Search results for: Cancer
1865 Mobile Health Approaches in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Content Analysis
Authors: Hyekyung Woo, Gwihyun Kim
Abstract:mHealth, which encompasses mobile health technologies and interventions, is rapidly evolving in various medical specialties, and its impact is evident in oncology. This review describes current trends in research addressing the integration of mHealth into the management of breast cancer by examining evaluations of mHealth and its contributions across the cancer care continuum. Mobile technologies are perceived as effective in prevention and as feasible for managing breast cancer, but the diagnostic accuracy of these tools remains in doubt. Not all phases of breast cancer treatment involve mHealth, and not all have been addressed by research. These drawbacks in the application of mHealth to breast cancer management call for intensified research to strengthen its role in breast cancer care.
Keywords: mobile application, breast cancer, content analysis, mHealthProcedia PDF Downloads 229
1864 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer
Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj
Abstract:In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.
Keywords: breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweightProcedia PDF Downloads 359
1863 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy
Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil
Abstract:Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.
Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, applicationProcedia PDF Downloads 552
1862 An Extraction of Cancer Region from MR Images Using Fuzzy Clustering Means and Morphological Operations
Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Gurjit Singh Bhathal
Abstract:Cancer diagnosis is very difficult task. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is used to produce image of any part of the body and provides an efficient way for diagnosis of cancer or tumor. In existing method, fuzzy clustering mean (FCM) is used for the diagnosis of the tumor. In the proposed method FCM is used to diagnose the cancer of the foot. FCM finds the centroids of the clusters of the foot cancer obtained from MRI images. FCM thresholding result shows the extract region of the cancer. Morphological operations are applied to get extracted region of cancer.
Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fuzzy C mean clustering, segmentation, morphological operationsProcedia PDF Downloads 328
1861 Lived Experience of Breast Cancer for Arab Muslim Women
Authors: Nesreen M. Alqaissi
Abstract:Little is known about the lived experiences of breast cancer among Arab Muslim women. The researcher used a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design to explore the lived experiences of breast cancer as described by Jordanian Muslim women. A purposive sample of 20 women with breast cancer was recruited. Data were collected utilizing individual semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using Heideggerian Hermeneutical methodology. Results: Five related themes and one constitutive pattern: (a) breast cancer means death; (b) matriarchal family members as important source of support; (c) spirituality as a way to live and survive breast cancer; (d) concealing cancer experiences to protect self and families; (e) physicians as protectors and treatment decision makers; (f) the constitutive pattern: culture influencing Jordanian women experiences with breast cancer. In conclusion, researchers and healthcare providers should consider the influence of culture, spirituality, and families, when caring for women with breast cancer from Jordan.
Keywords: breast cancer, Arab Muslim, Jordan, lived experiences, spirituality, cultureProcedia PDF Downloads 392
1860 Breast Cancer Early Recognition, New Methods of Screening, and Analysis
Authors: Sahar Heidary
Abstract:Breast cancer is a main public common obstacle global. Additionally, it is the second top reason for tumor death across women. Considering breast cancer cure choices can aid private doctors in precaution for their patients through future cancer treatment. This article reviews usual management centered on stage, histology, and biomarkers. The growth of breast cancer is a multi-stage procedure including numerous cell kinds and its inhibition residues stimulating in the universe. Timely identification of breast cancer is one of the finest methods to stop this illness. Entirely chief therapeutic administrations mention screening mammography for women aged 40 years and older. Breast cancer metastasis interpretations for the mainstream of deaths from breast cancer. The discovery of breast cancer metastasis at the initial step is essential for managing and estimate of breast cancer development. Developing methods consuming the exploration of flowing cancer cells illustrate talented outcomes in forecasting and classifying the initial steps of breast cancer metastasis in patients. In public, mammography residues are the key screening implement though the efficiency of medical breast checks and self-checkup is less. Innovative screening methods are doubtful to exchange mammography in the close upcoming for screening the overall people.
Keywords: breast cancer, screening, metastasis, methodsProcedia PDF Downloads 46
1859 Enquiry into Psychological and Psychosocial Aspects in Cancer Care: Cancer Diseases Hospital, Zambia
Authors: Mubita Namuyamba
Abstract:Despite an increase in the number of cancer programs and partnerships in cancer care provision, the burden of cancer in Zambia is increasingly having a significant impact on morbidity and mortality rates. The increase in cancer morbidity and mortality rates has given rise to psychological and psycho social implications (PPsI) in cancer care. Cancer patients, care givers and health care providers are faced with a multitude of PPsIs in cancer care that mainly impact negatively on the management of cancer patients. The study adopted a case study design and was purposively conducted at the Cancer Diseases Hospital in Lusaka (Zambia) after obtaining ethical clearance from the Ethics committee. The sample for this study included 70 cancer patients, 20 care givers and 5 hospital staff (4 nurses and 1 doctor). Data was collected using interviews guides, focus group discussion guides and questionnaires respectively. The qualitative data was analysed thematically. The various psychological and psychosocial challenges that conspire to deter the provision of effective cancer care nursing and improved methods of minimizing the psychological and psychosocial implications in cancer care are the products of this study.
Keywords: case study, enquiry, psychological and psycho social aspects, ZambiaProcedia PDF Downloads 274
1858 Targeted Nano Anti-Cancer Drugs for Curing Cancers
Authors: Imran Ali
Abstract:General chemotherapy for cancer treatment has many side and toxic effects. A new approach of targeting nano anti-cancer drug is under development stage and only few drugs are available in the market today. The unique features of these drugs are targeted action on cancer cells only without any side effect. Sometimes, these are called magic drugs. The important molecules used for nano anti-cancer drugs are cisplatin, carboplatin, bleomycin, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, dactinomycin, 6-mercaptopurine, paclitaxel, topotecan, vinblastin and etoposide etc. The most commonly used materials for preparing nano particles carriers are dendrimers, polymeric, liposomal, micelles inorganic, organic etc. The proposed lecture will comprise the-of-art of nano drugs in cancer chemo-therapy including preparation, types of drugs, mechanism, future perspectives etc.
Keywords: cancer, nano-anti-cancer drugs, chemo-therapy, mechanism of action, future perspectivesProcedia PDF Downloads 372
1857 The Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Omani Women
Authors: H. Al-Awaisi, M. H. Al-Azri, S. Al-Rasbi, M. Al-Moundhri
Abstract:Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. It is also the most common cancer among females in Oman with 100 new breast cancer cases diagnosed every year. It has been found that breast cancer have a devastating effect on women’s life. Women diagnosed with breast cancer might develop negative attitudes towards the illness and their bodies. They might also suffer from psychological ailments such as depression. Despite the evidence on the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on women, there was no study found to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis among women in Oman. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on Omani women. Data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 11 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were analyzed thematically. From the data, there are four main themes identified in relation to the impact of cancer diagnosis on Omani women. These are 'shock and disbelieve', 'a death sentence', “uncertain future” and “social stigma”. At the time of interviews, all participants had advanced breast cancer with some participants having metastatic disease. The impact of the word “cancer” had a profound and catastrophic effect on the women and their close relatives. In conclusion, breast cancer diagnosis was shocking and mainly perceived as a death sentence by Omani women with uncertain future and social stigma. Regardless of age, maternal status and education level, it is evident that Omani women participated in this study lacked awareness about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
Keywords: breast cancer, coping, diagnosis, Oman, womenProcedia PDF Downloads 418
1856 The Impact of Prior Cancer History on the Prognosis of Salivary Gland Cancer Patients: A Population-based Study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database
Authors: Junhong Li, Danni Cheng, Yaxin Luo, Xiaowei Yi, Ke Qiu, Wendu Pang, Minzi Mao, Yufang Rao, Yao Song, Jianjun Ren, Yu Zhao
Abstract:Background: The number of multiple cancer patients was increasing, and the impact of prior cancer history on salivary gland cancer patients remains unclear. Methods: Clinical, demographic and pathological information on salivary gland cancer patients were retrospectively collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 2004 to 2017, and the characteristics and prognosis between patients with a prior cancer and those without prior caner were compared. Univariate and multivariate cox proportional regression models were used for the analysis of prognosis. A risk score model was established to exam the impact of treatment on patients with a prior cancer in different risk groups. Results: A total of 9098 salivary gland cancer patients were identified, and 1635 of them had a prior cancer history. Salivary gland cancer patients with prior cancer had worse survival compared with those without a prior cancer (p<0.001). Patients with a different type of first cancer had a distinct prognosis (p<0.001), and longer latent time was associated with better survival (p=0.006) in the univariate model, although both became nonsignificant in the multivariate model. Salivary gland cancer patients with a prior cancer were divided into low-risk (n= 321), intermediate-risk (n=223), and high-risk (n=62) groups and the results showed that patients at high risk could benefit from surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, and those at intermediate risk could benefit from surgery. Conclusion: Prior cancer history had an adverse impact on the survival of salivary gland cancer patients, and individualized treatment should be seriously considered for them.
Keywords: prior cancer history, prognosis, salivary gland cancer, SEERProcedia PDF Downloads 84
1855 Principle Component Analysis on Colon Cancer Detection
Authors: N. K. Caecar Pratiwi, Yunendah Nur Fuadah, Rita Magdalena, R. D. Atmaja, Sofia Saidah, Ocky Tiaramukti
Abstract:Colon cancer or colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that attacks the last part of the human digestive system. Lymphoma and carcinoma are types of cancer that attack human’s colon. Colon cancer causes deaths about half a million people every year. In Indonesia, colon cancer is the third largest cancer case for women and second in men. Unhealthy lifestyles such as minimum consumption of fiber, rarely exercising and lack of awareness for early detection are factors that cause high cases of colon cancer. The aim of this project is to produce a system that can detect and classify images into type of colon cancer lymphoma, carcinoma, or normal. The designed system used 198 data colon cancer tissue pathology, consist of 66 images for Lymphoma cancer, 66 images for carcinoma cancer and 66 for normal / healthy colon condition. This system will classify colon cancer starting from image preprocessing, feature extraction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and classification using K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) method. Several stages in preprocessing are resize, convert RGB image to grayscale, edge detection and last, histogram equalization. Tests will be done by trying some K-NN input parameter setting. The result of this project is an image processing system that can detect and classify the type of colon cancer with high accuracy and low computation time.
Keywords: carcinoma, colorectal cancer, k-nearest neighbor, lymphoma, principle component analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 129
1854 Breast Cancer Prediction Using Score-Level Fusion of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Models
Authors: Sam Khozama, Ali M. Mayya
Abstract:Breast cancer is one of the most common types in women. Early prediction of breast cancer helps physicians detect cancer in its early stages. Big cancer data needs a very powerful tool to analyze and extract predictions. Machine learning and deep learning are two of the most efficient tools for predicting cancer based on textual data. In this study, we developed a fusion model of two machine learning and deep learning models. To obtain the final prediction, Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) and ensemble learning with hyper parameters optimization are used, and score-level fusion is used. Experiments are done on the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) dataset after balancing and grouping the class categories. Five different training scenarios are used, and the tests show that the designed fusion model improved the performance by 3.3% compared to the individual models.
Keywords: machine learning, deep learning, cancer prediction, breast cancer, LSTM, fusionProcedia PDF Downloads 67
1853 Intelligent Prediction of Breast Cancer Severity
Authors: Wahab Ali, Oyebade K. Oyedotun, Adnan Khashman
Abstract:Breast cancer remains a threat to the woman’s world in view of survival rates, it early diagnosis and mortality statistics. So far, research has shown that many survivors of breast cancer cases are in the ones with early diagnosis. Breast cancer is usually categorized into stages which indicates its severity and corresponding survival rates for patients. Investigations show that the farther into the stages before diagnosis the lesser the chance of survival; hence the early diagnosis of breast cancer becomes imperative, and consequently the application of novel technologies to achieving this. Over the year, mammograms have used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, but the inconclusive deductions made from such scans lead to either false negative cases where cancer patients may be left untreated or false positive where unnecessary biopsies are carried out. This paper presents the application of artificial neural networks in the prediction of severity of breast tumour (whether benign or malignant) using mammography reports and other factors that are related to breast cancer.
Keywords: breast cancer, intelligent classification, neural networks, mammographyProcedia PDF Downloads 414
1852 Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiome in Colorectal Cancer Patients at Hospital of Amizour, Bejaia, Algeria
Authors: Adjebli Ahmed, Messis Abdelaziz, Ayeche Riad, Tighilet Karim, Talbi Melissa, Smaili Yanis, Lehri Mokrane, Louardiane Mustapha
Abstract:Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide, and its incidence has been increasing in recent years. Data and fecal samples from colorectal cancer patients were collected at the Amizour Public Hospital's oncology department (Bejaia, Algeria). Microbiological and cohort study were conducted at the Biological Engineering of Cancers laboratory at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Bejaia. All the data showed that patients aged between 50 and 70 years were the most affected by colorectal cancer, while the age categories of [30-40] and [40-50] were the least affected. Males were more likely to be at risk of contracting colorectal cancer than females. The most common types of colorectal cancer among the studied population were sigmoid cancer, rectal cancer, transverse colon cancer, and ascending colon cancer. The hereditary factor was found to be more dominant than other risk factors. Bacterial identification revealed the presence of certain pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial genera, such as E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Shigella sp, and Streptococcus group D. These results led us to conclude that dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome is strongly present in colorectal cancer patients at the EPH of Amizour.
Keywords: microbiome, colorectal cancer, risk factors, bacterial identificationProcedia PDF Downloads 11
1851 Clinicopathological Characteristics in Male Breast Cancer: A Case Series and Literature Review
Authors: Mohamed Shafi Mahboob Ali
Abstract:Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare entity with overall cases reported less than 1%. However, the incidence of MBC is regularly rising every year. Due to the lack of data on MBC, diagnosis and treatment are tailored to female breast cancer. MBC risk increases with age and is usually diagnosed ten years late as the disease progression is slow compared to female breast cancer (FBC). The most common feature of MBC is an intra-ductal variant, and often, upon diagnosis, the stage of the disease is already advanced. The Prognosis of MBC is often flawed, but new treatment modalities are emerging with the current knowledge and advancement. We presented a series of male breast cancer in our center, highlighting the clinicopathological, radiological and treatment options.
Keywords: male, breast, cancer, clinicopathology, ultrasound, CT scanProcedia PDF Downloads 15
1850 Discover a New Technique for Cancer Recognition by Analysis and Determination of Fractal Dimension Images in Matlab Software
Authors: Saeedeh Shahbazkhany
Abstract:Cancer is a terrible disease that, if not diagnosed early, therapy can be difficult while it is easily medicable if it is diagnosed in early stages. So it is very important for cancer diagnosis that medical procedures are performed. In this paper we introduce a new method. In this method, we only need pictures of healthy cells and cancer cells. In fact, where we suspect cancer, we take a picture of cells or tissue in that area, and then take some pictures of the surrounding tissues. Then, fractal dimension of images are calculated and compared. Cancer can be easily detected by comparing the fractal dimension of images. In this method, we use Matlab software.
Keywords: Matlab software, fractal dimension, cancer, surrounding tissues, cells or tissue, new methodProcedia PDF Downloads 289
1849 Phylogenetic Study of L1 Protein Human Papillomavirus Type 16 From Cervical Cancer Patients in Bandung
Authors: Fitri Rahmi Fadhilah, Edhyana Sahiratmadja, Ani Melani Maskoen, Ratu Safitri, Supartini Syarif, Herman Susanto
Abstract:Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. In Indonesia, the incidence of cervical cancer cases is estimated at 25-40 per 100,000 women per year. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer, and HPV-16 is the most common genotype that infects the cervical tissue. The major late protein L1 may be associated with infectivity and pathogenicity and its variation can be used to classify HPV isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the phylogenetic tree of HPV 16 L1 gene from cervical cancer patient isolates in Bandung. After confirming HPV-16 by Linear Array Genotyping Test, L1 gene was amplified using specific primers and subject for sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HPV 16 from Bandung was in the subgroup of Asia and East Asia, showing the close host-agent relationship among the Asian type.
Keywords: L1 HPV 16, cervical cancer, bandung, phylogeneticProcedia PDF Downloads 431
1848 Knowledge of Pap Smear Test and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid in Cervical Cancer Patients in Manado
Authors: Eric Ng, Freddy W. Wagey, Frank M. M. Wagey
Abstract:Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common cancer in many low- and middle-income countries. The main causes are the lack of prevention programs and effective therapy, as well as the lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness for early detection. The Pap smear test and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) allow the cervical lesion to be detected so that progression to cervical cancer can be avoided. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Pap smear test and VIA in cervical cancer patients. Methodology: A total of 67 cervical cancer patients in Manado who volunteered to participate in the research were identified as the sample. The data were collected during the month of November 2019-January 2020 with a questionnaire about the respondents' knowledge relating to Pap smear test and VIA. Questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Knowledge of pap smear among cervical cancer patients were good in 9 respondents (13.4%), moderate in 20 respondents (29.9%), and bad in 38 respondents (56.7%), whereas the knowledge of VIA was good in 13 respondents (19.4%), moderate in 15 respondents (22.4%), and bad in 39 respondents (58.2%). Conclusion: Majority of cervical cancer patients in Manado still had bad knowledge about Pap smear tests and VIA.
Keywords: cervical cancer, knowledge, pap smear test, visual inspection with acetic acidProcedia PDF Downloads 95
1847 PCR Based DNA Analysis in Detecting P53 Mutation in Human Breast Cancer (MDA-468)
Authors: Debbarma Asis, Guha Chandan
Abstract:Tumor Protein-53 (P53) is one of the tumor suppressor proteins. P53 regulates the cell cycle that conserves stability by preventing genome mutation. It is named so as it runs as 53-kilodalton (kDa) protein on Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis although the actual mass is 43.7 kDa. Experimental evidence has indicated that P53 cancer mutants loses tumor suppression activity and subsequently gain oncogenic activities to promote tumourigenesis. Tumor-specific DNA has recently been detected in the plasma of breast cancer patients. Detection of tumor-specific genetic materials in cancer patients may provide a unique and valuable tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis. Commercially available MDA-468 breast cancer cell line was used for the proposed study.
Keywords: tumor protein (P53), cancer mutants, MDA-468, tumor suppressor geneProcedia PDF Downloads 237
1846 Pre-Processing of Ultrasonography Image Quality Improvement in Cases of Cervical Cancer Using Image Enhancement
Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Teguh Budiono, Yogi Ramadhani, Haris B. Widodo, Arwita Mulyawati
Abstract:Cervical cancer is the leading cause of mortality in cancer-related diseases. In this diagnosis doctors usually perform several tests to determine the presence of cervical cancer in a patient. However, these checks require support equipment to get the results in more detail. One is by using ultrasonography. However, for the developing countries most of the existing ultrasonography has a low resolution. The goal of this research is to obtain abnormalities on low-resolution ultrasound images especially for cervical cancer case. In this paper, we emphasize our work to use Image Enhancement for pre-processing image quality improvement. The result shows that pre-processing stage is promising to support further analysis.
Keywords: cervical cancer, mortality, low-resolution, image enhancement.Procedia PDF Downloads 542
1845 The Model Development of Caregiver Skills for the End of Life’s Cancer Patients
Authors: Chaliya Wamaloon, Malee Chaisaena, Nusara Prasertsri
Abstract:Informal caregivers providing home-based palliative and end-of-life (EOL) care to people with advanced cancer is needed, however, there has not been develop caregiver skills for the EOL in cancer patients. The aim of this research was to study the model development of caregiver skills for the EOL in cancer patients. Mixed methods research was conducted in 3 phases. All subjects were in Ubon Rathchathani Cancer Hospital including 30 EOL cancer patient caregivers, 30 EOL cancer patients, and 111 health care professionals who provided care for the EOL cancer patients and 30 EOL target participants who had been trained to be cancer patient caregivers. The research tools were questionnaires, semi structured interviews, and caregiver skills questionnaires. Data were analyzed by using percentage, mean, standard deviation, pair t-test, and content analysis. The result from this study showed the model development of caregiver skills for cancer patients consisted of 9 domains skills: 1. monitoring, 2. interpreting, 3. making decisions, 4. taking action, 5. making adjustments, 6. providing hands-on care, 7. accessing resources, 8. working together with the ill patients, and 9. navigating the healthcare system. The model composed of skills development curriculum for cancer patient caregivers, Manual of palliative care for caregivers, diary of health care records for cancer patients, and the evaluation model of development of caregiver skills for EOL cancer patients. The results of the evaluation in the development model of caregiver skills for EOL cancer patients showed that the caregivers were satisfied with the model of development for caregiver skills at a high level. The comparison of the caregiver skills before and after obtaining the development of caregivers skills revealed that it improved at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05).
Keywords: caregiver, caregiver skills, cancer patients, end of lifeProcedia PDF Downloads 97
1844 Lung Cancer Patients in Eastern Region of Nepal
Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta
Abstract:The number of new cancer cases annually is estimated to rise from 10.9 million in 2002 to more than 16 million by 2020, if current trends continue. Much of this increase in absolute numbers derives from the ageing of populations worldwide. The objectives of this study were to find out the demographic characteristics of the admitted cancer patients in BPKIHS. It was hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted reviewing all the records of admitted diagnosed cancer patients in BPKIHS from 15th October 2004 to 14th October 2012. Using total enumerative sampling technique all 1379 diagnosed cancer patients record were reviewed after obtaining the permission from concerned authorities. Using SPSS-15 software package data was analyzed. It was found that majority (71%) of cancer patients were of age more than 40 years and equal of both sexes. Most of the clients were form Sunsari (31.1%), Morang (16.6%) and Jhapa (17%) districts. The mean hospitalization day is 8.32 and very few patients (5.2%) were only cured. The numbers of cancer patients are markedly increases in BPKIHS, especially in advanced stage. It is mandatory to start the cancer information and education programme in eastern region of Nepal and proper management of cancer patients using chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery at BPKIHS for quality patient care.
Keywords: lung, cancer, patients, NepalProcedia PDF Downloads 306
1843 Evaluation of Promoter Hypermethylation in Tissue and Blood of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients and Association with Survival
Authors: Ashraf Ali, Kriti Upadhyay, Puja Sohal, Anant Mohan, Randeep Guleria
Abstract:Background: Gene silencing by aberrant promoter hypermethylation is common in lung cancer and is an initiating event in its development. Aim: To evaluate the gene promoter hypermethylation frequency in serum and tissue of lung cancer patients. Method: 95 newly diagnosed untreated advance stage lung cancer patients and 50 cancer free matched controls were studied. Bisulfite modification of tissue and serum DNA was done; modified DNA was used as a template for methylation-specific PCR analysis. Survival was assessed for one year. Results: Of 95 patients, 82% were non-small cell lung cancer (34% squamous cell carcinoma, 34% non-small cell lung cancer and 14% adenocarcinoma) and 18% were small cell lung cancer. Biopsy revealed that tissue of 89% and 75% of lung cancer patients and 85% and 52% of controls had promoter hypermethylated for MGMT (p=0.35) and p16(p<0.001) gene, respectively. In serum, 33% and 49% of lung cancer patients and 28% and 43% controls were positive for MGMT and p16 gene. No significant correlation was found between survival and clinico-pathological parameters. Conclusion: High gene promoter methylation frequency of p16 gene in tissue biopsy may be linked with early stages of carcinogenesis. Appropriate follow-up is required for confirmation of this finding.
Keywords: lung cancer, MS- PCR, methylation, molecular biologyProcedia PDF Downloads 118
1842 Regional Variation of Cancer Incidence in Nepal
Authors: Rudra Prasad Khanal
Abstract:Introduction: Non-communicable disease, such as cancer, has spread all over the world for some last decades. However, every nation has experienced a burden from the development of technology. In the context of Nepal, 10 to 15 thousand new cancer incidences are being registered in different hospitals for treatment. Since the date of starting nuclear medicine at Bir Hospital in 1998, cancer patients have been getting treatment regularly. According to the data of the population-based cancer registry, approximately 60% of the population having a middle-class income is being affected by cancer in Nepal. Methods and Materials: The study is aimed to find out the particular place where the population density of new cancer incidence is highest in Nepal and to inform the concerned regulatory body that is working on cancer screening and early detection for the proper treatment from the beginning. In order to identify the areas with the highest population density of new cancer incidence, all the data of cancer patients were collected from five different renowned hospitals and also from the population-based cancer registry center and then analyzed the data. The history of cancer patients was studied from 2003 to 2020, but here the data are analyzed from 2015 to 2020 only to find the latest trend in cancer incidence. Results: In the five major hospitals in Nepal, the total new cancer incidence was 61783 from 2015 to 2020. Out of those, 34617 were female, and 27176 were male. This research shows that female cancer patients were more every year. In the male, lung cancer patients more than cancer of other organs, but in females, the number of breast cancer patients was greatest. The age-adjusted mortality rate for males in Kathmandu valley was 36.3, and for females was 27.0 per 100,000 population. The cancer incidence and mortality rate were slightly lesser in other districts of Nepal. This rate increased with the increase in the age of people. Over 60 years, cancer incidence and mortality rates have been found to increase rapidly. Conclusion: This research supports conducting the program of cancer screening and early detection at Kathmandu valley with high priority and then Morang, Rukum, SSDM, etc., to control cancer.
Keywords: cancer incidence, research scholar, Tribhuvan University, Bhaktapur Cancer Hospital, NepalProcedia PDF Downloads 11
1841 Evaluating the Diagnostic Accuracy of the ctDNA Methylation for Liver Cancer
Authors: Maomao Cao
Abstract:Objective: To test the performance of ctDNA methylation for the detection of liver cancer. Methods: A total of 1233 individuals have been recruited in 2017. 15 male and 15 female samples (including 10 cases of liver cancer) were randomly selected in the present study. CfDNA was extracted by MagPure Circulating DNA Maxi Kit. The concentration of cfDNA was obtained by Qubit™ dsDNA HS Assay Kit. A pre-constructed predictive model was used to analyze methylation data and to give a predictive score for each cfDNA sample. Individuals with a predictive score greater than or equal to 80 were classified as having liver cancer. CT tests were considered the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of liver cancer were calculated. Results: 9 patients were diagnosed with liver cancer according to the prediction model (with high sensitivity and threshold of 80 points), with scores of 99.2, 91.9, 96.6, 92.4, 91.3, 92.5, 96.8, 91.1, and 92.2, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ctDNA methylation for the diagnosis of liver cancer were 0.70, 0.90, 0.78, and 0.86, respectively. Conclusions: ctDNA methylation could be an acceptable diagnostic modality for the detection of liver cancer.
Keywords: liver cancer, ctDNA methylation, detection, diagnostic performanceProcedia PDF Downloads 88
1840 Prevalence and Correlates of Anxiety and Depression among Family Carers of Cancer
Authors: Godfrey Katende, Lillian Nakimera
Abstract:The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression. A total of 119 family carers from Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) standardized questionnaire. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers was high (45% and 26 % respectively); (2) abnormal levels of anxiety (ALA) and depression (ALD) was significantly associated with being a relative carer. Incorporating evidence based psychological therapies targeting family carers into usual care of cancer patients is imperative.
Keywords: anxiety, cancer, carer, cross-sectional design, depression, UgandaProcedia PDF Downloads 319
1839 Cancer and Disability: A Psychosocial Approach in Puerto Rican Women as Cancer Survivors
Authors: Hector Jose Velazquez-Gonzalez, Norma Maldonado-Santiago, Laura Pietri-Gomez
Abstract:Cancer is one of the first cause of death in the world, most of them are women. In Puerto Rico, there is a permanent controversy on the conceptuation of what really involves a disability, also in when a chronic illness, like cancer, should be considered a disability. The aim of the research was to identify functional limitation in 50 women survivors of cancer. In turn, to know the meanings that 6 women attributed to cancer with a focus on functionality. We conducted a mix method research based on surveys and narratives. We administered the World Health Organization Disability Assessment, version 2.0, which obtained a Cronbach’s alpha of .949 on the general scale, and from .773 to .956 on the six domains. The domain that obtained the highest average was social participation (M= 33.89, SD= 20.434), but it was not significant in the disability percentage. Also, there was no significance in the disability percentage in the other five domains. In a matter of meanings, we conduct a semistructured interview to 6 participants. All of them do not refer to cancer as a disability, either they do not know that in Puerto Rico cancer is considered as a disability by the law. However, participants agree that cancer at the time of treatment and subsequent to it, has significant effects on functional limitations (fatigue, pain, cognitive limitations, and weakness, among others. Psychooncologic practice should encourage the constant assessment of the functionality to identify the needs that emerge from oncological diagnosis. So that psychosocial intervention could be considered as critical in cancer treatment to promote a better quality of life and well-being in a person with cancer.
Keywords: cancer, Puerto Rico, disability, psychosocial approachProcedia PDF Downloads 214
1838 Knowledge and Attitude of Final Year Undergraduate Nursing Students towards Prevention of Cervical Cancer
Authors: Afaf Abdallah, Moawia Elsadig
Abstract:Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common women cancer among worldwide; representing 13% of female cancers. In Sudan, it ranks as the second most frequent cancer among women as other developing countries. Aim: Is to study awareness, attitude of nursing students towards cervical cancer prevention. The results: Most of the students were not aware of other screening methods than Pap smear test. However, half of the respondents showed positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination. More than two-thirds of respondents exhibited a positive attitude and were willing to undergo Pap smear in the future. Conclusion: The study shows that the majority of the participants have poor information, education would motivate nurses to participate actively in awareness raising, screening, and management.
Keywords: cervical cancer, knowledge, attitude, screeningProcedia PDF Downloads 371
1837 The Effect of Diet Intervention for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
Authors: Bok Yae Chung, Eun Hee Oh
Abstract:Breast cancer patients require more nutritional interventions than others. However, a few studies have attempted to assess the overall nutritional status, to reduce body weight and BMI by improving diet, and to improve the prognosis of cancer for breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet intervention in the breast cancer patients through meta-analysis. For the study purpose, 16 studies were selected by using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and CINAHL. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, and the effect size on outcome variables in breast cancer was calculated. The effect size for outcome variables of diet intervention was a large effect size. For heterogeneity, moderator analysis was performed using intervention type and intervention duration. All moderators did not significant difference. Diet intervention has significant positive effects on outcome variables in breast cancer. As a result, it is suggested that the timing of the intervention should be no more than six months, but a strategy for sustaining long-term intervention effects should be added if nutritional intervention is to be administered for breast cancer patients in the future.
Keywords: breast cancer, diet, mete-analysis, interventionProcedia PDF Downloads 361
1836 The Effect of Endurance Training and Taxol Consumption on Cyclooxygenase-2 and Prostaglandin E2 Levels in the Liver Tissue of Mice with Cervical Cancer
Authors: Alireza Barari, Maryam Firozi-Niyaki, Maryam Kamarlouei
Abstract:Background: Herbs have a strong anti-cancer effect. Also, exercise is one of several lifestyle factors known to lower the risk of developing cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of endurance training and taxol on cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in the liver tissue of mice with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 35 female C57 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=7 in each group): control (healthy), control (cancer), complement (cancer), training-supplementary (cancer) and training (cancer). The implantation of cancerous tumors was performed under the skin of the upper pelvis. The training group completed the endurance training protocol, which included 3 sessions per week, 50 minutes per session, at a speed of 14-18 m/s for six weeks. A dose of 60 mg/kg/day of pure taxol was injected intra peritoneally. The dependent variables of this study were measured 24 hours after the last training session by ELISA. Results: The results showed that the use of taxol and endurance training reduced the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in the liver tissues of C57 mice with cervical cancer. Conclusion: Induction of the cancerous tissue in mice with cervical cancer increases the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 and endurance training along with taxol may reduce these levels.
Keywords: cervical cancer, taxol, endurance training, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2Procedia PDF Downloads 148