Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Chibundu N. Ezekiel

23 Advances in Health Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins in Africa

Authors: Wilfred A. Abiaa, Chibundu N. Ezekiel, Benedikt Warth, Michael Sulyok, Paul C. Turner, Rudolf Krska, Paul F. Moundipa

Abstract:

Mycotoxins are a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate various food commodities worldwide especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Such contamination seriously compromises food safety and quality posing a serious problem for human health as well as to trade and the economy. Their concentrations depend on various factors, such as the commodity itself, climatic conditions, storage conditions, seasonal variances, and processing methods. When humans consume foods contaminated by mycotoxins, they exert toxic effects to their health through various modes of actions. Rural populations in sub-Saharan Africa, are exposed to dietary mycotoxins, but it is supposed that exposure levels and health risks associated with mycotoxins between SSA countries may vary. Dietary exposures and health risk assessment studies have been limited by lack of equipment for the proper assessment of the associated health implications on consumer populations when they eat contaminated agricultural products. As such, mycotoxin research is premature in several SSA nations with product evaluation for mycotoxin loads below/above legislative limits being inadequate. Few nations have health risk assessment reports mainly based on direct quantification of the toxins in foods ('external exposure') and linking food levels with data from food frequency questionnaires. Nonetheless, the assessment of the exposure and health risk to mycotoxins requires more than the traditional approaches. Only a fraction of the mycotoxins in contaminated foods reaches the blood stream and exert toxicity ('internal exposure'). Also, internal exposure is usually smaller than external exposure thus dependence on external exposure alone may induce confounders in risk assessment. Some studies from SSA earlier focused on biomarker analysis mainly on aflatoxins while a few recent studies have concentrated on the multi-biomarker analysis of exposures in urine providing probable associations between observed disease occurrences and dietary mycotoxins levels. As a result, new techniques that could assess the levels of exposures directly in body tissue or fluid, and possibly link them to the disease state of individuals became urgent.

Keywords: mycotoxins, biomarkers, exposure assessment, health risk assessment, sub-Saharan Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
22 WebGIS Development Framework With Prioritized Usability Elements

Authors: Ezekiel Mwangi, Stephen Kimani, Agnes Mindila

Abstract:

Usability is one of the key factors that determine the success or failure of any WebGIS (technology normally applied on the internet to analyze and present spatial data on the Internet). However, not all the usability attributes have the same impact on usability. It is, therefore, necessary to prioritize WebGIS usability elements and determine the ones that are more crucial to the success of the WebGIS. This research aims to identify the main elements of WebGIS usability, investigate the order of importance and priority of the usability elements of WebGIS, and propose a WebGIS development framework that incorporates the prioritization of the usability elements. This will be achieved through a literature review. The outcome of this research will help usability specialists and WebGIS developers in determining specific usability elements that should be accorded more emphasis during the design and development of WebGIS.

Keywords: framework, prioritization, usability, WebGIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
21 Multi-Resistant Enterobacter Cloacae Dacryocystitis and Preseptal Cellulitis: Case and Review of Literature

Authors: Michael Kvopka, Ezekiel Kingston

Abstract:

A 61-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented to a quaternary ophthalmic referral center with acute right-sided medial canthal pain, periorbital edema, and erythema despite oral antibiotic therapy. CT imaging confirmed the presence of right preseptal cellulitis and lacrimal sac aspiration identified multi-resistant Enterobacter cloacae. A diagnosis of acute right-sided dacryocystitis with preseptal cellulitis was made. He was successfully treated with broadening of antibiotic therapy to intravenous meropenem. The symptomatic resolution was noted on follow-up without evidence of disease recurrence. To the Authors’ best knowledge, this is the first reported case of multi-resistant E. cloacae dacryocystitis and preseptal cellulitis. The management of this patient required a multi-disciplinary approach, so the Authors believe this report is relevant to general ophthalmologists and oculoplastic sub-specialists.

Keywords: enterobacter, dacryocystitis, preseptal cellulitis, antibiotic resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
20 Integrated Geotechnical and Geophysical Investigation of a Proposed Construction Site at Mowe, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Kayode Festus Oyedele, Sunday Oladele, Adaora Chibundu Nduka

Abstract:

The subsurface of a proposed site for building development in Mowe, Nigeria, using Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT) supplemented with Horizontal Electrical Profiling (HEP) was investigated with the aim of evaluating the suitability of the strata for foundation materials. Four SPT and CPT were implemented using 10 tonnes hammer. HEP utilizing Wenner array were performed with inter-electrode spacing of 10 – 60 m along four traverses coincident with each of the SPT and CPT. The HEP data were processed using DIPRO software and textural filtering of the resulting resistivity sections was implemented to enable delineation of hidden layers. Sandy lateritic clay, silty lateritic clay, clay, clayey sand and sand horizons were delineated. The SPT “N” value defined very soft to soft sandy lateritic (<4), stiff silty lateritic clay (7 – 12), very stiff silty clay (12 - 15), clayey sand (15- 20) and sand (27 – 37). Sandy lateritic clay (5-40 kg/cm2) and silty lateritic clay (25 - 65 kg/cm2) were defined from the CPT response. Sandy lateritic clay (220-750 Ωm), clay (< 50 Ωm) and sand (415-5359 Ωm) were delineated from the resistivity sections with two thin layers of silty lateritic clay and clayey sand defined in the texturally filtered resistivity sections. This study concluded that the presence of incompetent thick clayey materials (18 m) beneath the study area makes it unsuitable for shallow foundation. Deep foundation involving piling through the clayey layers to the competent sand at 20 m depth was recommended.

Keywords: cone penetrometer, foundation, lithologic texture, resistivity section, standard penetration test

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
19 Solid State Fermentation of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Seed to Produce Food Condiment

Authors: Olufunke O. Ezekiel, Adenike O. Ogunshe, Omotola F. Olagunju, Arinola O. Falola

Abstract:

Studies were conducted on fermentation of tamarind seed for production of food condiment. Fermentation followed the conventional traditional method of fermented locust bean (iru) production and was carried out over a period of three days (72 hours). Samples were withdrawn and analysed for proximate composition, pH, titratable acidity, tannin content, phytic acid content and trypsin inhibitor activity using standard methods. Effects of fermentation on proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors and sensory properties of the seed were evaluated. All data were analysed using ANOVA and means separated using Duncan multiple range test. Microbiological analysis to identify and characterize the microflora responsible for the fermentation of the seed was also carried out. Fermentation had significant effect on the proximate composition on the fermented seeds. As fermentation progressed, there was significant reduction in the anti-nutrient contents. Organisms isolated from the fermenting tamarind seeds were identified as non-pathogenic and common with fermented legumes.

Keywords: condiment, fermentation, legume, tamarind seed

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
18 Functional, Pasting and Colour Characteristics of OGI (A Fermented Maize Meal) as Affected by Stage of Moringa Seed Inclusion

Authors: Olajide Emmanuel Adedeji, Olufunke O. Ezekiel

Abstract:

Moringa seed (20%) was incorporated into ogi (80%) at different stages in the flow line of ogi flour. Functional, pasting and L*a*b* colour characteristics of the samples were determined using standard methods. Loose and packed bulk densities ranged from 0.32 to 0.39 g/cm3 and 0.57 to 0.70 g/cm3 respectively. 100% ogi flour had the lowest values in both parameters. Water absorption and swelling capacities of the samples ranged from 0.89 to 1.80 ml/g and from 5.81 to 6.99 respectively. Pasting viscosity ranged from 870.33 RVU to 4660.67 RVU with the sample produced through the incorporation of full fat moringa seed flour during souring stage and 100% ogi flour having the least and highest values respectively. Stage of moringa seed inclusion also had effect on the trough, breakdown and final viscosity of the samples. The range of values obtained for these pasting parameters were 599.33-2940.00 RVU, 271.00-1720.67 RVU and 840.00-5451.67 RVU respectively. There was no significant difference (p≥ 0.05) in L*(a measure of whiteness) among the co fermented, blend of ogi and full fat moringa flours, blend of ogi and defatted moringa flour and 100% ogi flour samples. Low values were recorded for these samples in a* (measure of redness), b* (measure of yellowness) and colour intensity.

Keywords: stage of inclusion, functional property, ogi, moringa seed

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
17 Managing Construction Wastes in Nigeria for Sustainable Development

Authors: Ezekiel Ejiofor Nnadi

Abstract:

Nigeria construction industry is known for its active construction activities. This has earmarked the industry to be the key to economic growth of the nation. It has largest employer of labour and gives sustenance to other industries like manufacturing industry. While this is a sign of growth and prosperity; the waste generated by the industry has always been a problem and a serious concern. It results in wastage of economic gain and has resultant health effect on the populace apart from injury being sustained on sites. This work provides a platform to learn more about construction waste, its management strategy and how to reduce waste production in Nigeria construction industry. Construction sites, waste management authority and public health institutions in Lagos as the centre of most construction activities in Nigeria were selected, and a set of questionnaire was administered to using the systematic sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and relative importance index (RII) technique were employed for the analysis of the data gathered. The findings of the analysis show that excessive wastes reduce contractors’ profit margin and also that some construction wastes contain hazardous and toxic elements such as lead, asbestos or radioactive materials which required proper handling and effective disposal. The conclusion was drawn that the check on waste on construction sites starts with the designers to the contractors who execute on site.

Keywords: construction cost, construction industry, economic growth, materials wastes

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
16 Stress and Coping Strategies: A Correlational Analysis to Profiling Maladaptive Behaviors at Work

Authors: Silvia Riva, Ezekiel Chinyio

Abstract:

Introduction: Workers in different sectors are prone to stress at varying levels. They also respond to stress in different ways. An inspiration was to study stress development amongst workers in a work dangerous setting (Construction Industry) as well as how they cope with specific stress incidences. Objective: The overarching objective of the study was to study and correlate between stress and coping strategies. The research was conducted in an organizational industrial setting, and its findings on the coping actions of construction workers are reported in this article. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted with 80 participants aged 18-62. These were working for three different construction organizations in the West Midland region of the UK. Their coping actions were assessed using the COPE Inventory (Carver, 2013) instrument while the level of stress was assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, 1994). Results: Out of 80 workers (20 female, 25%, mean age 40.66), positive reinterpretation (M=4.15, SD=2.60) and active coping (M=4.18, SD=2.55) were the two most adaptive strategies reported by the workers while the most frequent maladaptive behavior was mental disengagement (M=3.62, SD=2.25). Among the maladaptive tactics, alcohol and drug abuse was a significant moderator in stress reactions (t=6.12, p=.000). Conclusion: Some maladaptive strategies are adopted by construction workers to cope with stress. So, it could be argued that programs of stress prevention and control in the construction industry have a basis to develop solutions that can improve and strengthen effective interventions when workers are stressed or getting stressed.

Keywords: coping, organization, strategies, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
15 Extreme Value Modelling of Ghana Stock Exchange Indices

Authors: Kwabena Asare, Ezekiel N. N. Nortey, Felix O. Mettle

Abstract:

Modelling of extreme events has always been of interest in fields such as hydrology and meteorology. However, after the recent global financial crises, appropriate models for modelling of such rare events leading to these crises have become quite essential in the finance and risk management fields. This paper models the extreme values of the Ghana Stock Exchange All-Shares indices (2000-2010) by applying the Extreme Value Theory to fit a model to the tails of the daily stock returns data. A conditional approach of the EVT was preferred and hence an ARMA-GARCH model was fitted to the data to correct for the effects of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedastic terms present in the returns series, before EVT method was applied. The Peak Over Threshold (POT) approach of the EVT, which fits a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model to excesses above a certain selected threshold, was employed. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters were obtained and the model’s goodness of fit was assessed graphically using Q-Q, P-P and density plots. The findings indicate that the GPD provides an adequate fit to the data of excesses. The size of the extreme daily Ghanaian stock market movements were then computed using the Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) risk measures at some high quantiles, based on the fitted GPD model.

Keywords: extreme value theory, expected shortfall, generalized pareto distribution, peak over threshold, value at risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
14 Impacts of Teachers’ Cluster Model Meeting Intervention on Pupils’ Learning, Academic Achievement and Attitudinal Development in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

Abstract:

Efforts at improving the falling standard of education in the country call for the need-based assessment of the primary tier of education in Nigeria. Teachers’ cluster meeting intervention is a step towards enhancing the teachers’ professional competency, efficient and effective pupils’ academic achievement and attitudinal development. The study thus determined the impact of the intervention on pupils’ achievement in Oyo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. Pre-test, post-test control group, quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. Eight intact classes from eight different schools were randomly selected into treatment and control groups. Two response instruments, pupils academic achievement test (PAAT; r = 0.87) and pupils attitude to lesson scale (PALS; r = 0.80) were used for data collection. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyse the collected data. The results showed that the teachers’ cluster meeting have significant impact on pupils academic achievement (F (1,327) =41.79; p<0.05) and attitudinal development (F (1,327) =26.01; p<0.05) in the core subjects of primary schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study therefore recommended among others that teachers’ cluster meeting should be sustained for teachers’ professional development and pupils’ upgradement in the State.

Keywords: teachers’ cluster meeting, pupils’ academic achievement, pupils’ attitudinal development, academic achievement

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
13 A Discourse on the Rhythmic Pattern Employed in Yoruba Sakara Music of Nigeria

Authors: Oludare Olupemi Ezekiel

Abstract:

This research examines the rhythmic structure of Sakara music by tracing its roots and analyzing the various rhythmic patterns of this neo-traditional genre, as well as the contributions of the major exponents and contemporary practitioners, using these as a model for understanding and establishing African rhythms. Biography of the major exponents and contemporary practitioners, interviews and participant observational methods were used to elicit information. Samples of the genre which were chosen at random were transcribed, notated and analyzed for academic use and documentation. The research affirmed that rhythms such as the Hemiola, Cross-rhythm, Clave or Bell rhythm, Percussive, Speech and Melodic rhythm and other relevant rhythmic theories were prevalent and applicable to Sakara music, while making important contributions to musical scholarship through its analysis of the music. The analysis and discussions carried out in the research pointed towards a conclusion that the Yoruba musicians are guided by some preconceptions and sound musical considerations in making their rhythmic patterns, used as compositional techniques and not mere incidental occurrence. These rhythmic patterns, with its consequential socio-cultural connotations, enhance musical values and national identity in Nigeria. The study concludes by recommending that musicologists need to carry out more research into this and other neo-traditional genres in order to advance the globalisation of African music.

Keywords: compositional techniques, globalisation, identity, neo-traditional, rhythmic theory, Sakara music

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
12 Growth and Anatomical Responses of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomatoes) under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions

Authors: Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Joseph Omojola, Ezekiel S. Joshua, Seyi C. Adediwura, Elijah T. Adesuji, Michael O. Odey, Oyinade A. Dedeke, Ayo H. Labulo

Abstract:

Microgravity is known to be a major abiotic stress in space which affects plants depending on the duration of exposure. In this work, tomatoes seeds were exposed to long hours of simulated microgravity condition using a one-axis clinostat. The seeds were sown on a 1.5% combination of plant nutrient and agar-agar solidified medium in three Petri dishes. One of the Petri dishes was mounted on the clinostat and allowed to rotate at the speed of 20 rpm for 72 hours, while the others were subjected to the normal gravity vector. The anatomical sections of both clinorotated and normal gravity plants were made after 72 hours and observed using a Phase-contrast digital microscope. The percentage germination, as well as the growth rate of the normal gravity seeds, was higher than the clinorotated ones. The germinated clinorotated roots followed different directions unlike the normal gravity ones which grew towards the direction of gravity vector. The clinostat was able to switch off gravistimulation. Distinct cellular arrangement was observed for tomatoes under normal gravity condition, unlike those of clinorotated ones. The root epidermis and cortex of normal gravity are thicker than the clinorotated ones. This implied that under long-term microgravity influence, plants do alter their anatomical features as a way of adapting to the stress condition.

Keywords: anatomy, clinostat, germination, lycopersicon esculentum, microgravity

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
11 Detection and Dissemination of Putative Virulence Genes from Brucella Species Isolated from Livestock in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

Authors: Rudzani Manafe, Ezekiel Green

Abstract:

Brucella, has many different virulence factors that act as a causative agent of brucellosis, depending on the environment and other factors, some factors may play a role more than others during infection and as a result, play a role in becoming a causative agent for pathogenesis. Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus are considered to be pathogenic to humans. The genetic regularity of nine potential causes of virulence of two Brucella species in Eastern Cape livestock have been examined. A hundred and twenty isolates obtained from Molecular Pathogenesis and Molecular Epidemiology Research Group (MPMERG) were used for this study. All isolates were grown on Brucella agar medium. Nine primer pairs were used for the detection of virB2, virB5, vceC, btpA, btpB, prpA, betB, bpe275, and bspB virulence factors using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Approximately 100% was observed for genes BecC and BetB from B. arbotus. While the lowest gene observed was PrpA at 4.6% from B. arbotus. BetB was detected in 34.7%, while virB2 and prpA (0%) were not detected in B. melitensis. The results from this research suggest that most isolates of Brucella have virulence-related genes associated with disease pathogenesis. Finally, our findings showed that Brucella strains in the Eastern Cape Province are extremely virulent as virulence characteristics exist in most strains investigated.

Keywords: putative virulence genes, brucella, polymerase chain reaction, milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
10 Analysis of Basic Science Curriculum as Correlates of Secondary School Students' Achievement in Science Test in Oyo State

Authors: Olubiyi Johnson Ezekiel

Abstract:

Basic science curriculum is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of manner to produce individuals in a holistic and integrated person, who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious. The main focus of this study is to determine the relationship between students’ achievement in junior school certificate examination (JSCE) and senior school basic science achievement test (SSBSAT) on the basis of all the components of basic science. The study employed the descriptive research of the survey type and utilized junior school certificate examination and senior school basic science achievement test(r = .87) scores as instruments. The data collected were subjected to Pearson product moment correlation, Spearman rank correlation, regression analysis and analysis of variance. The result of the finding revealed that the mean effects of the achievement in all the components of basic science on SSBSAT are significantly different from zero. Based on the results of the findings, it was concluded that the relationship between students’ achievement in JSCE and SSBSAT was weak and to achieve a unit increase in the students’ achievement in the SSBSAT when other subjects are held constant, we have to increase the learning of: -physics by 0.081 units; -chemistry by 0.072 units; -biology by 0.025 units and general knowledge by 0.097 units. It was recommended among others, that general knowledge aspect of basic science should be included in either physics or chemistry aspect of basic science.

Keywords: basic science curriculum, students’ achievement, science test, secondary school students

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
9 Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Ladele Ademola A., Nkiru T. Meludu, Olufunke Ezekiel, Olaoye Taye F., Okanlowan Oluwatoyin M.

Abstract:

Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and micro-enterprises of sweet potato production. The study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two methods. The first method involved the use of a fabricated gas powered cabinet dryer to dry sulphited chips and the second method was the use of traditional sun drying method without the addition of the chemical. The blends were also assessed in terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40 of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100% sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100% Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet potato/ yellow maize). In addition, chemical analysis carried out revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and Iron in the blended products.

Keywords: blends, diversification, sensory evaluation, sweet potato, utilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
8 Computer Assisted Instructions for a Better Achievement in and Attitude towards Agricultural Economics

Authors: Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina, Alice M. Olagunju

Abstract:

This study determined the effects of Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI) and Academic Self-Concepts (ASC) on pre-service teachers’ achievement in AE concepts in CoE in Southwest, Nigeria. The study adopted pretest-posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design. Six CoE with e-library facilities were purposively selected. Two hundred and thirty-two intact 200 level Agricultural education students offering introduction to AE course across the six CoE were participants. The participants were assigned to three groups (D&PM, 77, TM, 73 and control, 82). Treatment lasted eight weeks. The AE achievement test (r=0.76), pre-service teachers’ ASC Scale (r=0.81); instructional guides for tutorial (r=0.76), drill and practice (r=0.81) and conventional lecture modes (r=0.83), and teacher performance assessment sheet were used for data collection. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance and Scheffe post-hoc at 0.05 level of significance. The participants were 55.6% female with mean age of 20.8 years. Treatment had significant main effects on pre-service teachers’ achievement (F(2,207)=60.52; η²=0.21; p < 0.05). Participants in D&PM (x̄ =27.83) had the best achievement compared to those in TM (x̄ =25.41) and control (x̄ =18.64) groups. ASC had significant main effect on pre-service teachers’ achievement (F(1,207)=22.011; η²=0.166; p < 0.05). Participants with high ASC (x̄ =27.52) had better achievement compared to those with low ASC (x̄ =22.37). The drill and practice and tutorial instructional modes enhanced students’ achievement in Agricultural Economics concepts. Therefore, the two instructional modes should be adopted for improved learning outcomes in agricultural economics concepts among pre-service teachers.

Keywords: achievement in agricultural economics concepts, colleges of education in southwestern Nigeria, computer-assisted instruction, drill and practice instructional mode, tutorial instructional mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
7 Impacts of Computer Assisted Instruction and Gender on High-Flyers Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude towards Agricultural Economics in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Alice Morenike Olagunju, Olufemi A. Fakolade, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Oriyomi Rabiu

Abstract:

The use of computer-assisted instruction(CAI) has been suggested as a way out of the problem of Colleges of Education (CoE) in Southwest, Nigeria persistent high failure rate in and negative attitude towards Agricultural Economics (AE).The impacts of this are yet unascertained on high-flyers. This study, therefore, determined the impacts of CAI onhigh-flyers pre-service teachers’ attitude towards AE concepts in Southwest, Nigeria. The study adopted pretest-posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design. Six CoE with e-library facilities were purposively selected. Fourty-nine 200 level Agricultural education students offering introduction to AE course across the six CoE were participants. The participants were assigned to two groups (CAI, 22 and control, 27). Treatment lasted eight weeks. The AE Attitude Scale(r=0.80), Instructional guides and Teacher Performance Assessment Sheets were used for data collection. Data were analysed using t-test. The participants were 62.8% male with mean age of 22 years. Treatment had significant effects on high-flyers pre-service teachers’ attitude (t = 17.44; df = 47, p < .5). Participants in CAI ( =71.03) had higher post attitude mean score compared to those in control ( = 64.92) groups. Gender had no significant effect on attitude (t= 3.06; df= 47, p > .5). The computer assisted instructional mode enhanced students’ attitude towards Agricultural Economics concepts. Therefore, CAI should be adopted for improved attitude towards agricultural economics concepts among high-flyers pre-service teachers.

Keywords: attitude towards agricultural economics concepts, colleges of education in southwest Nigeria, computer-assisted instruction, high-flyers pre-service teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
6 Efficacy of Computer Mediated Power Point Presentations on Students' Learning Outcomes in Basic Science in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Sunmaila Oyetunji Raimi, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

Abstract:

The lingering poor performance of students in basic science spells doom for a vibrant scientific and technological development which pivoted the economic, social and physical upliftment of any nation. This calls for identifying appropriate strategies for imparting basic science knowledge and attitudes to the teaming youths in secondary schools. This study, therefore, determined the impact of computer mediated power point presentations on students’ achievement in basic science in Oyo State, Nigeria. A pre-test, posttest, control group quazi-experimental design adopted for the study. Two hundred and five junior secondary two students selected using stratified random sampling technique participated in the study. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. Two evaluative instruments – Students’ Basic Science Attitudes Scale (SBSAS, r = 0.91); Students’ Knowledge of Basic Science Test (SKBST, r = 0.82) were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics of ANCOVA, scheffe post-hoc test were used to analyse the data. The results indicated significant main effect of treatment on students cognitive (F(1,200)= 171.680; p < 0.05) and attitudinal (F(1,200)= 34.466; p < 0.05) achievement in Basic science with the experimental group having higher mean gain than the control group. Gender has significant main effect (F(1,200)= 23.382; p < 0.05) on students cognitive outcomes but not significant for attitudinal achievement in Basic science. The study therefore recommended among others that computer mediated power point presentations should be incorporated into curriculum methodology of Basic science in secondary schools.

Keywords: basic science, computer mediated power point presentations, gender, students’ achievement

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
5 Efficacy of Teachers' Cluster Meetings on Teachers' Lesson Note Preparation and Teaching Performance in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Sunmaila Oyetunji Raimi, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

Abstract:

The quality of education and the standard of a nation cannot rise above the quality of the teacher (NPE, 2004). Efforts at improving the falling standard of education in the country call for the need-based assessment of the primary tier of education in Nigeria. It was revealed that the teachers’ standard of performance and pupils’ achievement was below average. Teachers’ cluster meeting intervention was therefore recommended as a step towards enhancing the teachers’ professional competency, efficient and effective proactive and interactive lesson presentation. The study thus determined the impact of the intervention on teachers’ professional performance (lesson note preparation and teaching performance) in Oyo State, Nigeria. The main and interaction effects of the gender of the teachers as moderator variable were also determined. Three null hypotheses guided the study. Pre-test, posttest control group quazi experimental design was adopted for the study. Three hundred intact classes from three hundred different schools were randomly selected into treatment and control groups. Two response instruments-Classroom Lesson Note Preparation Checklist (CLNPC; r = 0.89) Cluster Lesson Observation Checklist (CLOC; r = 0.86) were used for data collection. Mean, Standard deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyse the collected data. The results showed that the teachers’ cluster meeting have significant impact on teachers’ lesson note preparation (F(1,295) = 31.607; p < 0.05; η2 = .097) and teaching performance (F(1,295) = 20.849; p < 0.05; η2 = .066) in the core subjects of primary schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study therefore recommended among others that teachers’ cluster meeting should be sustained for teachers’ professional development in the State.

Keywords: teachers’ cluster meeting, teacher lesson note preparation, teaching performance, teachers’ gender, primary schools in Oyo state

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
4 Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Kernel Inclusion in Broiler Diet on Growth Performance, Organ Weight and Gut Morphometry

Authors: Olatundun Bukola Ezekiel, Adejumo Olusoji

Abstract:

A feeding trial was conducted with 100 two-weeks old broiler chicken to evaluate the influence of inclusion in broiler diets at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% neem kernel (used to replace equal quantity of maize) on their performance, organ weight and gut morphometry. The birds were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments, each treatment having four replicates consisting of five broilers in a completely randomized design. The diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous (23% CP). Weekly feed intake and changes in body weight were calculated and feed efficiency determined. At the end of the 28-day feeding trial, four broilers per treatment were selected and sacrificed for carcass evaluation. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using the analysis of variance procedures of Statistical Analysis Software The treatment means were presented with group standard errors of means and where significant, were compared using the Duncan multiple range test of the same software. The results showed that broilers fed 2.5% neem kernel inclusion diets had growth performance statistically comparable to those fed the control diet. Birds on 5, 7.5 and 10% neem kernel diets showed significant (P<0.05) increase in relative weight of liver. The absolute weight of spleen also increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds on 10 % neem kernel diet. More than 5 % neem kernel diets gave significant (P<0.05) increase in the relative weight of the kidney. The length of the small intestine significantly increased in birds fed 7.5 and 10% neem kernel diets. Significant differences (P<0.05) did not occur in the length of the large intestine, right and left caeca. It is recommended that neem kernel can be included up to 2.5% in broiler chicken diet without any deleterious effects on the performance and physiological status of the birds.

Keywords: broiler chicken, growth performance, gut morphometry, neem kernel, organ weight

Procedia PDF Downloads 575
3 Involvement of Nrf2 in Kolaviron-Mediated Attenuation of Behavioural Incompetence and Neurodegeneration in a Murine Model of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Yusuf E. Mustapha, Inioluwa A Akindoyeni, Oluwatoyin G. Ezekiel, Ifeoluwa O. Awogbindin, Ebenezer O. Farombi

Abstract:

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent motor disorder. Available therapies are palliative with no effect on disease progression. Kolaviron (KV), a natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects in Parkinsonian flies and rats. Objective: The present study investigates the neuroprotective effect of KV, focusing on the DJ1/Nrf2 signaling pathway. Methodology: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to inhibit Nrf2. Murine model of PD was established with four doses of MPTP (20 mg/kg i.p.) at 2 hours interval. MPTP mice were pre-treated with either KV (200 mg/kg/day p.o), ATRA, or both conditions for seven days before PD induction. Motor behaviour was evaluated, and markers of oxidative stress/damage and its regulators were assessed with immunofluorescence and ELISA techniques. Results: MPTP-treated mice covered less distance with reduced numbers of anticlockwise rotations, heightened freezing, and prolonged immobility when compared to control. However, KV significantly attenuated these deficits. Pretreatment of MPTP mice with KV upregulated Nrf2 expression beyond MPTP level with a remarkable reduction in Keap1 expression and marked elevation of DJ-1 level, whereas co-administration with ATRA abrogated these effects. KV treatment restored MPTP-mediated depletion of endogenous antioxidant, striatal oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. However, ATRA treatment potentiated acetylcholinesterase inhibition and attenuated the protective effect of KV on the level of nitric oxide and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusion: Kolaviron protects Parkinsonian mice by stabilizing and activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Thus, kolaviron can be explored as a pharmacological lead in PD management.

Keywords: Garcinia kola, Kolaviron, Parkinson Disease, Nrf2, behavioral incompetence, neurodegeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
2 Household Climate-Resilience Index Development for the Health Sector in Tanzania: Use of Demographic and Health Surveys Data Linked with Remote Sensing

Authors: Heribert R. Kaijage, Samuel N. A. Codjoe, Simon H. D. Mamuya, Mangi J. Ezekiel

Abstract:

There is strong evidence that climate has changed significantly affecting various sectors including public health. The recommended feasible solution is adopting development trajectories which combine both mitigation and adaptation measures for improving resilience pathways. This approach demands a consideration for complex interactions between climate and social-ecological systems. While other sectors such as agriculture and water have developed climate resilience indices, the public health sector in Tanzania is still lagging behind. The aim of this study was to find out how can we use Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) linked with Remote Sensing (RS) technology and metrological information as tools to inform climate change resilient development and evaluation for the health sector. Methodological review was conducted whereby a number of studies were content analyzed to find appropriate indicators and indices for climate resilience household and their integration approach. These indicators were critically reviewed, listed, filtered and their sources determined. Preliminary identification and ranking of indicators were conducted using participatory approach of pairwise weighting by selected national stakeholders from meeting/conferences on human health and climate change sciences in Tanzania. DHS datasets were retrieved from Measure Evaluation project, processed and critically analyzed for possible climate change indicators. Other sources for indicators of climate change exposure were also identified. For the purpose of preliminary reporting, operationalization of selected indicators was discussed to produce methodological approach to be used in resilience comparative analysis study. It was found that household climate resilient index depends on the combination of three indices namely Household Adaptive and Mitigation Capacity (HC), Household Health Sensitivity (HHS) and Household Exposure Status (HES). It was also found that, DHS alone cannot complement resilient evaluation unless integrated with other data sources notably flooding data as a measure of vulnerability, remote sensing image of Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Metrological data (deviation from rainfall pattern). It can be concluded that if these indices retrieved from DHS data sets are computed and scientifically integrated can produce single climate resilience index and resilience maps could be generated at different spatial and time scales to enhance targeted interventions for climate resilient development and evaluations. However, further studies are need to test for the sensitivity of index in resilience comparative analysis among selected regions.

Keywords: climate change, resilience, remote sensing, demographic and health surveys

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1 Comparative Study on Efficacy and Clinical Outcomes in Minimally Invasive Surgery Transforaminal Interbody Fusion vs Minimally Invasive Surgery Lateral Interbody Fusion

Authors: Sundaresan Soundararajan, George Ezekiel Silvananthan, Chor Ngee Tan

Abstract:

Introduction: Transforaminal Interbody Fusion (TLIF) has been adopted for many decades now, however, XLIF, still in relative infancy, has grown to be accepted as a new Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) option. There is a paucity of reports directly comparing lateral approach surgery to other MIS options such as TLIF in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc diseases. Aims/Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and clinical outcomes between Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Interbody Fusion (TLIF) and Minimally Invasive Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF) in the treatment of patients with degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. Methods: A single center, retrospective cohort study involving a total of 38 patients undergoing surgical intervention between 2010 and 2013 for degenerative disc disease of lumbar spine at single L4/L5 level. 18 patients were treated with MIS TLIF, and 20 patients were treated with XLIF. Results: The XLIF group showed shorter duration of surgery compared to the TLIF group (176 mins vs. 208.3 mins, P = 0.03). Length of hospital stay was also significantly shorter in XLIF group (5.9 days vs. 9 days, p = 0.03). Intraoperative blood loss was favouring XLIF as 85% patients had blood loss less than 100cc compared to 58% in the TLIF group (P = 0.03). Radiologically, disc height was significantly improved post operatively in the XLIF group compared to the TLIF group (0.56mm vs. 0.39mm, P = 0.01). Foraminal height increment was also higher in the XLIF group (0.58mm vs. 0.45mm , P = 0.06). Clinically, back pain and leg pain improved in 85% of patients in the XLIF group and 78% in the TLIF group. Post op hip flexion weakness was more common in the XLIF group (40%) than in the TLIF group (0%). However, this weakness resolved within 6 months post operatively. There was one case of dural tear and surgical site infection in the TLIF group respectively and none in the XLIF group. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score 6 months post operatively showed comparable reduction in both groups. TLIF group had Owsterty Disability Index (ODI) improvement on 67% while XLIF group showed improvement of 70% of its patients. Conclusions: Lateral approach surgery shows comparable clinical outcomes in resolution of back pain and radiculopathy to conventional MIS techniques such as TLIF. With significantly shorter duration of surgical time, minimal blood loss and shorter hospital stay, XLIF seems to be a reasonable MIS option compared to other MIS techniques in treating degenerative lumbar disc diseases.

Keywords: extreme lateral interbody fusion, lateral approach, minimally invasive, XLIF

Procedia PDF Downloads 97