Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 284

Search results for: Catarina Isabel Ramos Pereira

284 Effects of Acupuncture Treatment in Gait Parameters in Parkinson´s Disease

Authors: Catarina Isabel Ramos Pereira, Jorge Machado, Begona Alonso Criado, Maria João Santos


Introduction: Gait disorders are one of the symptoms that have severe implications on the quality of life in Parkinson's disease (PD). Presently, there is no treatment to cure this condition. None of the drugs used in conventional medical treatment is entirely efficient and all have a high incidence of side effects. Acupuncture therapy is supposed to enhance motor capacity, but there are still few scientific pieces of evidence in individuals with PD. Aim: Investigate the acute effect of acupuncture on gait parameters in Parkinson’s disease. Methods: This is a randomized and controlled crossover study. The same individual patient was part of both, experimental (real acupuncture) and control group (false acupuncture/sham), and the sequence was randomized. We measured gait parameters using four force platforms as well as the collection of 3D markers positions taken by 11 cameras before and after the treatment. Images were quantitatively analyzed using Qualisys Track Manager software that let us extract data related to the quality of gait and balance. Seven patients with diagnose of Parkinson’s disease were included in the study. Results: We found an improvement of 32% in gait speed, 25-32% in step length, 26% in mediolateral trunk oscillation, 22% in time of double support phase, 7,24% in gait cadence, 7% in support base width and 6% in support base width between the initial and final moments for the experimental group with statistically significant differences. Our results show that acupuncture could enhance gait in Parkinson's disease patients. Deep research involving a larger number of voluntaries should be accomplished to validate these encouraging findings.

Keywords: acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, Parkinson disease, gait

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283 Positive Parenting and Subjective Well-Being: Proposed Program for Parents of Gifted Children

Authors: Suzy Pereira, Alberto Rocha, Ana Almeida, Catarina Figueiredo, Helena Fonseca, Leonor Moreira, Carla Blum Vestena, Cristina Costa-Lobo


The socio-educational support to parents, through parental education intervention programs, is part of European social policies, aiming to respond to the needs of education, promotion of well-being and development of children and young people. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of the Positive Parenting Program on the subjective well-being of the parents of gifted children. The Positive Parenting Program is authored and is conducted by the National Association of Study and Intervention in Giftedness, Portuguese Association. The central question to be explored in this research is: Does the promotion of positive parenting in parents of gifted children have a positive impact on the subjective well-being? The sample consisted of 30 parents, non-probabilistic sampling of convenience, of which 15 parents belong to the intervention group and the rest to the control group. One dimension will be evaluated - subjective well-being, through the PANAS questionnaire - before and after the sessions of this program. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of the process and results of the positive parenting program in parents of gifted children.

Keywords: positive parenting, subjective well-being, giftedness, parental education intervention programs

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
282 Entrepreneurship and Innovation: The Essence of Sustainable, Smart and Inclusive Economies

Authors: Isabel Martins, Orlando Pereira, Ana Martins


This study aims to highlight that, in changing environments, organisations need to adapt their behaviours to the demands of the new economic reality. The main purpose of this study focuses on the relationship between entrepreneurship, innovation with learning as the mediating factor. It is within this entrepreneurial spirit that literature reveals a concern with the current economic perspective towards knowledge and considers it as both the production factor par excellence and a source of entrepreneurial capacity and innovation. Entrepreneurship is a mind-set focused on identifying opportunities of economic value and translates these into the pursuit of business opportunities through innovation. It connects art and science and is a way of life, as opposed to a simple mode of business creation and profiteering. This perspective underlines the need to develop the global individual for the globalised world, the strategic key to economic and social development. The objective of this study is to explore the notion that relational capital which is established between the entrepreneur and all the other economic role players both inside and outside the organization, is indeed determinant in developing the entrepreneurial capacity. However, this depends on the organizational culture of innovation. In this context, entrepreneurship is an ‘entrepreneurial capital’ inherent in the organization that is not limited to skills needed for work. This study is a critique of extant literature review which will be also be supported by primary data collection gathered to study graduates’ perceptions towards their entrepreneurial capital. Limitations are centered on both the design and of the sample of this study. This study is of added value for both scholars and organisations in the current innovation economy.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, innovation, learning, relational capital

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281 Tetraploid Induction in the Yellowtail Tetra Astyanax altiparanae

Authors: Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Matheus Pereira-Santos, Nycolas Levy-Pereira, José Augusto Senhorini, George Shigueki Yasui, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi


Tetraploid individuals, which could produce diploid gametes, can be used for production of 100% triploid fish. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a tetraploidization protocol for A. altiparanae. We tested the effect of heat shock (40 °C; 2 min) at 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 and 26 minutes post fertilization (mpf). Untreated eggs were used as control. After hatching, ploidy status of the larvae was checked by flow cytometry. No difference were observed for the hatching rate between all treatments (P = 0.5974). However, we observed an increase in the larval abnormality in the heat shock treatments, in special at 22 (82.17 ± 6.66%) 24 (78.31 ±7.28%) and 26 mpf (79.01 ± 7.85%) in comparison with the control group (12.87 ± 4.46%). No tetraploid was observed at 16 and 18 mpf. The higher number of tetraploid individuals (52/55) was observed at 26 mpf. Our results showed that high percentages of tetraploids are obtained by heat shock (40°C; 2min) at 26 mpf, which could enable the mass production of triploid individuals in A. altiparanae.

Keywords: chromosome manipulation, polyploidy, flow cytometry, tetraploidization

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
280 A Comparative Analysis of Heuristics Applied to Collecting Used Lubricant Oils Generated in the City of Pereira, Colombia

Authors: Diana Fajardo, Sebastián Ortiz, Oscar Herrera, Angélica Santis


Currently, in Colombia is arising a problem related to collecting used lubricant oils which are generated by the increment of the vehicle fleet. This situation does not allow a proper disposal of this type of waste, which in turn results in a negative impact on the environment. Therefore, through the comparative analysis of various heuristics, the best solution to the VRP (Vehicle Routing Problem) was selected by comparing costs and times for the collection of used lubricant oils in the city of Pereira, Colombia; since there is no presence of management companies engaged in the direct administration of the collection of this pollutant. To achieve this aim, six proposals of through methods of solution of two phases were discussed. First, the assignment of the group of generator points of the residue was made (previously identified). Proposals one and four of through methods are based on the closeness of points. The proposals two and five are using the scanning method and the proposals three and six are considering the restriction of the capacity of collection vehicle. Subsequently, the routes were developed - in the first three proposals by the Clarke and Wright's savings algorithm and in the following proposals by the Traveling Salesman optimization mathematical model. After applying techniques, a comparative analysis of the results was performed and it was determined which of the proposals presented the most optimal values in terms of the distance, cost and travel time.

Keywords: Heuristics, optimization Model, savings algorithm, used vehicular oil, V.R.P.

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
279 The Practices of Creative Tourism in Urban and Rural Areas at International Level

Authors: Isabel Freitas, Paula Remoaldo, Olga Matos, Ricardo Goja, Juliana Araujo, Vitor Ribeiro, Miguel Pereira


Several destinations have been experiencing a transition from a massified cultural tourism to a creative tourism approach. In this new segment of tourism, urban territories have been the focus for several decades. Urban studies on creative industries and initiatives have been taking place in big cities marginalizing small towns and more specifically rural areas. This paper envisages evaluating the differences between rural and urban institutions/platforms, mostly certified by the Creative Tourism Network, in what concerns the practices and initiatives in creative tourism worldwide. In the research carried out between March 2017 and March 2018, we had three levels of primary data and qualitative analysis: i) research on Google (web) by using several keywords like 'creative tourism initiatives', 'creative cities', 'best practices in creative tourism' (from March to August 2017). With the help of the certification of institutions/platforms by the Creative Tourism Network, 24 institutions were found and declared to be developing creative initiatives. It was decided to try to unravel the type of activities and some practices and initiatives carried out by these institutions and the analysis of the differences between rural and urban initiatives. A database of 20 items (e.g., institutions in charge of implementing the initiatives, year of implementation, site, activities developed, place of development, country of origin, type of partners chosen) was created for each institution/platform; ii) A deeper analysis was made on the websites’ information on the institutions (from September to December 2017). The type of professionals involved in the activities, the language used in the activities and the type of activity performed were some of the data analysed and iii) To complement these data, semi-structured interviews were done to representatives of the institutions, conducted mainly by Skype from July 2017 to April 2018. The interviews consisted of 17 questions. In the present paper, these interviews are used to complement the analysis of the same items. Some of the qualitative analysis was supported by the narratives of the leaders of the twenty-four institutions that were surveyed. The results indicate that creative tourism is more active and diverse in urban areas. Some more consolidated communication strategies and partnerships are needed for these activities to become economically more sustainable. The findings of this research provide researchers and practitioners with a better understanding of creative tourism and give some information of how creative tourism is developed in rural and urban areas, the gaps and lack of information, and all the possible directions towards the development of the creative tourism industry.

Keywords: creative tourism, practices of creative tourism, rural areas, urban areas

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278 One vs. Rest and Error Correcting Output Codes Principled Rebalancing Schemes for Solving Imbalanced Multiclass Problems

Authors: Alvaro Callejas-Ramos, Lorena Alvarez-Perez, Alexander Benitez-Buenache, Anibal R. Figueiras-Vidal


This contribution presents a promising formulation which allows to extend the principled binary rebalancing procedures, also known as neutral re-balancing mechanisms in the sense that they do not alter the likelihood ratio

Keywords: Bregman divergences, imbalanced multiclass classifi-cation, informed re-balancing, invariant likelihood ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
277 Hydrochemical Contamination Profiling and Spatial-Temporal Mapping with the Support of Multivariate and Cluster Statistical Analysis

Authors: Sofia Barbosa, Mariana Pinto, José António Almeida, Edgar Carvalho, Catarina Diamantino


The aim of this work was to test a methodology able to generate spatial-temporal maps that can synthesize simultaneously the trends of distinct hydrochemical indicators in an old radium-uranium tailings dam deposit. Multidimensionality reduction derived from principal component analysis and subsequent data aggregation derived from clustering analysis allow to identify distinct hydrochemical behavioural profiles and to generate synthetic evolutionary hydrochemical maps.

Keywords: Contamination plume migration, K-means of PCA scores, groundwater and mine water monitoring, spatial-temporal hydrochemical trends

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276 Development and Evaluation of Dehydrated Soups with Frog Meat by Freeze Drying

Authors: Sílvia Pereira Mello, Eliane Rodrigues, Maria de Lourdes Andrade, Marcelo Pereira, Giselle Dias, Jose Seixas Filho


Frog meat is a highly digestible food and its use is recommended in diets aimed at fighting cholesterol, obesity, and arterial hypertension, as well as for treating gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, the soups were developed with frog meat in addition to other ingredients which did not present allergenic potential. The carcasses of the thawed frogs went through bleaching and deboning, and other ingredients (vegetables and condiments) were then added to the separated meat. After the process of cooking, the soups were cooled and later on frozen at -40° C for 3 hours and then taken to the LS 3000 B lyophilizer for 24 hours. The soups were submitted to microbiological analysis: enumeration of total coliforms and Bacillus cereus; identification of coagulase positive Staphylococcus; isolation and identification of Salmonella spp.; and physical-chemical analysis; application of micro-Kjeldahl method for protein, Soxhlet method for lipids, use of a heating chamber at 105ºC for moisture, incineration method (500-550°C) for ash, and Decagon's Pawkit equipment for determining water activity. Acceptance test was performed with 50 elderly people, all between 60 and 85 years of age. The degree of acceptance was demonstrated using a seven points structured hedonic scale in which the taster expressed their impression towards the product. Results of the microbiological analysis showed that all samples met the standards established by the National Health Surveillance Agency of Brazil (ANVISA). Results of the acceptance test indicated that all the soups were accepted considering overall impression and intended consumption. In addition to its excellent nutritional quality, the dehydrated soups made with frog meat are presented as a solution for consumers due to convenience in preparation, consumption and storage.

Keywords: bacteriological quality, lithobates catesbeianus, instant soup, proximate composition, sensory analysis

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275 Recognition of Spelling Problems during the Text in Progress: A Case Study on the Comments Made by Portuguese Students Newly Literate

Authors: E. Calil, L. A. Pereira


The acquisition of orthography is a complex process, involving both lexical and grammatical questions. This learning occurs simultaneously with the domain of multiple textual aspects (e.g.: graphs, punctuation, etc.). However, most of the research on orthographic acquisition focus on this acquisition from an autonomous point of view, separated from the process of textual production. This means that their object of analysis is the production of words selected by the researcher or the requested sentences in an experimental and controlled setting. In addition, the analysis of the Spelling Problems (SP) are identified by the researcher on the sheet of paper. Considering the perspective of Textual Genetics, from an enunciative approach, this study will discuss the SPs recognized by dyads of newly literate students, while they are writing a text collaboratively. Six proposals of textual production were registered, requested by a 2nd year teacher of a Portuguese Primary School between January and March 2015. In our case study we discuss the SPs recognized by the dyad B and L (7 years old). We adopted as a methodological tool the Ramos System audiovisual record. This system allows real-time capture of the text in process and of the face-to-face dialogue between both students and their teacher, and also captures the body movements and facial expressions of the participants during textual production proposals in the classroom. In these ecological conditions of multimodal registration of collaborative writing, we could identify the emergence of SP in two dimensions: i. In the product (finished text): SP identification without recursive graphic marks (without erasures) and the identification of SPs with erasures, indicating the recognition of SP by the student; ii. In the process (text in progress): identification of comments made by students about recognized SPs. Given this, we’ve analyzed the comments on identified SPs during the text in progress. These comments characterize a type of reformulation referred to as Commented Oral Erasure (COE). The COE has two enunciative forms: Simple Comment (SC) such as ' 'X' is written with 'Y' '; or Unfolded Comment (UC), such as ' 'X' is written with 'Y' because...'. The spelling COE may also occur before or during the SP (Early Spelling Recognition - ESR) or after the SP has been entered (Later Spelling Recognition - LSR). There were 631 words entered in the 6 stories written by the B-L dyad, 145 of them containing some type of SP. During the text in progress, the students recognized orally 174 SP, 46 of which were identified in advance (ESRs) and 128 were identified later (LSPs). If we consider that the 88 erasure SPs in the product indicate some form of SP recognition, we can observe that there were twice as many SPs recognized orally. The ESR was characterized by SC when students asked their colleague or teacher how to spell a given word. The LSR presented predominantly UC, verbalizing meta-orthographic arguments, mostly made by L. These results indicate that writing in dyad is an important didactic strategy for the promotion of metalinguistic reflection, favoring the learning of spelling.

Keywords: collaborative writing, erasure, learning, metalinguistic awareness, spelling, text production

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274 Design of a 4-DOF Robot Manipulator with Optimized Algorithm for Inverse Kinematics

Authors: S. Gómez, G. Sánchez, J. Zarama, M. Castañeda Ramos, J. Escoto Alcántar, J. Torres, A. Núñez, S. Santana, F. Nájera, J. A. Lopez


This paper shows in detail the mathematical model of direct and inverse kinematics for a robot manipulator (welding type) with four degrees of freedom. Using the D-H parameters, screw theory, numerical, geometric and interpolation methods, the theoretical and practical values of the position of robot were determined using an optimized algorithm for inverse kinematics obtaining the values of the particular joints in order to determine the virtual paths in a relatively short time.

Keywords: kinematics, degree of freedom, optimization, robot manipulator

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273 Neoliberalism and Otherness: Convergences or Divergences?

Authors: Juliana Pereira Tigre


In the current critical debate on the process of globalization, on the one hand, arises the accusation that neoliberalism standardizes the so-called American way of life on the cultures of the world, operating as a system of subtle domination, expropriating and incorporating the other. On the other hand, it is defended that neoliberalism begins its career of political and economic order as a sensitive conception to the otherness, imposing itself at present due to its peaceful management of pluralism and defense of individual freedom. In this sense, this paper aims to discuss the extent to which the neoliberalism and the otherness converge or diverge in contemporaneity and the guiding principles of globalization.

Keywords: otherness, globalization, neoliberalism, social sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
272 Direct Laser Fabrication and Characterization of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy for Seismic Damping Applications

Authors: Gonzalo Reyes, Magdalena Walczak, Esteban Ramos-Moore, Jorge Ramos-Grez


Metal additive manufacture technologies have gained strong support and acceptance as a promising and alternative method to manufacture high performance complex geometry products. The main purpose of the present work is to study the microstructure and phase transformation temperatures of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys fabricated from a direct laser additive process using metallic powders as precursors. The potential application is to manufacture self-centering seismic dampers for earthquake protection of buildings out of a copper based alloy by an additive process. In this process, the Cu-Al-Ni alloy is melted, inside of a high temperature and vacuum chamber with the aid of a high power fiber laser under inert atmosphere. The laser provides the energy to melt the alloy powder layer. The process allows fabricating fully dense, oxygen-free Cu-Al-Ni specimens using different laser power levels, laser powder interaction times, furnace ambient temperatures, and cooling rates as well as modifying concentration of the alloying elements. Two sets of specimens were fabricated with a nominal composition of Cu-13Al-3Ni and Cu-13Al-4Ni in wt.%, however, semi-quantitative chemical analysis using EDX examination showed that the specimens’ resulting composition was closer to Cu-12Al-5Ni and Cu-11Al-8Ni, respectively. In spite of that fact, it is expected that the specimens should still possess shape memory behavior. To confirm this hypothesis, phase transformation temperatures will be measured using DSC technique, to look for martensitic and austenitic phase transformations at 150°C. So far, metallographic analysis of the specimens showed defined martensitic microstructures. Moreover, XRD technique revealed diffraction peaks corresponding to (0 0 18) and (1 2 8) planes, which are too associated with the presence of martensitic phase. We conclude that it would be possible to obtain fully dense Cu-Al-Ni alloys having shape memory effect behavior by direct laser fabrication process, and to advance into fabrication of self centering seismic dampers by a controllable metal additive manufacturing process.

Keywords: Cu-Al-Ni alloys, direct laser fabrication, shape memory alloy, self-centering seismic dampers

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271 Fluorescence Gold Nanoparticles: Sensing Properties and Cytotoxicity Studies in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Cristina Núñez, Rufina Bastida, Elena Labisbal, Alejandro Macías, María T. Pereira, José M. Vila


A highly selective quinoline-based fluorescent sensor L was designed in order to functionalize gold nanoparticles ([email protected]). The cytotoxicity of compound L and [email protected] on the MCF-7 breast cancer cells was explored and it was observed that L and [email protected] compounds induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cancer cells. The cellular uptake of the hybrid system [email protected] was studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

Keywords: cytotoxicity, fluorescent probes, nanoparticles, quinoline

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270 Temperature Calculation for an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet by Optical Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: H. Lee, Jr., L. Bo-ot, R. Tumlos, H. Ramos


The objective of the study is to be able to calculate excitation and vibrational temperatures of a 2.45 GHz microwave-induced atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The plasma jet utilizes Argon gas as a primary working gas, while Nitrogen is utilized as a shroud gas for protecting the quartz tube from the plasma discharge. Through Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), various emission spectra were acquired from the plasma discharge. Selected lines from Ar I and N2 I emissions were used for the Boltzmann plot technique. The Boltzmann plots yielded values for the excitation and vibrational temperatures. The various values for the temperatures were plotted against varying parameters such as the gas flow rates.

Keywords: plasma jet, OES, Boltzmann plots, vibrational temperatures

Procedia PDF Downloads 601
269 Cross Cultural Adaptation and Content Validation of the Assessment Instrument Preschooler Awareness of Stuttering Survey

Authors: Catarina Belchior, Catarina Martins, Sara Mendes, Ana Rita S. Valente, Elsa Marta Soares


Introduction: The negative feelings and attitudes that a person who stutters can develop are extremely relevant when considering assessment and intervention in Speech and Language Therapy. This relates to the fact that the person who stutters can experience feelings such as shame, fear and negative beliefs when communicating. Considering the complexity and importance of integrating diverse aspects in stuttering intervention, it is central to identify those emotions as early as possible. Therefore, this research aimed to achieve the translation, adaptation to European Portuguese and to analyze the content validation of the Preschooler Awareness Stuttering Survey (Abbiati, Guitar & Hutchins, 2015), an instrument that allows the assessment of the impact of stuttering on preschool children who stutter considering feelings and attitudes. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive qualitative research. The following methodological procedures were followed: translation, back-translation, panel of experts and pilot study. This abstract describes the results of the first three phases of this process. The translation was accomplished by two Speech Language Therapists (SLT). Both professionals have more than five years of experience and are users of English language. One of them has a broad experience in the field of stuttering. Back-translation was conducted by two bilingual individuals without experience in health or any knowledge about the instrument. The panel of experts was composed by 3 different SLT, experts in the field of stuttering. Results and Discussion: In the translation and back-translation process it was possible to verify differences in semantic and idiomatic equivalences of several concepts and expressions, as well as the need to include new information to enhance the understanding of the application of the instrument. The meeting between the two translators and the researchers allowed the achievement of a consensus version that was used in back-translation. Considering adaptation and content validation, the main change made by the experts was the conceptual equivalence of the questions and answers of the instrument's sheets. Considering that in the translated consensus version the questions began with various nouns such as 'is' or 'the cow' and that the answers did not contain the adverb 'much' as in the original instrument, the panel agreed that it would be more appropriate if the questions all started with 'how' and that all the answers should present the adverb 'much'. This decision was made to ensure that the translate instrument would be similar to the original and so that the results obtained could be comparable between the original and the translated instrument. There was also elaborated one semantic equivalence between concepts. The panel of experts found that all other items and specificities of the instrument were adequate, concluding the adequacy of the instrument considering its objectives and its intended target population. Conclusion: This research aspires to diversify the existing validated resources in this scope, adding a new instrument that allows the assessment of preschool children who stutter. Consequently, it is hoped that this instrument will provide a real and reliable assessment that can lead to an appropriate therapeutic intervention according to the characteristics and needs of each child.

Keywords: stuttering, assessment, feelings and attitudes, speech language therapy

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268 Image Processing and Calculation of NGRDI Embedded System in Raspberry

Authors: Efren Lopez Jimenez, Maria Isabel Cajero, J. Irving-Vasqueza


The use and processing of digital images have opened up new opportunities for the resolution of problems of various kinds, such as the calculation of different vegetation indexes, among other things, differentiating healthy vegetation from humid vegetation. However, obtaining images from which these indexes are calculated is still the exclusive subject of active research. In the present work, we propose to obtain these images using a low cost embedded system (Raspberry Pi) and its processing, using a set of libraries of open code called OpenCV, in order to obtain the Normalized Red-Green Difference Index (NGRDI).

Keywords: Raspberry Pi, vegetation index, Normalized Red-Green Difference Index (NGRDI), OpenCV

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267 Numerical Simulation of the Production of Ceramic Pigments Using Microwave Radiation: An Energy Efficiency Study Towards the Decarbonization of the Pigment Sector

Authors: Pedro A. V. Ramos, Duarte M. S. Albuquerque, José C. F. Pereira


Global warming mitigation is one of the main challenges of this century, having the net balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to be null or negative in 2050. Industry electrification is one of the main paths to achieving carbon neutrality within the goals of the Paris Agreement. Microwave heating is becoming a popular industrial heating mechanism due to the absence of direct GHG emissions, but also the rapid, volumetric, and efficient heating. In the present study, a mathematical model is used to simulate the production using microwave heating of two ceramic pigments, at high temperatures (above 1200 Celsius degrees). The two pigments studied were the yellow (Pr, Zr)SiO₂ and the brown (Ti, Sb, Cr)O₂. The chemical conversion of reactants into products was included in the model by using the kinetic triplet obtained with the model-fitting method and experimental data present in the Literature. The coupling between the electromagnetic, thermal, and chemical interfaces was also included. The simulations were computed in COMSOL Multiphysics. The geometry includes a moving plunger to allow for the cavity impedance matching and thus maximize the electromagnetic efficiency. To accomplish this goal, a MATLAB controller was developed to automatically search the position of the moving plunger that guarantees the maximum efficiency. The power is automatically and permanently adjusted during the transient simulation to impose stationary regime and total conversion, the two requisites of every converged solution. Both 2D and 3D geometries were used and a parametric study regarding the axial bed velocity and the heat transfer coefficient at the boundaries was performed. Moreover, a Verification and Validation study was carried out by comparing the conversion profiles obtained numerically with the experimental data available in the Literature; the numerical uncertainty was also estimated to attest to the result's reliability. The results show that the model-fitting method employed in this work is a suitable tool to predict the chemical conversion of reactants into the pigment, showing excellent agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher velocities lead to higher thermal efficiencies and thus lower energy consumption during the process. This work concludes that the electromagnetic heating of materials having high loss tangent and low thermal conductivity, like ceramic materials, maybe a challenge due to the presence of hot spots, which may jeopardize the product quality or even the experimental apparatus. The MATLAB controller increased the electromagnetic efficiency by 25% and global efficiency of 54% was obtained for the titanate brown pigment. This work shows that electromagnetic heating will be a key technology in the decarbonization of the ceramic sector as reductions up to 98% in the specific GHG emissions were obtained when compared to the conventional process. Furthermore, numerical simulations appear as a suitable technique to be used in the design and optimization of microwave applicators, showing high agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: automatic impedance matching, ceramic pigments, efficiency maximization, high-temperature microwave heating, input power control, numerical simulation

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266 Human Trafficking and Prostitution in Amsterdam

Authors: Isabel Roiz, Alejandra Cossio


This essay will talk about the problems of forced prostitution, human trafficking, and sexual exploitation in the Netherlands. This work conveys information from different sources stating the numbers and statistics of human trafficking throughout Europe and the different types of sexual exploitation as well as the means used for coercing victims into this illegal net. The research aims to inform and compare the way this business is handled and the ways used by criminals to lure and retain victims in spite of the law. It also tries to compare the laws in the Netherlands and Sweden regarding prostitution affects the illegal migration problems and how they change the ways those who work as prostitutes are treated. The aim of the paper is to take all of these aspects into consideration and reach a decision of what laws would most beneficiate the victims.

Keywords: human trafficking, prostitution, laws of migration, Amsterdam

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
265 Cultivation of Halophytes: Effect of Salinity on Nutritional and Functional Properties

Authors: Luisa Barreira, Viana Castaneda, Maria J. Rodrigues, Florinda Gama, Tamara Santos, Marta Oliveira, Catarina Pereira, Maribela Pestana, Pedro Correia, Miguel Salazar, Carla Nunes, Luisa Custodio, Joao Varela


In the last century, the world witnessed an exponential demographic increase that has put an enormous pressure on agriculture and food production. Associated also with climate changes, there has been a decrease in the amount of available freshwater and an increased salinization of soils which can affect the production of most food crops. Halophytes, however, are plants able to withstand high salinities while maintaining a good growth productivity. To cope with the excess salt, they produce secondary metabolites (e.g. vitamins and phenolic compounds) which, along with the natural presence of some minerals, makes them not only nutritionally rich but also functional foods. Some halophytes, as quinoa or salicornia, are already used in some countries, mostly as gourmet food. Hydroponic cultivation of halophytes using seawater or diluted seawater for watering can decrease the pressure on freshwater resources while producing a nutritional and functional food. The XtremeGourmet project funded by the EU aims to develop and optimize the production of different halophytes by hydroponics. One of the more specific objectives of this project is the study of halophytes’ productivity and chemical composition under different abiotic conditions, e.g. salt and nutrient concentration and light intensity. Three species of halophytes commonly occurring in saltmarshes of the South of Portugal (Inula chrithmoides, Salicornia ramosissima and Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum) were cultivated using hydroponics under different salinities, ranging from 5 to 45 dS/m. For each condition, several parameters were assessed namely: total and commercial productivity, electrical conductivity, total soluble solids, proximal composition, mineral profile, total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins content and antioxidant activity. Results show that productivity was significantly reduced for all plants with increasing salinity up to salinity 29 dS/m and remained low onwards. Oppositely, the electrical conductivity and the total soluble solids content of the produced plants increased with salinity, reaching a plateau at 29 dS/m. It seems that plants reflect the salt concentration of the water up to some point, being able to regulate their salt content for higher salinities. The same tendency was observed for the ash content of these plants, which is related to the mineral uptake from the cultivating media and the plants’ capacity to both accumulate and regulate ions’ concentration in their tissues. Nonetheless, this comes with a metabolic cost which is observed by a decrease in productivity. The mineral profile of these plants shows high concentrations of sodium but also high amounts of potassium. In what concerns the microelements, these plants appear to be a good source of manganese and iron and the low amounts of toxic metals account for their safe consumption in moderate amounts. Concerning the phenolics composition, plants presented moderate concentrations of phenolics but high amounts of condensed tannins, particularly I. crithmoides which accounts for its characteristic sour and spicy taste. Contrary to some studies in which higher amounts of phenolics were found in plants cultivated under higher salinities, in this study, the highest amount of phenolic compounds were found in plants grown at the lowest or intermediate salinities. Nonetheless, there was a positive correlation between the concentration of these compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the plants’ extracts.

Keywords: functional properties, halophytes, hydroponics, nutritional composition, salinity effect

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264 Technological Improvements and the Challenges They Pose to Market Competition in the Philippines

Authors: Isabel L. Guidote


Continued advancements and innovation in the technological arena may yield both beneficial and detrimental effects to market competition in the Philippines. This paper discusses recent developments in the digital sphere which have resulted in improved access to the Philippine market for both producers and consumers. Acknowledging that these developments are likely to disrupt or alter prevailing market conditions, this paper likewise tackles competition theories of harm that may arise as a result of such technological innovations, with reference to cases decided by foreign competition authorities and the European Commission. As the Philippine moves closer to the digital frontier, it is imperative that producers, consumers, and regulators alike be well-equipped to address the risks and challenges posed by these rapid advancements in technology.

Keywords: antitrust, competition law, market competition, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
263 The Study of Idiom Translation in Fiction from English into Thai

Authors: Chinchira Bunchutrakun


The purposes of the study are to investigate the problems that the translators encountered when translating English idioms into Thai and study the strategies they applied in solving the problems. The original English version and the Thai translated version of each of two works of fiction were purposively selected for the study. The first was Mr. Maybe, written by Jane Green and translated by Montharat Songphao. The second was The Trials of Tiffany Trott, written by Isabel Wolff and translated by Jitraporn Notoda. Thirty idioms of two translated works of fiction were, then, analyzed. Questionnaires and interviews with the translators of each novel were conducted to obtain the best possible information. The results indicated that the only type of problem that occurred was cultural problems, and these were solved differently by the two translators.

Keywords: translation, idiom translation, fiction translation, problem-solution strategies

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262 A Bayesian Model with Improved Prior in Extreme Value Problems

Authors: Eva L. Sanjuán, Jacinto Martín, M. Isabel Parra, Mario M. Pizarro


In Extreme Value Theory, inference estimation for the parameters of the distribution is made employing a small part of the observation values. When block maxima values are taken, many data are discarded. We developed a new Bayesian inference model to seize all the information provided by the data, introducing informative priors and using the relations between baseline and limit parameters. Firstly, we studied the accuracy of the new model for three baseline distributions that lead to a Gumbel extreme distribution: Exponential, Normal and Gumbel. Secondly, we considered mixtures of Normal variables, to simulate practical situations when data do not adjust to pure distributions, because of perturbations (noise).

Keywords: bayesian inference, extreme value theory, Gumbel distribution, highly informative prior

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261 Effect of Substrate Type on Pollutant Removal and Greenhouse Gases Emissions in Constructed Wetlands with Ornamental Plants

Authors: Maria E. Hernnadez, Elizabeth Ramos, Claudia Ortiz


Pollutant removal (N-NH4, COD, S-SO4, N-NO3 and P-PO4) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) emissions were investigated in constructed wetlands CW mesocosms with four types of substrate (gravel (G) zeolite (Z), Gravel+Plastic (GP) and zeolite+plastic), all planted with the ornamental plant lily (Lilium sp). Significantly higher N-NH4 removal was found in the CW-Z (97%) and CW-ZP (85%) compared with CW-G (61%) and CW-GP (17%), also significantly lower emissions of nitrous oxide were found in CW-Z (2.2 µgm-2min-1) and CW-ZP (2.5 µgm-2min-1) compared with CW-G(7.4 µgm-2min-1 ) and CW-GP (6.30 µgm-2min-1).

Keywords: methane, nitrous oxide, lily, zeolite

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260 Extraction and Characterization of Kernel Oil of Acrocomia Totai

Authors: Gredson Keif Souza, Nehemias Curvelo Pereira


Kernel oil from Macaúba is an important source of essential fatty acids. Thus, a new knowledge of the oil of this species could be used in new applications, such as pharmaceutical drugs based in the manufacture of cosmetics, and in various industrial processes. The aim of this study was to characterize the kernel oil of macaúba (Acrocomia Totai) at different times of their maturation. The physico-chemical characteristics were determined in accordance with the official analytical methods of oils and fats. It was determined the content of water and lipids in kernel, saponification value, acid value, water content in the oil, viscosity, density, composition in fatty acids by gas chromatography and molar mass. The results submitted to Tukey test for significant value to 5%. Found for the unripe fruits values superior to unsaturated fatty acids.

Keywords: extraction, characterization, kernel oil, acrocomia totai

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259 Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Addition in the Intake Air of Compressed Engines Running on Biodiesel Blend

Authors: Hendrick Maxil Zárate Rocha, Ricardo da Silva Pereira, Manoel Fernandes Martins Nogueira, Carlos R. Pereira Belchior, Maria Emilia de Lima Tostes


This study investigates experimentally the effects of hydrogen addition in the intake manifold of a diesel generator operating with a 7% biodiesel-diesel oil blend (B7). An experimental apparatus setup was used to conduct performance and emissions tests in a single cylinder, air cooled diesel engine. This setup consisted of a generator set connected to a wirewound resistor load bank that was used to vary engine load. In addition, a flowmeter was used to determine hydrogen volumetric flowrate and a digital anemometer coupled with an air box to measure air flowrate. Furthermore, a digital precision electronic scale was used to measure engine fuel consumption and a gas analyzer was used to determine exhaust gas composition and exhaust gas temperature. A thermopar was installed near the exhaust collection to measure cylinder temperature. In-cylinder pressure was measured using an AVL Indumicro data acquisition system with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. An AVL optical encoder was installed in the crankshaft and synchronized with in-cylinder pressure in real time. The experimental procedure consisted of injecting hydrogen into the engine intake manifold at different mass concentrations of 2,6,8 and 10% of total fuel mass (B7 + hydrogen), which represented energy fractions of 5,15, 20 and 24% of total fuel energy respectively. Due to hydrogen addition, the total amount of fuel energy introduced increased and the generators fuel injection governor prevented any increases of engine speed. Several conclusions can be stated from the test results. A reduction in specific fuel consumption as a function of hydrogen concentration increase was noted. Likewise, carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) decreased as hydrogen concentration increased. On the other hand, nitrogen oxides emissions (NOx) increased due to average temperatures inside the cylinder being higher. There was also an increase in peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate inside the cylinder, since the fuel ignition delay was smaller due to hydrogen content increase. All this indicates that hydrogen promotes faster combustion and higher heat release rates and can be an important additive to all kind of fuels used in diesel generators.

Keywords: diesel engine, hydrogen, dual fuel, combustion analysis, performance, emissions

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258 Directors’ Compensation: Analyzing the Multilevel Factors That Exert the Greatest Influence

Authors: Isabel Acero, Nuria Alcalde


The economic crisis and notorious corporate scandals have caused social indignation and sparked the debate concerning the underlying rationality of the compensation that directors receive. In this context, this study examines the determinants of the remuneration of directors in listed Spanish companies using individualized data. A multilevel methodology appropriate for this type of data has been used that allows us to differentiate between inter-company variations and intra-company variations. The results show that company size is the variable (at the company level) that exerts the greatest influence on the level of director´s compensation. One surprising finding is that the presence of independent directors on the board has a positive influence on remuneration. At the individual level, tenure and experience have a significant influence on the level of compensation, while the director´s level of education does not appear to have an effect on it.

Keywords: board of directors, compensation, experience, multilevel, tenure

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257 Causal Modeling of the Glucose-Insulin System in Type-I Diabetic Patients

Authors: J. Fernandez, N. Aguilar, R. Fernandez de Canete, J. C. Ramos-Diaz


In this paper, a simulation model of the glucose-insulin system for a patient undergoing diabetes Type 1 is developed by using a causal modeling approach under system dynamics. The OpenModelica simulation environment has been employed to build the so called causal model, while the glucose-insulin model parameters were adjusted to fit recorded mean data of a diabetic patient database. Model results under different conditions of a three-meal glucose and exogenous insulin ingestion patterns have been obtained. This simulation model can be useful to evaluate glucose-insulin performance in several circumstances, including insulin infusion algorithms in open-loop and decision support systems in closed-loop.

Keywords: causal modeling, diabetes, glucose-insulin system, diabetes, causal modeling, OpenModelica software

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256 Adaptive Filtering in Subbands for Supervised Source Separation

Authors: Bruna Luisa Ramos Prado Vasques, Mariane Rembold Petraglia, Antonio Petraglia


This paper investigates MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) adaptive filtering techniques for the application of supervised source separation in the context of convolutive mixtures. From the observation that there is correlation among the signals of the different mixtures, an improvement in the NSAF (Normalized Subband Adaptive Filter) algorithm is proposed in order to accelerate its convergence rate. Simulation results with mixtures of speech signals in reverberant environments show the superior performance of the proposed algorithm with respect to the performances of the NLMS (Normalized Least-Mean-Square) and conventional NSAF, considering both the convergence speed and SIR (Signal-to-Interference Ratio) after convergence.

Keywords: adaptive filtering, multi-rate processing, normalized subband adaptive filter, source separation

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255 Analytical Similarity Assessment of Bevacizumab Biosimilar Candidate MB02 Using Multiple State-of-the-Art Assays

Authors: Marie-Elise Beydon, Daniel Sacristan, Isabel Ruppen


MB02 (Alymsys®) is a candidate biosimilar to bevacizumab, which was developed against the reference product (RP) Avastin® sourced from both the European Union (EU) and United States (US). MB02 has been extensively characterized comparatively to Avastin® at a physicochemical and biological level using sensitive orthogonal state-of-the-art analytical methods. MB02 has been demonstrated similar to the RP with regard to its primary and higher-order structure, post- and co-translational profiles such as glycosylation, charge, and size variants. Specific focus has been put on the characterization of Fab-related activities, such as binding to VEGF A 165, which directly reflect the bevacizumab mechanism of action. Fc-related functionality was also investigated, including binding to FcRn, which is indicative of antibodies' half-life. The data generated during the analytical similarity assessment demonstrate the high analytical similarity of MB02 to its RP.

Keywords: analytical similarity, bevacizumab, biosimilar, MB02

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