Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Cansu Çelebi

29 Changes on Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Red Beetroot Juice during Ultrasound Pretreatment

Authors: Serdal Sabanci, Mutlu Çevik, Derya Tezcan, Cansu Çelebi, Filiz Içier

Abstract:

Ultrasound is defined as sound waves having frequencies higher than 20 kHz, which is greater than the limits of the human hearing range. In recent years, ultrasonic treatment is an emerging technology being used increasingly in the food industry. It is applied as an alternative technique for different purposes such as microbial and enzyme inactivation, extraction, drying, filtration, crystallization, degas, cutting etc. Red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) is a root vegetable which is rich in mineral components, folic acid, dietary fiber, anthocyanin pigments. In this study, the application of low frequency high intensity ultrasound to the red beetroot slices and red beetroot juice for different treatment times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 min) was investigated. Ultrasonicated red beetroot slices were also squeezed immediately. Changes on colour, betanin, pH and titratable acidity properties of red beetroot juices (the ultrasonicated juice (UJ) and the juice from ultrasonicated slices (JUS)) were determined. Although there was no significant difference statistically in the changes of color value of JUS samples due to ultrasound application (p>0.05), the color properties of UJ samples ultrasonicated for low durations were statistically different from raw material (p<0.05). The difference between color values of UJ and raw material disappeared (p>0.05) as the ultrasonication duration increased. The application of ultrasound to red beet root slices adversely affected and decreased the betanin content of JUS samples. On the other hand, the betanin content of UJ samples increased as the ultrasonication duration increased. Ultrasound treatment did not affect pH and titratable acidity of red beetroot juices statistically (p>0.05). The results suggest that ultrasound technology is the simple and economical technique which may successfully be employed for the processing of red beetroot juice with improved color and betanin quality. However, further investigation is still needed to confirm this.

Keywords: red beetroot, ultrasound, color, betanin

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28 Hardware Implementation of Local Binary Pattern Based Two-Bit Transform Motion Estimation

Authors: Seda Yavuz, Anıl Çelebi, Aysun Taşyapı Çelebi, Oğuzhan Urhan

Abstract:

Nowadays, demand for using real-time video transmission capable devices is ever-increasing. So, high resolution videos have made efficient video compression techniques an essential component for capturing and transmitting video data. Motion estimation has a critical role in encoding raw video. Hence, various motion estimation methods are introduced to efficiently compress the video. Low bit‑depth representation based motion estimation methods facilitate computation of matching criteria and thus, provide small hardware footprint. In this paper, a hardware implementation of a two-bit transformation based low-complexity motion estimation method using local binary pattern approach is proposed. Image frames are represented in two-bit depth instead of full-depth by making use of the local binary pattern as a binarization approach and the binarization part of the hardware architecture is explained in detail. Experimental results demonstrate the difference between the proposed hardware architecture and the architectures of well-known low-complexity motion estimation methods in terms of important aspects such as resource utilization, energy and power consumption.

Keywords: binarization, hardware architecture, local binary pattern, motion estimation, two-bit transform

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27 Succession and Rural vs. Urban Habitat Differences of Coleoptera Species Attracted to Pig Carrions in Eskişehir Province, Turkey

Authors: Cansu Kılıç, Ferhat Altunsoy

Abstract:

In this study, a total of 82 species belonging to the families Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Dermestidae, Silphidae and Cleridae within Coleptera were detected which are collected from 24 pig carrion for a duration of one year. While 12 of the carrions have been placed in rural areas, other 12 have been placed in urban areas in Eskişehir province. The distribution of these species according to months and the period that they exist on different stages of decomposition were determined. Furthermore, Coleoptera species attracted to the pig carrions both in rural and urban areas were detected and their similarities and differences were presented.

Keywords: forensic entomology, Coleoptera, succession, Turkey, rural, urban

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26 Laser Beam Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih. V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

Abstract:

This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

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25 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

Abstract:

This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

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24 The Effects of Signal Level of the Microwave Generator on the Brillouin Gain Spectrum in BOTDA and BOTDR

Authors: Murat Yucel, Murat Yucel, Nail Ferhat Ozturk, Halim Haldun Goktas, Cemal Gemci, Fatih Vehbi Celebi

Abstract:

In this study, Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) is experimentally analyzed in the Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) and Brillouin optical time domain analyzer (BOTDA). For this purpose, the signal level of the microwave generator is varied and the effects of BGS are investigated. In the setups, 20 km conventional single mode fiber is used to both setups and laser wavelengths are selected around 1550 nm. To achieve best results, it can be used between 5 dBm to 15 dBm signal level of microwave generator for BOTDA and BOTDR setups.

Keywords: microwave signal level, Brillouin gain spectrum, BOTDA, BOTDR

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23 Using Scale Invariant Feature Transform Features to Recognize Characters in Natural Scene Images

Authors: Belaynesh Chekol, Numan Çelebi

Abstract:

The main purpose of this work is to recognize individual characters extracted from natural scene images using scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features as an input to K-nearest neighbor (KNN); a classification learner algorithm. For this task, 1,068 and 78 images of English alphabet characters taken from Chars74k data set is used to train and test the classifier respectively. For each character image, We have generated describing features by using SIFT algorithm. This set of features is fed to the learner so that it can recognize and label new images of English characters. Two types of KNN (fine KNN and weighted KNN) were trained and the resulted classification accuracy is 56.9% and 56.5% respectively. The training time taken was the same for both fine and weighted KNN.

Keywords: character recognition, KNN, natural scene image, SIFT

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22 A Paper Based Sensor for Mercury Ion Detection

Authors: Emine G. Cansu Ergun

Abstract:

Conjugated system based sensors for selective detection of metal ions have been taking attention during last two decades. Fluorescent sensors are the promising candidates for ion detection due to their high selectivity towards metal ions, and rapid response times. Detection of mercury in an environmenet is important since mercury is a toxic element for human. Beyond the maximum allowable limit, mercury may cause serious problems in human health by spreading into the atmosphere, water and the food chain. In this study, a quinoxaline and 3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene based donor-acceptor-donor type conjugated molecule used as a fluorescent sensor for detecting the mercury ion in aqueous medium. Among other various cations, existence of mercury resulted in a full quenching of the fluorescence signal. Then, a paper based sensor is constructed and used for mercury detection. As a result it is concluded that the offering sensor is a good candidate for selective mercury detection in aqueous media both in solution and paper based forms.

Keywords: Conjugated molecules , fluorescence quenching, metal ion detection , sensors

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21 FPGA Implementation of Adaptive Clock Recovery for TDMoIP Systems

Authors: Semih Demir, Anil Celebi

Abstract:

Circuit switched networks widely used until the end of the 20th century have been transformed into packages switched networks. Time Division Multiplexing over Internet Protocol (TDMoIP) is a system that enables Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) traffic to be carried over packet switched networks (PSN). In TDMoIP systems, devices that send TDM data to the PSN and receive it from the network must operate with the same clock frequency. In this study, it was aimed to implement clock synchronization process in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips using time information attached to the packages received from PSN. The designed hardware is verified using the datasets obtained for the different carrier types and comparing the results with the software model. Field tests are also performed by using the real time TDMoIP system.

Keywords: clock recovery on TDMoIP, FPGA, MATLAB reference model, clock synchronization

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20 Weight Comparison of Oil and Dry Type Distribution Transformers

Authors: Murat Toren, Mehmet Çelebi

Abstract:

Reducing the weight of transformers while providing good performance, cost reduction and increased efficiency is important. Weight is one of the most significant factors in all electrical machines, and as such, many transformer design parameters are related to weight calculations. This study presents a comparison of the weight of oil type transformers and dry type transformer weight. Oil type transformers are mainly used in industry; however, dry type transformers are becoming more widespread in recent years. MATLAB is typically used for designing transformers and design parameters (rated voltages, core loss, etc.) along with design in ANSYS Maxwell. Similar to other studies, this study presented that the dry type transformer option is limited. Moreover, the commonly-used 50 kVA distribution transformers in the industry are oil type and dry type transformers are designed and considered in terms of weight. Currently, the preference for low-cost oil-type transformers would change if costs for dry-type transformer were more competitive. The aim of this study was to compare the weight of transformers, which is a substantial cost factor, and to provide an evaluation about increasing the use of dry type transformers.

Keywords: weight, optimization, oil-type transformers, dry-type transformers

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19 Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Analysis on Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Cafer Görkem Pınar, İlker Coşar, Serkan Uzun, Atahan Çelebi, Mehmet Ali Ersoy, Ali Pınarbaşı

Abstract:

In this study, it was numerically investigated that a 1:1 scale model of the Renault Clio MK4 SW brand vehicle aerodynamic analysis was performed in the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package program of ANSYS CFX 2021 R1 under steady, subsonic, and 3-D conditions. The model of vehicle used for the analysis was made independent of the number of mesh elements, and the k-epsilon turbulence model was applied during the analysis. Results were interpreted as streamlines, pressure gradient, and turbulent kinetic energy contours around the vehicle at 50 km/h and 100 km/h speeds. In addition, the validity of the analysis was decided by comparing the drag coefficient of the vehicle with the values in the literature. As a result, the pressure gradient contours of the taillight of the Renault Clio MK4 SW vehicle were examined, and the behavior of the total force at speeds of 50 km/h and 100 km/h was interpreted.

Keywords: CFD, k-epsilon, aerodynamics, drag coefficient, taillight

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18 A FR Fire-Off with Polysilicic Acid for Pes/Co Blends

Authors: Raziye Atakan, Ebru Celebi, Gulay Ozcan, Neda Soydan, A. Sezai Sarac

Abstract:

In this study, a novel polymeric flame retardant chemical with phosphorous-nitrogen synergism was synthesized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydrophilic polyester resin (PR), phosphoric acid and dicyandiamide (DCDA). Polyester/Cotton (Pes/Co) blend fabrics were treated via pad-dry-cure process with this synthesized chemical. PVA (PR)-P-DCDA has shown that it is an effective flame retardant on the fabrics. In order to improve durable flame retardancy for cotton part of the blend, polysilicic acid and citric acid monohydrate auxiliaries were added in FR finishing bath at different concentrations. Flammability and characteristic properties of the sample were tested according to relevant ISO standard and procedures. To do so, ISO 6940 vertical flammability test, TGA, DTA, LOI and FTIR analysis have been performed. The obtained results showed that this new finishing formulation is a good char-forming agent for the PES/CO blends and polysilicic acid could be used for cellulosic blends with PVA (PR)-P-DCDA.

Keywords: flame retardancy, flammability, Pes/Co blends, polysilicic acid

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17 The Eathquake Discourse as a Strategy of an Urban Renewal: A Case Study into the Karapınar Valley Regeneration Project in Eskişehir, Turkey

Authors: Cansu Civelek

Abstract:

The flexible and uneven character of neoliberalism has provided adaptation of urban strategies into the constantly changing circumstances in order to renew and reproduce the neoliberal accumulation model. Instrumentalization of catastrophic events to this end has been one of those global urban strategies. Regarding Turkey, exploitation of natural disasters has been the latest tactic of the Justice and Development Party (JDP) government to achieve radical economic goals. ‘Unhealthy’ and ‘risky’ structures of squatter settlements have often been articulated while the regenerations, expropriations, and exclusions have been sugarcoated through the discourses of ‘reintegrating the shanty zones into the cities’, ‘supplying healthy housing’, and ‘win-win’ character of the projects. Being the first regeneration project of Eskişehir, the Karapınar Regeneration Project has been initiated in 2011 by the partnership of the Odunpazarı Municipality of the JDP and the Mass Housing Organization. Discourses around the forthcoming disasters, ‘risky structures’ of the squatters, and the importance of the ‘security of life and property’ have been utilized, even though the zone is situated on a geotechnically stable area. Yet, many of the locals are worried about the payments while some have already decided to move elsewhere at the outskirts of the city.

Keywords: neoliberal urbanism, urban regeneration, illegal settlements, discourses

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16 A Thermal Analysis Based Approach to Obtain High Carbonaceous Fibers from Chicken Feathers

Authors: Y. Okumuş, A. Tuna, A. T. Seyhan, H. Çelebi

Abstract:

Useful carbon fibers were derived from chicken feathers (PCFs) based on a two-step pyrolysis method. The collected PCFs were cleaned and categorized as black, white and brown. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) were systemically used to design the pyrolysis steps. Depending on colors, feathers exhibit different glass transition (Tg) temperatures. Long-time heat treatment applied to the feathers emerged influential on the surface quality of the resulting carbon fibers. Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) examination revealed that the extent of disulfide bond cleavage is highly associated with the feather melting stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations were employed to evaluate the morphological changes of feathers after pyrolysis. Of all, brown feathers were found to be the most promising to turn into useful carbon fibers without any trace of melting and shape distortion when pyrolysis was carried out at 230°C for 24 hours and at 450°C for 1 hour.

Keywords: poultry chicken feather, keratin protein fiber, pyrolysis, high carbonaceous fibers

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15 Microfluidization for Processing of Carbonized Chicken Feather Fiber (CCFF) Modified Epoxy Suspensions and the Thermal Properties of the Resulting Composites

Authors: A. Tuna, Y. Okumuş, A. T. Seyhan, H. Çelebi

Abstract:

In this study, microfluidization was considered a promising approach to breaking up of carbonized chicken feather fibers (CCFFs) flocs to synthesizing epoxy suspensions containing (1 wt. %) CCFFs. For comparison, CCFF was also treated using sonication. The energy consumed to break up CCFFs in the ethanol was the same for both processes. CCFFs were found to be dispersed in ethanol in a significantly shorter time with the high shear processor. The CCFFs treated by both sonication and microfluidization were dispersed in epoxy by sonication. SEM examination revealed that CCFFs were broken up into smaller pieces using the high shear processor while being not agglomerated. Further, DSC, TMA, and DMA were systematically used to measure thermal properties of the resulting composites. A significant improvement was observed in the composites including CCFFs treated with microfluidization.

Keywords: carbonized chicken feather fiber (CCFF), modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), modulated thermomechanical analysis (MTMA), thermal properties

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14 Investigation of Film and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)

Authors: Reyhan Özdoğan, Özgür Ceylan, Mehmet Arif Kaya, Mithat Çelebi

Abstract:

Food packaging is important for the food industry. Bioplastics have been used as food packaging materials. According to the European Bioplastics organization, bioplastics can be defined as plastics based on renewable resources (bio-based) or as plastics which are biodegradable and/or compostable. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has an industrially importance of bioplastic polymers. PLA is a family of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester made from renewable resources. It is produced by conversion of corn, or other carbohydrate sources, into dextrose, followed by fermentation into lactic acid through direct polycondensation of lactic acid monomers or through ring-opening polymerization of lactide. The processing possibilities of this transparent material are very wide, ranging from injection molding and extrusion over cast film extrusion to blow molding and thermoforming. In this study, PLA films were prepared by solution casting method. PLAs which are different molecular weights were plasticized with glycerol and the morphology of films was monitored by optical microscopy. Properties of mechanical and film of PLA were researched with the mechanical testing machine.

Keywords: biodegradable, bioplastics, morphology, solution casting, poly(lactic acid)

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13 Utilization of Composite Components for Land Vehicle Systems: A Review

Authors: Kivilcim Ersoy, Cansu Yazganarikan

Abstract:

In recent years, composite materials are more frequently utilized not only in aviation but also in automotive industry due to its high strength to weight ratio, fatigue and corrosion resistances as well as better performances in specific environments. The market demand also favors lightweight design for wheeled and tracked armored vehicles due to the increased demand for land and amphibious mobility features. This study represents the current application areas and trends in automotive, bus and armored land vehicles industries. In addition, potential utilization areas of fiber composite and hybrid material concepts are being addressed. This work starts with a survey of current applications and patent trends of composite materials in automotive and land vehicle industries. An intensive investigation is conducted to determine the potential of these materials for application in land vehicle industry, where small series production dominates and challenging requirements are concerned. In the end, potential utilization areas for combat land vehicle systems are offered. By implementing these light weight solutions with alternative materials and design concepts, it is possible to achieve drastic weight reduction, which will enable both land and amphibious mobility without unyielding stiffness and survivability capabilities.

Keywords: land vehicle, composite, light-weight design, armored vehicle

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12 Toxicity Analysis of Metal Coating Industry Wastewaters by Phytotoxicity Method

Authors: Sukru Dursun, Zeynep Cansu Ayturan, Mostafa Maroof

Abstract:

Metal coating which is important method used for protecting metals against oxidation and corrosion, decreasing friction, protecting metals from chemicals, easing cleaning of the metals. There are several methods used for metal coating such as hot-dip galvanizing, thermal spraying, electroplating and sherardizing. Method which will be used for metal coating depends on the type of metal. The materials mostly used for coating are zinc, nickel, brass, chrome, gold, cadmium, copper, brass, and silver. Within these materials, chrome ion has significant negative impacts on human, other living organisms and environment. Moreover, especially on human chrome may cause lung cancer, stomach ulcer, kidney and liver function disorders and death. Therefore, wastewaters of metal coating industry including chrome should be treated very carefully. In this study, wastewater containing chrome produced by metal coating industry was analysed with phytotoxicity method that is based on measuring the reaction of some plant species against different concentrations of chrome solution. Main plants used for phytotoxicity tests are Lepidium sativum and Lemna minor. Owing to phytotoxicity test, assessing the negative effects of chrome which may harm plants and offering more accurate wastewater treatment techniques against chromium wastewater is possible. Furthermore, the results taken from phytotoxicity tests were analysed with respect to their variance and their importance against different concentrations of chrome solution were determined.

Keywords: metal coating wastewater, chrome, phytotoxicity, Lepidium sativum, Lemna minor

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11 Evaluation of the Nursing Management Course in Undergraduate Nursing Programs of State Universities in Turkey

Authors: Oznur Ispir, Oya Celebi Cakiroglu, Esengul Elibol, Emine Ceribas, Gizem Acikgoz, Hande Yesilbas, Merve Tarhan

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the academic staff teaching the 'Nursing Management' course in the undergraduate nursing programs of the state universities in Turkey and to assess the current content of the course. Design of the study is descriptive. Population of the study consists of seventy-eight undergraduate nursing programs in the state universities in Turkey. The questionnaire/survey prepared by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The data were obtained by screening the content of the websites of nursing education programs between March and May 2016. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The research performed within the study indicated that 58% of the undergraduate nursing programs from which the data were derived were included in the school of health, 81% of the academic staff graduated from the undergraduate nursing programs, 40% worked as a lecturer and 37% specialized in a field other than the nursing. The research also implied that the above-mentioned course was included in 98% of the programs from which it was possible to obtain data. The full name of the course was 'Nursing Management' in 95% of the programs and 98% stated that the course was compulsory. Theory and application hours were 3.13 and 2.91, respectively. Moreover, the content of the course was not shared in 65% of the programs reviewed. This study demonstrated that the experience and expertise of the academic staff teaching the 'Nursing Management' course was not sufficient in the management area, and the schedule and content of the course were not sufficient although many nursing education programs provided the course. Comparison between the curricula of the course revealed significant differences.

Keywords: nursing, nursing management, nursing management course, undergraduate program

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10 Framing a Turkish Campus Sustainability Indicator Set

Authors: Cansu Tari, Ute Poerschke

Abstract:

Sustainable campus design and planning in Higher Education requires an entire action plan and coordination of physical, educational, and social systems. Many institutions in the world are defining their sustainable development path and some are following existing green building and sustainable campus rating/ranking systems, guidelines. In the context of higher education, Turkish universities have limited academic, social and financial support related to sustainable living, building, and campus studies. While some research has been conducted in the last 60 years by farsighted academics, most of these works are based on individuals’ or small organizations’ own interests and efforts, and they are not known enough by the population of universities and possible prospective investors. Regarding the recent fast and uncontrolled growth in the Turkish Higher Education environment, setting a campus sustainability indicator set is a necessity for sustainable development of universities. The main objective of this paper is to specify the applicable sustainability indicators in the national context of Turkey, and propose a model guideline for sustainable Turkish university campuses. The analysis of Turkish legislation on environmental issues, special conditions of Turkish Higher Education system, and Turkey’s environmental risks and challenges set the backbone of the study and distinguish the set of indicators from generalized guidelines. Finally, the paper outlines some concrete suggestions for Turkish Universities to integrate sustainability efforts in their regional context. It will be useful for campus sustainability managers and planners, interested in developing action plans in their national and regional scope.

Keywords: campus sustainability, sustainability indicators, Turkish universities, national campus sustainability action plan

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
9 Domains of Socialization Interview: Development and Psychometric Properties

Authors: Dilek Saritas Atalar, Cansu Alsancak Akbulut, İrem Metin Orta, Feyza Yön, Zeynep Yenen, Joan Grusec

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop semi-structured Domains of Socialization Interview and its coding manual and to test their psychometric properties. Domains of Socialization Interview was designed to assess maternal awareness regarding effective parenting in five socialization domains (protection, mutual reciprocity, control, guided learning, and group participation) within the framework of the domains-of-socialization approach. Method: A series of two studies were conducted to develop and validate the interview and its coding manual. The pilot study, sampled 13 mothers of preschool-aged children, was conducted to develop the assessment tools and to test their function and clarity. Participants of the main study were 82 Turkish mothers (Xage = 34.25, SD = 3.53) who have children aged between 35-76 months (Xage = 50.75, SD = 11.24). Mothers filled in a questionnaire package including Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionnaire, Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation-30, Child Rearing Questionnaire, and Two Dimensional Social Desirability Questionnaire. Afterward, interviews were conducted online by a single interviewer. Interviews were rated independently by two graduate students based on the coding manual. Results: The relationships of the awareness of effective parenting scores to the other measures demonstrate convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the coding manual. Intra-class correlation coefficient estimates were ranged between 0.82 and 0.90, showing high interrater reliability of the coding manual. Conclusion: Taken as a whole, the results of these studies demonstrate the validity and reliability of a new and useful interview to measure maternal awareness regarding effective parenting within the framework of the domains-of-socialization approach.

Keywords: domains of socialization, parenting, interview, assessment

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8 Rheological Properties of Red Beet Root Juice Squeezed from Ultrasounicated Red Beet Root Slices

Authors: M. Çevik, S. Sabancı, D. Tezcan, C. Çelebi, F. İçier

Abstract:

Ultrasound technology is the one of the non-thermal food processing method in recent years which has been used widely in the food industry. Ultrasound application in the food industry is divided into two groups: low and high intensity ultrasound application. While low intensity ultrasound is used to obtain information about physicochemical properties of foods, high intensity ultrasound is used to extract bioactive components and to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes. In this study, the ultrasound pre-treatment at a constant power (1500 W) and fixed frequency (20 kHz) was applied to the red beetroot slices having the dimension of 25×25×50 mm at the constant temperature (25°C) for different application times (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min). The red beet root slices pretreated with ultrasonication was squeezed immediately. The changes on rheological properties of red beet root juice depending on ultrasonication duration applied to slices were investigated. Rheological measurements were conducted by using Brookfield viscometer (LVDV-II Pro, USA). Shear stress-shear rate data was obtained from experimental measurements for 0-200 rpm range by using spindle 18. Rheological properties of juice were determined by fitting this data to some rheological models (Newtonian, Bingham, Power Law, Herschel Bulkley). It was investigated that the best model was Power Law model for both untreated red beet root juice (R2=0.991, χ2=0.0007, RMSE=0.0247) and red beetroot juice produced from ultrasonicated slices (R2=0.993, χ2=0.0006, RMSE=0.0216 for 20 min pre-treatment). k (consistency coefficient) and n (flow behavior index) values of red beetroot juices were not affected from the duration of ultrasonication applied to the slices. Ultrasound treatment does not result in any changes on the rheological properties of red beetroot juice. This can be explained by lack of ability to homogenize of the intensity of applied ultrasound.

Keywords: ultrasonication, rheology, red beet root slice, juice

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7 Triplet Shear Tests on Retrofitted Brickwork Masonry Walls

Authors: Berna Istegun, Erkan Celebi

Abstract:

The main objective of this experimental study is to assess the shear strength and the crack behavior of the triplets built of perforated brickwork masonry elements. In order to observe the influence of shear resistance and energy dissipating before and after retrofitting applications by using the reinforcing system, static-cyclic shear tests were employed in the structural mechanics laboratory of Sakarya University. The reinforcing system is composed of hybrid multiaxial seismic fabric consisting of alkali resistant glass and polypropylene fibers. The plaster as bonding material used in the specimen’s retrofitting consists of expanded glass granular. In order to acquire exact measuring data about the failure behavior of the two mortar joints under shear stressing, vertical load-controlled cylinder having force capacity of 50 kN and loading rate of 1.5 mm/min. with an internal inductive displacement transducers is carried out perpendicular to the triplet specimens. In this study, a total of six triplet specimens with textile reinforcement were prepared for these shear bond tests. The three of them were produced as single-sided reinforced triplets with seismic fabric, while the others were strengthened on both sides. In addition, three triplet specimens without retrofitting and plaster were also tested as reference samples. The obtained test results were given in the manner of force-displacement relationships, ductility coefficients and shear strength parameters comparatively. It is concluded that two-side seismic textile applications on masonry elements with relevant plaster have considerably increased the sheer force resistance and the ductility capacity.

Keywords: expanded glass granular, perforated brickwork, retrofitting, seismic fabric, triplet shear tests

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6 Determination of Mechanical Properties of Adhesives via Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method

Authors: Murat Demir Aydin, Elanur Celebi

Abstract:

Adhesively bonded joints are used as an alternative to traditional joining methods due to the important advantages they provide. The most important consideration in the use of adhesively bonded joints is that these joints have appropriate requirements for their use in terms of safety. In order to ensure control of this condition, damage analysis of the adhesively bonded joints should be performed by determining the mechanical properties of the adhesives. When the literature is investigated; it is generally seen that the mechanical properties of adhesives are determined by traditional measurement methods. In this study, to determine the mechanical properties of adhesives, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method, which can be an alternative to traditional measurement methods, has been used. The DIC method is a new optical measurement method which is used to determine the parameters of displacement and strain in an appropriate and correct way. In this study, tensile tests of Thick Adherent Shear Test (TAST) samples formed using DP410 liquid structural adhesive and steel materials and bulk tensile specimens formed using and DP410 liquid structural adhesive was performed. The displacement and strain values of the samples were determined by DIC method and the shear stress-strain curves of the adhesive for TAST specimens and the tensile strain curves of the bulk adhesive specimens were obtained. Various methods such as numerical methods are required as conventional measurement methods (strain gauge, mechanic extensometer, etc.) are not sufficient in determining the strain and displacement values of the very thin adhesive layer such as TAST samples. As a result, the DIC method removes these requirements and easily achieves displacement measurements with sufficient accuracy.

Keywords: structural adhesive, adhesively bonded joints, digital image correlation, thick adhered shear test (TAST)

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5 Lipid Emulsion versus DigiFab in a Rat Model of Acute Digoxin Toxicity

Authors: Cansu Arslan Turan, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu, Kemal Aygun, Ecem Deniz Kırkpantur, Ozge Ecmel Onur

Abstract:

Although the mechanism of action is not well known, Intravenous Lipid Emulsion (ILE) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. It is thought that ILE probably separate the lipophilic drugs from target tissue by creating a lipid-rich compartment in the plasma. The second theory is that ILE provides energy to myocardium with high dose free fatty acids activating the voltage gated calcium channels in the myocytes. In this study, the effects of ILE treatment on digoxin overdose which are frequently observed in emergency departments was searched in an animal model in terms of cardiac side effects and survival. The study was carried out at Yeditepe University, Faculty of Medicine-Experimental Animals Research Center Labs in December 2015. 40 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-400 g were divided into 5 groups randomly. As the pre-treatment, the first group received saline, the second group received lipid, the third group received DigiFab, and the fourth group received DigiFab and lipid. Following that, digoxin was infused to all groups until death except the control group. First arrhythmia and cardiac arrest occurrence times were recorded. As no medication causing arrhythmia was infused, Group 5 was excluded from the statistical analysis performed for the comparisons of first arrhythmia and death time. According to the results although there was no significant difference in the statistical analysis comparing the four groups, as the rats, only exposed to digoxin intoxication were compared with the rats pre-treated with ILE in terms of first arrhythmia time and cardiac arrest occurrence times, significant difference was observed between the groups. According to our results, using DigiFab treatment, intralipid treatment, intralipid and DigiFab treatment for the rats exposed to digoxin intoxication makes no significant difference in terms of the first arrhythmia and death occurrence time. However, it is not possible to say that at the doses we use in the study, ILE treatment might be successful at least as a known antidote. The fact that the statistical significance between the two groups is not observed in the inter-comparisons of all the groups, the study should be repeated in the larger groups.

Keywords: arrhytmia, cardiac arrest, DigiFab, digoxin intoxication

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4 Valorization of Seafood and Poultry By-Products as Gelatin Source and Quality Assessment

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan, Umran Cansu, Gokhan Boran, Fatih Ozogul

Abstract:

Gelatin is a mixture of peptides obtained from collagen by partial thermal hydrolysis. It is an important and useful biopolymer that is used in the food, pharmacy, and photography products. Generally, gelatins are sourced from pig skin and bones, beef bone and hide, but within the last decade, using alternative gelatin resources has attracted some interest. In this study, functional properties of gelatin extracted from seafood and poultry by-products were evaluated. For this purpose, skins of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) and frog (Rana esculata) were used as seafood by-products and chicken skin as poultry by-product as raw material for gelatin extraction. Following the extraction of gelatin, all samples were lyophilized and stored in plastic bags at room temperature. For comparing gelatins obtained; chemical composition, common quality parameters including bloom value, gel strength, and viscosity in addition to some others like melting and gelling temperatures, hydroxyproline content, and colorimetric parameters were determined. The results showed that the highest protein content obtained in frog gelatin with 90.1% and the highest hydroxyproline content was in chicken gelatin with 7.6% value. Frog gelatin showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) melting point (42.7°C) compared to that of fish (29.7°C) and chicken (29.7°C) gelatins. The bloom value of gelatin from frog skin was found higher (363 g) than chicken and fish gelatins (352 and 336 g, respectively) (P < 0.05). While fish gelatin had higher lightness (L*) value (92.64) compared to chicken and frog gelatins, redness/greenness (a*) value was significantly higher in frog skin gelatin. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that skins of different animals with high commercial value may be utilized as alternative sources to produce gelatin with high yield and desirable functional properties. Functional and quality analysis of gelatin from frog, chicken, and tuna skin showed by-product of poultry and seafood can be used as an alternative gelatine source to mammalian gelatine. The functional properties, including bloom strength, melting points, and viscosity of gelatin from frog skin were more admirable than that of the chicken and tuna skin. Among gelatin groups, significant characteristic differences such as gel strength and physicochemical properties were observed based on not only raw material but also the extraction method.

Keywords: chicken skin, fish skin, food industry, frog skin, gel strength

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3 A New Approach for Preparation of Super Absorbent Polymers: In-Situ Surface Cross-Linking

Authors: Reyhan Özdoğan, Mithat Çelebi, Özgür Ceylan, Mehmet Arif Kaya

Abstract:

Super absorbent polymers (SAPs) are defined as materials that can absorb huge amount of water or aqueous solution in comparison to their own mass and retain in their lightly cross-linked structure. SAPs were produced from water soluble monomers via polymerization subsequently controlled crosslinking. SAPs are generally used for water absorbing applications such as baby diapers, patient or elder pads and other hygienic product industries. Crosslinking density (CD) of SAP structure is an essential factor for water absortion capacity (WAC). Low internal CD leads to high WAC values and vice versa. However, SAPs have low CD and high swelling capacities and tend to disintegrate when pressure is applied upon them, so SAPs under load cannot absorb liquids effectively. In order to prevent this undesired situation and to obtain suitable SAP structures having high swelling capacity and ability to work under load, surface crosslinking can be the answer. In industry, these superabsorbent gels are mostly produced via solution polymerization and then they need to be dried, grinded, sized, post polymerized and finally surface croslinked (involves spraying of a crosslinking solution onto dried and grinded SAP particles, and then curing by heat). It can easily be seen that these steps are time consuming and should be handled carefully for the desired final product. If we could synthesize desired final SAPs using less processes it will help reducing time and production costs which are very important for any industries. In this study, synthesis of SAPs were achieved successfully by inverse suspension (Pickering type) polymerization and subsequently in-situ surface cross-linking via using proper surfactants in high boiling point solvents. Our one-pot synthesis of surface cross-linked SAPs invovles only one-step for preparation, thus it can be said that this technique exhibits more preferable characteristic for the industry in comparison to conventional methods due to its one-step easy process. Effects of different surface crosslinking agents onto properties of poly(acrylic acid-co-sodium acrylate) based SAPs are investigated. Surface crosslink degrees are evaluated by swelling under load (SUL) test. It was determined water absorption capacities of obtained SAPs decrease with the increasing surface crosslink density while their mechanic properties are improved.

Keywords: inverse suspension polymerization, polyacrylic acid, super absorbent polymers (SAPs), surface crosslinking, sodium polyacrylate

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2 Modeling of Foundation-Soil Interaction Problem by Using Reduced Soil Shear Modulus

Authors: Yesim Tumsek, Erkan Celebi

Abstract:

In order to simulate the infinite soil medium for soil-foundation interaction problem, the essential geotechnical parameter on which the foundation stiffness depends, is the value of soil shear modulus. This parameter directly affects the site and structural response of the considered model under earthquake ground motions. Strain-dependent shear modulus under cycling loads makes difficult to estimate the accurate value in computation of foundation stiffness for the successful dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis. The aim of this study is to discuss in detail how to use the appropriate value of soil shear modulus in the computational analyses and to evaluate the effect of the variation in shear modulus with strain on the impedance functions used in the sub-structure method for idealizing the soil-foundation interaction problem. Herein, the impedance functions compose of springs and dashpots to represent the frequency-dependent stiffness and damping characteristics at the soil-foundation interface. Earthquake-induced vibration energy is dissipated into soil by both radiation and hysteretic damping. Therefore, flexible-base system damping, as well as the variability in shear strengths, should be considered in the calculation of impedance functions for achievement a more realistic dynamic soil-foundation interaction model. In this study, it has been written a Matlab code for addressing these purposes. The case-study example chosen for the analysis is considered as a 4-story reinforced concrete building structure located in Istanbul consisting of shear walls and moment resisting frames with a total height of 12m from the basement level. The foundation system composes of two different sized strip footings on clayey soil with different plasticity (Herein, PI=13 and 16). In the first stage of this study, the shear modulus reduction factor was not considered in the MATLAB algorithm. The static stiffness, dynamic stiffness modifiers and embedment correction factors of two rigid rectangular foundations measuring 2m wide by 17m long below the moment frames and 7m wide by 17m long below the shear walls are obtained for translation and rocking vibrational modes. Afterwards, the dynamic impedance functions of those have been calculated for reduced shear modulus through the developed Matlab code. The embedment effect of the foundation is also considered in these analyses. It can easy to see from the analysis results that the strain induced in soil will depend on the extent of the earthquake demand. It is clearly observed that when the strain range increases, the dynamic stiffness of the foundation medium decreases dramatically. The overall response of the structure can be affected considerably because of the degradation in soil stiffness even for a moderate earthquake. Therefore, it is very important to arrive at the corrected dynamic shear modulus for earthquake analysis including soil-structure interaction.

Keywords: clay soil, impedance functions, soil-foundation interaction, sub-structure approach, reduced shear modulus

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1 Effect of Velocity-Slip in Nanoscale Electroosmotic Flows: Molecular and Continuum Transport Perspectives

Authors: Alper T. Celebi, Ali Beskok

Abstract:

Electroosmotic (EO) slip flows in nanochannels are investigated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the results are compared with analytical solution of Poisson-Boltzmann and Stokes (PB-S) equations with slip contribution. The ultimate objective of this study is to show that well-known continuum flow model can accurately predict the EO velocity profiles in nanochannels using the slip lengths and apparent viscosities obtained from force-driven flow simulations performed at various liquid-wall interaction strengths. EO flow of aqueous NaCl solution in silicon nanochannels are simulated under realistic electrochemical conditions within the validity region of Poisson-Boltzmann theory. A physical surface charge density is determined for nanochannels based on dissociations of silanol functional groups on channel surfaces at known salt concentration, temperature and local pH. First, we present results of density profiles and ion distributions by equilibrium MD simulations, ensuring that the desired thermodynamic state and ionic conditions are satisfied. Next, force-driven nanochannel flow simulations are performed to predict the apparent viscosity of ionic solution between charged surfaces and slip lengths. Parabolic velocity profiles obtained from force-driven flow simulations are fitted to a second-order polynomial equation, where viscosity and slip lengths are quantified by comparing the coefficients of the fitted equation with continuum flow model. Presence of charged surface increases the viscosity of ionic solution while the velocity-slip at wall decreases. Afterwards, EO flow simulations are carried out under uniform electric field for different liquid-wall interaction strengths. Velocity profiles present finite slips near walls, followed with a conventional viscous flow profile in the electrical double layer that reaches a bulk flow region in the center of the channel. The EO flow enhances with increased slip at the walls, which depends on wall-liquid interaction strength and the surface charge. MD velocity profiles are compared with the predictions from analytical solutions of the slip modified PB-S equation, where the slip length and apparent viscosity values are obtained from force-driven flow simulations in charged silicon nano-channels. Our MD results show good agreements with the analytical solutions at various slip conditions, verifying the validity of PB-S equation in nanochannels as small as 3.5 nm. In addition, the continuum model normalizes slip length with the Debye length instead of the channel height, which implies that enhancement in EO flows is independent of the channel height. Further MD simulations performed at different channel heights also shows that the flow enhancement due to slip is independent of the channel height. This is important because slip enhanced EO flow is observable even in micro-channels experiments by using a hydrophobic channel with large slip and high conductivity solutions with small Debye length. The present study provides an advanced understanding of EO flows in nanochannels. Correct characterization of nanoscale EO slip flow is crucial to discover the extent of well-known continuum models, which is required for various applications spanning from ion separation to drug delivery and bio-fluidic analysis.

Keywords: electroosmotic flow, molecular dynamics, slip length, velocity-slip

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