian leaders, employees well-being, leadership, mimetic theory

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298 Techno-Apocalypse in Christian End-Time Literature

Authors: Sean O'Callaghan

Abstract:

Around 2011/2012, a whole new genre of Christian religious writing began to emerge, focused on the role of advanced technologies, particularly the GRIN technologies (Genetics, Robotics, Information Technology and Nanotechnology), in bringing about a techno-apocalypse, leading to catastrophic events which would usher in the end of the world. This genre, at first niche, has now begun to grow in significance in many quarters of the more fundamentalist and biblically literalist branches of evangelicalism. It approaches science and technology with more than extreme skepticism. It accuses transhumanists of being in league with satanic powers and a satanic agenda and contextualizes transhumanist scientific progress in terms of its service to what it believes to be a soon to come Antichrist figure. The genre has moved beyond literature and videos about its message can be found on YouTube and other forums, where many of the presentations there get well over a quarter of a million views. This paper will examine the genre and its genesis, referring to the key figures involved in spreading the anti-intellectualist and anti-scientific message. It will demonstrate how this genre of writing is similar in many respects to other forms of apocalyptic writing which have emerged in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, all in response to both scientific and political events which are interpreted in the light of biblical prophecy. It will also set the genre in the context of a contemporary pre-occupation with conspiracy theory. The conclusions of the research conducted in this field by the author are that it does a grave disservice to both the scientific and Christian audiences which it targets, by misrepresenting scientific advances and by creating a hermeneutic of suspicion which makes it impossible for Christians to place their trust in scientific claims.

Keywords: antichrist, catastrophic, Christian, techno-apocalypse

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297 Towards Understanding the Notions of Quality Education among Internationally-Accredited Christian Schools in Southeast Asia

Authors: Selaphares Jatico Tajale

Abstract:

This research aims to understand the notions of quality education by conducting case studies among internationally-accredited Christian schools in Southeast Asia. Five internationally-accredited Christian schools from Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, and Singapore will be chosen as cases for this study. This study will utilize the processes of interviews, filling up of questionnaires, and writing of reflections in order to obtain data and relevant information. These processes will be conducted through multi-sectoral respondents such as administrators, academic heads, and faculty. This study employs five aspects within the realm of education as guides in the formulation of questionnaire and guide questions in the interview, namely: a) school context, b) classroom, c) quality assurance, d) stakeholders, e) faculty and staff. Guide interview questions and questions in the questionnaires are formulated to uncover information on how those five aspects were managed to achieve desired student learning outcomes and uncover other information useful for the study.

Keywords: internationally-accredited, notions of quality education, quality education, quality education in Southeast Asia

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296 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-To-Olefins Process

Authors: Yongzheng Li, Hongfang Ma, Qiwen Sun, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1 m tall methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The measurement of axial levels was conducted in the full developed region. The effect of axial level on flow development was not obvious under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons between upward, downward and average particle velocity were conducted. The average particle velocity was close to upward velocity and higher than downward velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.

Keywords: circulating fluidized bed, laser doppler velocimeter, particle velocity, radial profile

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295 Anesthetic Considerations for Carotid Endarterectomy: Prospective Study Based on Clinical Trials

Authors: Ahmed Yousef A. Al Sultan

Abstract:

Introduction: The aim of this review is based on clinical research that studies the changes in middle cerebral artery velocity using Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and cerebral oxygen saturation using cerebral oximetry in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) surgery under local anesthesia (LA). Patients with or without neurological symptoms during the surgery are taking a role in this study using triplet method of cerebral oximetry, transcranial doppler and awake test in detecting any cerebral ischemic symptoms. Methods: about one hundred patients took part during their CEA surgeries under local anesthesia, using triple assessment mentioned method, Patients requiring general anesthesia be excluded from analysis. All data were recorded at eight surgery stages separately to serve this study. Results: In total regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocity, and pulsatility index were significantly decreased during carotid artery clamping step in CEA procedures on the targeted carotid side. With most observed changes in MCA velocity during the study. Discussion: Cerebral oxygen saturation and middle cerebral artery velocity were significantly decreased during clamping step of the procedures on the targeted side. The team with neurological symptoms during the procedures showed higher changes of rSO2 and MCA velocity than the team without neurological symptoms. Cerebral rSO2 and MCA velocity significantly increased directly after de-clamping of the internal carotid artery on the affected side.

Keywords: awake testing, carotid endarterectomy, cerebral oximetry, Tanscranial Doppler

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294 Automatic Classification of the Stand-to-Sit Phase in the TUG Test Using Machine Learning

Authors: Yasmine Abu Adla, Racha Soubra, Milana Kasab, Mohamad O. Diab, Aly Chkeir

Abstract:

Over the past several years, researchers have shown a great interest in assessing the mobility of elderly people to measure their functional status. Usually, such an assessment is done by conducting tests that require the subject to walk a certain distance, turn around, and finally sit back down. Consequently, this study aims to provide an at home monitoring system to assess the patient’s status continuously. Thus, we proposed a technique to automatically detect when a subject sits down while walking at home. In this study, we utilized a Doppler radar system to capture the motion of the subjects. More than 20 features were extracted from the radar signals, out of which 11 were chosen based on their intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC > 0.75). Accordingly, the sequential floating forward selection wrapper was applied to further narrow down the final feature vector. Finally, 5 features were introduced to the linear discriminant analysis classifier, and an accuracy of 93.75% was achieved as well as a precision and recall of 95% and 90%, respectively.

Keywords: Doppler radar system, stand-to-sit phase, TUG test, machine learning, classification

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293 Indian Christian View of God: Exploring Its Trajectory in 20th Century

Authors: James Ponniah

Abstract:

Christianity is the largest religious tradition of the world. What makes Christianity a world religion is its characteristics of universality and particularity. Its universality and particularity are closely interrelated. Its university is realized and embodied in its particularities and its particularity is recognized and legitimized through its universality. This paper focuses on the dimension of the particularity of Christianity in that it looks at the particularized ideas and discourses of Christian thinking in India in the 20th century and pays attention to the differing shifts and new shades of meaning in Indian Christian notion of God. Drawing upon the writings of select Indian theologians such as Brahmabandhab Upadhyaya, Sundar Sing, A.J Appasamy, Raymond Panikkar, Amalorpavadass and George Soares Prabhhu, this paper delves into how the contexts—be it personal, political, historical or ecclesial—bear upon the way Indian theologians have conceived and constructed the notion of God in their work. Focusing upon how they responded to the signs of their time through their theological narratives, the paper argues that the religion of Christianity can sustain its universality only when it translates its key notions such as God into indigenous categories and local idioms and thus makes itself relevant to the people among whom it is spread. Monotheistic God of Christianity has to accommodate plurality of expressions if Christian idea God has to capture and convey everyone’s experience of God. The case of Indian Christianity then reveals that a monolithic world religion will be experienced and recognised as truly universal only when it sheds its homogeneity and assumes a heterogeneous portrait through the acquisition of local idioms. Allowing culturally diverse idioms to influence theological categories is not inconsequential to—‘accommodating differences and accepting diversities,’ an issue we encounter within and beyond religious domains in our contemporary times.

Keywords: concept of God, heterogeneity, Indian Christianity, indigenous categories

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