Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Cathrine Norberg

9 The Women-In-Mining Discourse: A Study Combining Corpus Linguistics and Discourse Analysis

Authors: Ylva Fältholm, Cathrine Norberg

Abstract:

One of the major threats identified to successful future mining is that women do not find the industry attractive. Many attempts have been made, for example in Sweden and Australia, to create organizational structures and mining communities attractive to both genders. Despite such initiatives, many mining areas are developing into gender-segregated fly-in/fly out communities dominated by men with both social and economic consequences. One of the challenges facing many mining companies is thus to break traditional gender patterns and structures. To do this increased knowledge about gender in the context of mining is needed. Since language both constitutes and reproduces knowledge, increased knowledge can be gained through an exploration and description of the mining discourse from a gender perspective. The aim of this study is to explore what conceptual ideas are activated in connection to the physical/geographical mining area and to work within the mining industry. We use a combination of critical discourse analysis implying close reading of selected texts, such as policy documents, interview materials, applications and research and innovation agendas, and analyses of linguistic patterns found in large language corpora covering millions of words of contemporary language production. The quantitative corpus data serves as a point of departure for the qualitative analysis of the texts, that is, suggests what patterns to explore further. The study shows that despite technological and organizational development, one of the most persistent discourses about mining is the conception of dangerous and unfriendly areas infused with traditional notions of masculinity ideals and manual hard work. Although some of the texts analyzed highlight gender issues, and describe gender-equalizing initiatives, such as wage-mapping systems, female networks and recruitment efforts for women executives, and thereby render the discourse less straightforward, it is shown that these texts are not unambiguous examples of a counter-discourse. They rather illustrate that discourses are not stable but include opposing discourses, in dialogue with each other. For example, many texts highlight why and how women are important to mining, at the same time as they suggest that gender and diversity are all about women: why mining is a problem for them, how they should be, and what they should do to fit in. Drawing on a constitutive view of discourse, knowledge about such conflicting perceptions of women is a prerequisite for succeeding in attracting women to the mining industry and thereby contributing to the development of future mining.

Keywords: discourse, corpus linguistics, gender, mining

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8 Chemical Constituents of Silene Arenarioides Desf

Authors: Haba Hamada, Lavaud Cathrine, Benkhaled Mohammed

Abstract:

The Silene genus is the most representative of the caryophyllaceae family for their rich content in secondary metabolites; saponins, flavonoids and flavonoids glycosides, phytoecdysones, oligosaccharides have been isolated and identified. The Silene genus represented by about 700 species in the temrerate region of the word, the main concentration of spcies is Europe, Asia and North Africa. Three known compounds 1-3 were isolated from the aerial parts of Silene arenarioides Desf. by using different chromatographic methods. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined as stigmasterolglycoside, Soyacerebroside, maltol glycoside. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by using the NMR (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) techniques and mass spectroscopy. The antimicrobial and antioxydant activities of the different extracts and compound have been reported.

Keywords: caryophyllaceae, flavonoids, saponosids, flavonoids glycosides

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7 General and Sport Specific Fitness Testing Practices: Global Developments

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Jed Smith, Lisa Chen, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg

Abstract:

This study compared general conditioning and sport specific fitness tests used in China, European Union (EU), Russia, and the United States. A constant content comparison method was used to identify the differences. Data from the study indicated that there were shared test components, including aerobic fitness, muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility. However, the testing components and items, as well as the cut-off values of the analyzed tests varied by country for the same gender and age. Culturally unique methods of testing and preparing for the tests were identified. Additionally, evidence revealed support for lifelong fitness and long-term sport participation through comprehensive fitness and wellness guidelines for different age groups and through new internet-based technologies.

Keywords: fitness testing, global trends, new developments, worldwide comparison

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6 Sense of the Place and Human Multisensory Perceptions: The Case of Kerman Old Bazaar Scents

Authors: Sabra Saeidi

Abstract:

When we talk about tangible heritage, the first thing that comes to mind is historic places: what they look like, who made them, and what materials they are made of. But each monument is not limited to its physical constituents and is a complex and related set of human perceptions, memories, narratives, and the structure that shapes its character. In this article, based on the ideology of two great architects, Juhani Pallasmaa and Christian Norberg-Schulz, we discussed the sense of the place and how the human presence in a place with all its senses (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, taste) gives life and value to it. This value is all about feeling and definitions and is recorded in the form of our memoirs. An attempt has been made to conclude that our perception of the environment, by our sensory tools, is an intangible and thematic heritage itself, whose existence depends on our existence and has no less value than monuments' physical form and structure. The sense of smell is one of the most powerful, personal and inexplicable, unrecorded, and unexpressed senses and has a solid connection with our memories. by reviewing the case of Kerman Bazaar and its change of use in recent years, we define that one of the ways to protect the olfactory heritage of this valuable complex is to draw a Smellscape: a way to record the moment of present and past memories. Smellscapes are tools for transferring the sense of smell to a visual form to record scents and understand them in a more comprehensive, common, and artistic form.

Keywords: sence of the place, spirit of the place, smellscape, multisensory perception

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5 Evaluating a Holistic Fitness Program Used by High Performance Athletes and Mass Participants

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Jed Smith, Lisa Chen, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg

Abstract:

This study evaluated the effectiveness of an experimental training program used to improve performance and health of competitive athletes and recreational sport participants. This holistic program integrated and advanced Eastern and Western methods of prolonging elite sports participation and enjoying lifelong fitness, particularly from China, India, Russia, and the United States. The program included outdoor, gym, and water training approaches focused on strengthening while stretching/decompressing and on full body activation-all in order to improve performance as well as treat and prevent common disorders and pains. The study observed and surveyed over 100 users of the program including recreational fitness and sports enthusiasts as well as elite athletes who competed for national teams of different countries and for Division I teams of National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. Different types of sport were studied, including territorial games (e.g., American football, basketball, volleyball), endurance/cyclical (athletics/track and field, swimming), and artistic (e.g., gymnastics and synchronized swimming). Results of the study showed positive effects on the participants’ performance and health, particularly for those who used the program for more than two years and especially in reducing spinal disorders and in enabling to perform new training tasks which previously caused back pain.

Keywords: lifelong fitness, injury prevention, prolonging sport participation, improving performance and health

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4 Aerobic Training Combined with Nutritional Guidance as an Effective Strategy for Improving Aerobic Fitness and Reducing BMI in Inactive Adults

Authors: Leif Inge Tjelta, Gerd Lise Nordbotten, Cathrine Nyhus Hagum, Merete Hagen Helland

Abstract:

Overweight and obesity can lead to numerous health problems, and inactive people are more often overweight and obese compared to physically active people. Even a moderate weight loss can improve cardiovascular and endocrine disease risk factors. The aim of the study was to examine to what extent overweight and obese adults starting up with two weekly intensive running sessions had an increase in aerobic capacity, reduction in BMI and waist circumference and changes in body composition after 33 weeks of training. An additional aim was to see if there were differences between participants who, in addition to training, also received lifestyle modification education, including practical cooking (nutritional guidance and training group (NTG =32)) compared to those who were not given any nutritional guidance (training group (TG=40)). 72 participants (49 women), mean age of 46.1 ( ± 10.4) were included. Inclusion Criteria: Previous untrained and inactive adults in all age groups, BMI ≥ 25, desire to become fitter and reduce their BMI. The two weekly supervised training sessions consisted of 10 min warm up followed by 20 to 21 min effective interval running where the participants’ heart rate were between 82 and 92% of hearth rate maximum. The sessions were completed with ten minutes whole body strength training. Measures of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and 3000m running time were performed at the start of the project (T1), after 15 weeks (T2) and at the end of the project (T3). Measurements of fat percentage, muscle mass, and visceral fat were performed at T1 and T3. Twelve participants (9 women) from both groups, who all scored around average on the 3000 m pre-test, were chosen to do a VO₂max test at T1 and T3. The NTG were given ten theoretical sessions (80 minutes each) and eight practical cooking sessions (140 minutes each). There was a significant reduction in bout groups for WC and BMI from T1 to T2. There was not found any further reduction from T2 to T3. Although not significant, NTG reduced their WC more than TG. For both groups, the percentage reduction in WC was similar to the reduction in BMI. There was a decrease in fat percentage in both groups from pre-test to post-test, whereas, for muscle mass, a small, but insignificant increase was observed for both groups. There was a decrease in 3000m running time for both groups from T1 to T2 as well as from T2 to T3. The difference between T2 and T3 was not statistically significant. The 12 participants who tested VO₂max had an increase of 2.86 ( ± 3.84) mlkg⁻¹ min⁻¹ in VO₂max and 3:02 min (± 2:01 min) reduction in running time over 3000 m from T1 until T3. There was a strong, negative correlation between the two variables. The study shows that two intensive running session in 33 weeks can increase aerobic fitness and reduce BMI, WC and fat percent in inactive adults. Cost guidance in addition to training will give additional effect.

Keywords: interval training, nutritional guidance, fitness, BMI

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3 US Track And Field System: Examining Micro-Level Practices against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and Elite Sport

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg, Nicholas Stone, Soufiane Rafi

Abstract:

This study assessed the micro-level elements of track and field development in the US against a model for integrating high-performance sport with mass participation. This investigation is important for the country’s international sport performance, which declined relative to other countries and wellbeing, which in its turn deteriorated as over half of the US population became overweight. A questionnaire was designed for the following elements of the model: talent identification and development as well as advanced athlete support. Survey questions were validated by 12 experts, including academics, executives from sport governing bodies, coaches, and administrators. To determine the areas for improvement, the questionnaires were completed by 102 US track and field coaches representing the country’s regions and coaching levels. Possible advancements were further identified through semi-structured discussions with 10 US track and field administrators. The study found that talent search and development is a critically important area for improvement: 49 percent of respondents had overall negative perceptions, and only 16 percent were positive regarding these US track and field practices. Both quantitative survey results and open responses revealed that the key reason for the inadequate athlete development was a shortage of well-educated and properly paid coaches: 77 percent of respondents indicated that coach expertise is never or rarely high across all participant ages and levels. More than 40 percent of the respondents were uncertain of or not familiar with world’s best talent identification and development practices, particularly methods of introducing children to track and field from outside the sport’s participation base. Millions more could be attracted to the sport by adopting best international practices. First, physical education should be offered a minimum three times a week in all school grades, and track and field together with other healthy sports, should be taught at school to all children. Second, multi-sport events, including track and field disciplines, should be organized for everyone within and among all schools, cities and regions. Three, Australian and Eastern European methods of talent search at schools should be utilized and tailored to the US conditions. Four, comprehensive long term athlete development guidelines should be used for the advancement of the American Development Model, particularly track and field tests and guidelines as part of both school education and high-performance athlete development for every age group from six to over 70 years old. These world’s best practices are to improve the country’s international performance while increasing national sport participation and positively influencing public health.

Keywords: high performance, mass participation, sport development, track and field, USA

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2 Causes and Consequences of Intuitive Animal Communication: A Case Study at Panthera Africa

Authors: Cathrine Scharning Cornwall-Nyquist, David Rafael Vaz Fernandes

Abstract:

Since its origins, mankind has been dreaming of communicating directly with other animals. Past civilizations interacted on different levels with other species and recognized them in their rituals and daily activities. However, recent scientific developments have limited the ability of humans to consider deeper levels of interaction beyond observation and/or physical behavior. In recent years, animal caretakers and facilities such as sanctuaries or rescue centers have been introducing new techniques based on intuition. Most of those initiatives are related to specific cases, such as the incapacity to understand an animal’s behavior. Respected organizations also include intuitive animal communication (IAC) sessions to follow up on past interventions with their animals. Despite the lack of credibility of this discipline, some animal caring structures have opted to integrate IAC into their daily routines and approaches to animal welfare. At this stage, animal communication will be generally defined as the ability of humans to communicate with animals on an intuitive level. The trend in the field remains to be explored. The lack of theory and previous research urges the scientific community to improve the description of the phenomenon and its consequences. Considering the current scenario, qualitative approaches may become a suitable pathway to explore this topic. The purpose of this case study is to explore the beliefs behind and the consequences of an approach based on intuitive animal communication techniques for Panthera Africa (PA), an ethical sanctuary located in South Africa. Due to their personal experience, the Sanctuary’s founders have developed a philosophy based on IAC while respecting the world's highest standards for big cat welfare. Their dual approach is reflected in their rescues, daily activities, and healing animals’ trauma. The case study's main research questions will be: (i) Why do they choose to apply IAC in their work? (ii) What consequences to their activities do IAC bring? (iii) What effects do IAC techniques bring in their interactions with the outside world? Data collection will be gathered on-site via: (i) Complete participation (field notes); (ii) Semi-structured interviews (audio transcriptions); (iii) Document analysis (internal procedures and policies); (iv) Audio-visual material (communication with third parties). The main researcher shall become an active member of the Sanctuary during a 30-day period and have full access to the site. Access to documents and audio-visual materials will be granted on a request basis. Interviews are expected to be held with PA founders and staff members and with IAC practitioners related to the facility. The information gathered shall enable the researcher to provide an extended description of the phenomenon and explore its internal and external consequences for Panthera Africa.

Keywords: animal welfare, intuitive animal communication, Panthera Africa, rescue

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1 Nigerian Football System: Examining Meso-Level Practices against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and Elite Sport

Authors: I. Derek Kaka’an, P. Smolianov, D. Koh Choon Lian, S. Dion, C. Schoen, J. Norberg

Abstract:

This study was designed to examine mass participation and elite football performance in Nigeria with reference to advance international football management practices. Over 200 sources of literature on sport delivery systems were analyzed to construct a globally applicable model of elite football integrated with mass participation, comprising of the following three levels: macro- (socio-economic, cultural, legislative, and organizational), meso- (infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sport programs) and micro-level (operations, processes, and methodologies for development of individual athletes). The model has received scholarly validation and showed to be a framework for program analysis that is not culturally bound. The Smolianov and Zakus model has been employed for further understanding of sport systems such as US soccer, US Rugby, swimming, tennis, and volleyball as well as Russian and Dutch swimming. A questionnaire was developed using the above-mentioned model. Survey questions were validated by 12 experts including academicians, executives from sport governing bodies, football coaches, and administrators. To identify best practices and determine areas for improvement of football in Nigeria, 120 coaches completed the questionnaire. Useful exemplars and possible improvements were further identified through semi-structured discussions with 10 Nigerian football administrators and experts. Finally, content analysis of Nigeria Football Federation’s website and organizational documentation was conducted. This paper focuses on the meso-level of Nigerian football delivery, particularly infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sport programs. This includes training centers, competition systems, and intellectual services. Results identified remarkable achievements coupled with great potential to further develop football in different types of public and private organizations in Nigeria. These include: assimilating football competitions with other cultural and educational activities, providing favorable conditions for employees of all possible organizations to partake and help in managing football programs and events, providing football coaching integrated with counseling for prevention of antisocial conduct, and improving cooperation between football programs and organizations for peace-making and advancement of international relations, tourism, and socio-economic development. Accurate reporting of the sports programs from the media should be encouraged through staff training for better awareness of various events. The systematic integration of these meso-level practices into the balanced development of mass and high-performance football will contribute to international sport success as well as national health, education, and social harmony.

Keywords: football, high performance, mass participation, Nigeria, sport development

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