Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Canakkale battles

30 The Role and Significance of Mobile Gerdarmarie Battalions in the Canakkale Battles

Authors: Muzaffer Topgül, Ersi̇n Yilmaz

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One of the unknown aspects of Çanakkale Battles is that the importance and contributions of Mobile Gendarmarie Battalion have not been fully understood. It was because the battles of the troops which were deployed more in interior parts of Gallipoli Peninsula, and the contributions of battle on level tactical troops were not considered as much as the studies on strategical or operative level troops. When the operation field and battle plans are examined, instead of deploying along the coast to put the forces with a power at zero level landing on the coast out of action, the main battle components are seen to have deployed as strong reserves in the more inner areas. The negative effect of the field on the great trop operation reveals the need for time in order to use the intervention forces. ‘Time’ emerged as the main factor in victory as a result of giving intervention opportunity to the troops. While ordering his soldiers in Conkbayırı to die rather than fight, Liutenant Colonel Mustafa Kemal, the Commander of the 19th division, also emphasized the significance of time. In this respect, the contribution of Mobile Gendarmarie Battalion which saved time for the troops to intervene can be clearly seen. During the study, the memoirs and the works written by military institutions based on the record sources under the light of the notes taken during the trips to the region were used. By preventing the enemies from capturing the area, Mobile Gendarmerie Battalions had an important role in Battles of Kerevizdere, Kireçtepe and Alçıtepe which were of great importance among the battles. The success of these battalions was expressed with compliment by both Turkish and foreign commanders that participated in the war. During the battles the losses of armed forces commissioned to keep the security and order brought about the formation of the regions deficient in state authority.

Keywords: Canakkale battles, mustafa kemal, mobile gerdarmarie, Ottoman empire, time

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29 A Text-Oriented Study on Treatises and the End of the Struggles in Silius

Authors: Arianna Sacerdoti

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This paper is original and fills, to our best Knowledge, a gap in secondary literature. It analyzes the presence of treatises in Silius Italicus’ Punica and what happens in the plot when a struggle ends. As a result, we will understand if treatises are stipulated or broken, and which narrative devices go with the presence of treatises and the end of the battles. Methodology will be text-oriented, and all the passages will be presented in the Latin language and discussed. In concluding, it is important to understand – in a poem based on war – the role of treatises and the end of battles in Silius Italicus.

Keywords: Flavian Epic, Silius Italicus, Punica, treatises

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28 Warfare Ships at Ancient Egypt: Since Pre-Historic Era (3700 B.C.) Uptill the End of the 2nd Intermediate Period (1550 B.C.)

Authors: Mohsen Negmeddin

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Throughout their history, ancient Egyptians had known several kinds and types of boats, which were made from two main kinds of materials, the local one, as the dried papyrus reeds and the local tree trunks, the imported one, as the boats which were made from Lebanon cedar tree trunks. A varied using of these boats, as the fish hunting small boats, the transportation and trade boats "Cargo Boats", as well as the ceremonial boats, and the warfare boats. The research is intending for the last one, the warfare boats and the river/maritime battles since the beginning of ancient Egyptian civilization at the pre-historic era up till the end of the second intermediate period, to reveal the kinds and types of those fighting ships before establishing the Egyptian navy at the beginning of the New Kingdome (1550-1770 B.C). Two methods will follow at this research, the mention of names and titles of these ships through the texts (ancient Egyptian language) resources, and the depiction of it at the scenes.

Keywords: the warfare boats, the maritime battles, the pre-historic era, the second intermediate period

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27 Contemporary Technological Developments in Urban Warfare

Authors: Mehmet Ozturk, Serdal Akyuz, Halit Turan

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By the evolving technology, the nature of the war has been changed since the beginning of the history. In the first generation war, the bayonet came to the fore in battlefields; successively; in the second-generation firepower; in the third generation maneuver. Today, in the fourth-generation, fighters, sides, and even fighters’ borders are unclear; consequently, lines of the battles have lost their significance. Furthermore, the actors in the battles can be state or non-state, military, paramilitary or civilian. In order to change the balance according to their interests, parties have utilized the urban areas as warfare. The main reason for using urban areas as a battlefield is the imbalance between parties. To balance the power strength, exploiting technological developments has utmost importance. There are many newly developed technologies for urban warfare such as change in the size of the unmanned aerial vehicle, increased usage of unmanned ground vehicles (especially in supply and evacuation purposes), systems showing the behind of the wall, simulations used for educational purposes. This study will focus on the technological equipment being used for urban warfare.

Keywords: urban warfare, unmanned ground vehicles, technological developments, nature of the war

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26 Some Hematological Parameters of the Mauremys rivulata in Two Different Water Quality in the Biga Stream (Çanakkale, Turkey)

Authors: Cigdem Gul, Murat Tosunoglu, Nurcihan Hacioglu

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The contamination or desiccation of fresh waters also has a negative effect on freshwater turtles like other fresh water-dependent species. In order to conserve those species, which are confronted with such negative conditions, it is necessary to know beforehand the biology and the physiology of species. In this study, a comprehensive health assessment was conducted on a total of 20 clinically normal individuals free living Western Caspian Turtle (Mauremys rivulata) captured from two different freshwater localities in the Biga stream (Çanakkale-Turkey). When comparing our findings with the Turkish legislation (Water pollution control regulation), the 1. Locality of the Biga stream in terms of total coliform classified as "high quality water" (Coliform: 866.66 MPN/100 mL), while the 2. Locality was a “contaminated water" (Coliform: 53266.66 MPN/100 mL). Blood samples for hematological and biochemical analyses were obtained from the dorsal coccygeal vein. A total of 1-2 mL of blood was collected from each of the specimens via needle. After the required procedures had been performed, the turtles were put back in the same localities. Hematological and biochemical analyses based on high quality water and contaminated water, respectively, are as follows: Red blood cell count (512600-582666.66 per cubic millimeter of blood), white blood cell count (5920-5980 per cubic millimeter of blood), hematocrit value (24-24.66 %), hemoglobin concentration (6.52-6.35 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (466.20-468.98 fl), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (125.77-113.84 pg), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (28.25-26.49 %), glucose (94.43-87.43 mg/dl), creatinine (0.23-0.3241 mg/dl), uric acid (12.59-10.48 mg/L), albumin (1.46-1.25 g/dl), calcium (8.67-9.59 mg/dl), triglyceride (95.55-75.21 mg/dl), and total protein (4.85-3.45 g/dl). When an examination was made depending on the water quality of freshwater, variations were detected in hematology and biochemistry values, but not found significant difference.

Keywords: biochemistry, freshwater quality, hematological parameters, Mauremys rivulata.

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25 Relocation of Livestocks in Rural of Canakkale Province Using Remote Sensing and GIS

Authors: Melis Inalpulat, Levent Genc, Unal Kizil, Tugce Civelek

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Livestock production is one of the most important components of rural economy. Due to the urban expansion, rural areas close to expanding cities transform into urban districts during the time. However, the legislations have some restrictions related to livestock farming in such administrative units since they tend to create environmental concerns like odor problems resulted from excessive manure production. Therefore, the existing animal operations should be moved from the settlement areas. This paper was focused on determination of suitable lands for livestock production in Canakkale province of Turkey using remote sensing (RS) data and GIS techniques. To achieve the goal, Formosat 2 and Landsat 8 imageries, Aster DEM, and 1:25000 scaled soil maps, village boundaries, and village livestock inventory records were used. The study was conducted using suitability analysis which evaluates the land in terms of limitations and potentials, and suitability range was categorized as Suitable (S) and Non-Suitable (NS). Limitations included the distances from main and crossroads, water resources and settlements, while potentials were appropriate values for slope, land use capability and land use land cover status. Village-based S land distribution results were presented, and compared with livestock inventories. Results showed that approximately 44230 ha area is inappropriate because of the distance limitations for roads and etc. (NS). Moreover, according to LULC map, 71052 ha area consists of forests, olive and other orchards, and thus, may not be suitable for building such structures (NS). In comparison, it was found that there are a total of 1228 ha S lands within study area. The village-based findings indicated that, in some villages livestock production continues on NS areas. Finally, it was suggested that organized livestock zones may be constructed to serve in more than one village after the detailed analysis complemented considering also political decisions, opinion of the local people, etc.

Keywords: GIS, livestock, LULC, remote sensing, suitable lands

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24 The Usage of Adobe in Historical Structures of Van City

Authors: Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler

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The studies concentrated on the historical background of Van show the fact that Van has had a significant position as a settlement since ancient times and that it has hosted many civilizations during history. With the dominance of Ottoman Empire in 16th century, the region had been re-constructed by building new walls at the southern side of Van Castle. These construction activities had mostly been fulfilled by the usage of adobe which had been a fundamental material for thousands of years. As a result of natural disasters, battles and the move at the threshold of 20th century to the new settlement which is 9 kilometers away from the Ancient City Van is an open-air museum with the ruins of churches, mosques and baths. In this study, the usage of adobe in historical structures of Van city is evaluated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, adobe, Van city, adobe

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23 Inheritance of Protein Content and Grain Yield in Half Diallel Maize (Zea mays L.) Populations

Authors: Gül Ebru Orhun

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A half diallel crossing design was carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons under Çanakkale-Turkey ecological conditions. In this research, 20 F1 maize hybrids obtained by 6x6 half diallel crossing were used. Gene action for protein content and grain yield traits were explored in half set involving six elite inbred lines. According to the results diallel analysis dominance and additive gene variances were determined for protein content. Variance/Co-variance graphs revealed for grain yield and protein content traits. In this study, inheritance of grain yield and protein content demonstrated over-dominance type of gene action.

Keywords: protein, maize, inheritance, gene action

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22 The Usage of Mudbrick in Historical Structures of Van City

Authors: Mustafa Gulen, Eylem Guzel, Soner Guler

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The studies concentrated on the historical background of Van city show the fact that Van city has had a significant position as a settlement since ancient times and that it has hosted many civilizations during history. With the dominance of Ottoman Empire in 16th century, the region had been re-constructed by building new walls at the southern side of Van Castle. These construction activities had mostly been fulfilled by the usage of mudbrick which had been a fundamental material for thousands of years. As a result of natural disasters, battles and the move at the threshold of 20th century to the new settlement which is 9 kilometers away from the Ancient City Van is an open-air museum with the ruins of churches, mosques and baths. In this study, the usage of mudbrick from past till today in historical structures of Van city is evaluated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, history, mudbrick, Van city

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21 The Efficiency Analysis in the Health Sector: Marmara Region

Authors: Hale Kirer Silva Lecuna, Beyza Aydin

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Health is one of the main components of human capital and sustainable development, and it is very important for economic growth. Health economics, which is an indisputable part of the science of economics, has five stages in general. These are health and development, financing of health services, economic regulation in the health, allocation of resources and efficiency of health services. A well-developed and efficient health sector plays a major role by increasing the level of development of countries. The most crucial pillars of the health sector are the hospitals that are divided into public and private. The main purpose of the hospitals is to provide more efficient services. Therefore the aim is to meet patients’ satisfaction by increasing the service quality. Health-related studies in Turkey date back to the Ottoman and Seljuk Empires. In the near past, Turkey applied 'Health Sector Transformation Programs' under different titles between 2003 and 2010. Our aim in this paper is to measure how effective these transformation programs are for the health sector, to see how much they can increase the efficiency of hospitals over the years, to see the return of investments, to make comments and suggestions on the results, and to provide a new reference for the literature. Within this framework, the public and private hospitals in Balıkesir, Bilecik, Bursa, Çanakkale, Edirne, Istanbul, Kirklareli, Kocaeli, Sakarya, Tekirdağ, Yalova will be examined by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for the years between 2000 and 2019. DEA is a linear programming-based technique, which gives relatively good results in multivariate studies. DEA basically estimates an efficiency frontier and make a comparison. Constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale are two most commonly used DEA methods. Both models are divided into two as input and output-oriented. To analyze the data, the number of personnel, number of specialist physicians, number of practitioners, number of beds, number of examinations will be used as input variables; and the number of surgeries, in-patient ratio, and crude mortality rate as output variables. 11 hospitals belonging to the Marmara region were included in the study. It is seen that these hospitals worked effectively only in 7 provinces (Balıkesir, Bilecik, Bursa, Edirne, İstanbul, Kırklareli, Yalova) for the year 2001 when no transformation program was implemented. After the transformation program was implemented, for example, in 2014 and 2016, 10 hospitals (Balıkesir, Bilecik, Bursa, Çanakkale, Edirne, İstanbul, Kocaeli, Kırklareli, Tekirdağ, Yalova) were found to be effective. In 2015, ineffective results were observed for Sakarya, Tekirdağ and Yalova. However, since these values are closer to 1 after the transformation program, we can say that the transformation program has positive effects. For Sakarya alone, no effective results have been achieved in any year. When we look at the results in general, it shows that the transformation program has a positive effect on the effectiveness of hospitals.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency, health sector, Marmara region

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20 Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Well-Being in University Students

Authors: Enes Ergün, Sedat Geli̇bolu

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The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and subjective well-being among university students. We are aiming to determine whether self efficacy of university students predicts their subjective well-being and if there is a statistically significant difference among boys and girls in this context. Sample of this study consists of 245 university students from Çanakkale, ages ranging between 17 and 24. 72% (n=171) of the participants were girls and 28% (n=69) boys. Three different scales were utilized as data collection tools that Life Satisfaction Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Positive Negative Experiences Scale. Pearson correlation coefficient, independent sample t test and simple linear regression were used for data analyses. Results showed that well-being is significantly correlated with self-efficacy and self-efficacy is a statistically significant predictor of well-being too. In terms of gender differences, there is no significant difference between self-efficacy scores of boys and girls which shows the same case with well being scores, as well. Fostering university students' academic, social and emotional self-efficacy will increase their well-being which is very important for young adults especially their freshman years.

Keywords: positive psychology, self-efficacy, subjective well being, university students

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19 Developing a Town Based Soil Database to Assess the Sensitive Zones in Nutrient Management

Authors: Sefa Aksu, Ünal Kızıl

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For this study, a town based soil database created in Gümüşçay District of Biga Town, Çanakkale, Turkey. Crop and livestock production are major activities in the district. Nutrient management is mainly based on commercial fertilizer application ignoring the livestock manure. Within the boundaries of district, 122 soil sampling points determined over the satellite image. Soil samples collected from the determined points with the help of handheld Global Positioning System. Labeled samples were sent to a commercial laboratory to determine 11 soil parameters including salinity, pH, lime, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc. Based on the test results soil maps for mentioned parameters were developed using remote sensing, GIS, and geostatistical analysis. In this study we developed a GIS database that will be used for soil nutrient management. Methods were explained and soil maps and their interpretations were summarized in the study.

Keywords: geostatistics, GIS, nutrient management, soil mapping

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18 Infestations of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Different Olive Cultivars in Çanakkale, Turkey

Authors: Hanife Genç

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The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is an economically important and endemic pest in olive (Oleae europae) orchards in Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine olive fruit fly infestation in different olive cultivars in the laboratory. Olive fly infested fruits were collected in Çanakkale province to establish wild fly population. After having reproductive olive fly colonies, 14 olive cultivars were tested in the controlled laboratory conditions, at 23±2 °C, 65% RH and 16:8 h (light: dark) photoperiod. The olive samples from 14 different olive cultivars were collected in October 2015, in Campus of Dardanos, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. Observations were carried out detecting some biological parameters such as the number of oviposition stings, active infestation, total infestation, the number of pupae and the adult emergence. The results indicated that oviposition stings were not associated with pupal yield. A few pupae were found within olive fruits which were not able to exit. Screening of the varieties suggested that less susceptible cultivar to olive fruit fly attacks was Arbequin while Gemlik-2M 2/3 showed significant susceptibility. Ovipositional preference of olive fly females and the success of larval development in different olive varieties are crucial for establishing new olive orchards to prevent high olive fruit fly infestation.

Keywords: infestation, olive fruit fly, olive cultivars, oviposition sting

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17 Theory about the Gebel El-Arak Knife: Egyptian Knife with Canaanite Relief

Authors: Doaa El-Shereef

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This paper will focus on proving a theory that it is an Egyptian knife with Canaanite relief and will discuss the nature of the Gebel el-Arak Knife and the civilization to which it belongs and the relationship of the Canaanite deity with Mount Abydos in Egypt, and the influence between the ancient Egyptian religion and the Canaanite religion and their effect on each other. Finally, the paper will discuss in full detail the engraving of the two faces of the knife handle and analyze the register on the front face, which is the scene of the two lions engraved, and between them, an old man symbolized as the deity in the middle and compared it with other drawings similar in the Egyptian civilization. The paper will also discuss the registers on the back face, which are the engravings of a battle, soldiers, uniforms, and boats, and how the back face describes a water battle between three Egyptian boats and two foreign ships. In addition, it will prove that those foreign ships were not Mesopotamian ships because, in the period to which the knife of Gebel Al-Arak belongs, between 3300-3100 BC, there were no battles or trade exchanges between Egypt and Mesopotamia on sea routes. However, there was already a strong land and sea trade between Canaan and Egypt during Chalcolithic Age (4500-3500 BC), as described in many primary sources.

Keywords: Canaan, Egypt, Gebel el-Arak Knife, Louvre

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16 Leviathan, the Myth of Evil, Based on Northrop Frye's Archetypal Criticism

Authors: Maryam Pirdehghan

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The myth of Leviathan, its ontology and appearance is often one of the problems of Judeo-Christian religious commentators so that some of them have tried to interpret and explain formation or symbolic implications of this myth in different contexts their specific methods and proofs. However, the Bible has presented only vague references in this field and it is not clear why and how to develop such mentions to create a powerful myth with allegorical and symbolic capacity as Leviathan. Therefore, the paper aims to clarify the process of formation of Leviathan and explore the mythical and symbolic systems related to it, first by adopting the imagological approach and then using the Northrop Frye's Archetypal Criticism. Finally, it is concluded that The Leviathan is rooted in the stories of legendary battles of the beginning of creation and almost continues to live with the same nature into the Old Testament, but continuously, in an interactive process between the Greek and Egyptian mythological networks, it attracts more stories and implications about his existence while maintaining its satanic nature. After intense metamorphosis in Jewish interpretations, it appears in the book of Revelation and finally, becomes one of the princes of Hell in the tradition of Christian demonology. The myth, that has become the archetype and fluidized symbol of evil because of the ambiguity and lack of objectivity on its apparent characteristics, finds symbolical extensive capabilities in Judeo-Christian culture, especially in the mysticism, so that its presence or death has special implications and also fighting against it is taken into account as an external and more internal action.

Keywords: Leviathan, The Evil, Bible, myth, Northrop Frye

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15 Between Ralph Waldo Emerson and the Dying Infidel

Authors: Michael Keller

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Beyond the heterodoxy expressed in his now-famous 1838 address to the Harvard Divinity School, Emerson’s timing was particularly dangerous. Ideologically, New England faced a severe crisis of identity, as traditional categories of class and religion were growing increasingly unstable. Jones Very, influenced by Emerson, crossed the perceived border between acceptable religious zeal and insane enthusiasm. Abner Kneeland, on the other hand, crossed the uncomfortable border between post-Puritan Unitarian rationalism and blasphemous Enlightenment skepticism. More importantly, Kneeland oversaw a more overtly subversive brand of resistance (in the form of freethought periodicals) that not only threatened religious orthodoxy but also threatened to destabilize the class structure of New England. Very and Kneeland provide instructive case studies of how religious ideologies could run afoul of the social contract and the law itself. By looking closely at the social and religious forces that led to Kneeland’s prosecution for blasphemy, Jones Very’s forced committal to McLean Asylum, and Emerson’s escape from these fates, we gain a greater understanding of the shifting cultural landscape of 1830s New England. This paper will examine Emerson’s resistance to the traditional forces of class and ideology in Massachusetts by situating his early work in the context of the ideological battles of his time. More specifically, I will explore how Emerson was able to resist the conservative cultural forces of his time without experiencing the extremity of their wrath.

Keywords: American literature, cultural studies, emerson, religious studies

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14 Intelligence Failures and Infiltration: The Case of the Ethiopian Army 1977-1991

Authors: Fantahun Ibrahim

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The Ethiopian army was one of the largest and most heavily armed ground forces in Africa between 1974 and 1991. It scored a decisive victory over Somalia’s armed forces in March 1978. It, however, failed to withstand the combined onslaught of the northern insurgents from Tigray and Eritrea and finally collapsed in 1991. At the heart of the problem was the army’s huge intelligence failure. The northern insurgents, on the other hand, had a cutting edge in intelligence gathering. Among other things they infiltrated the army high command and managed to get top secrets about the army. Commanders who had fallen into the hands of the insurgents in several battles were told to send letters to their colleagues in the command structure and persuade them to work secretly for the insurgents. Some commanders did work for the insurgents and played a great role in the undoing of military operations. Insurgent commanders were able to warn their fighters about air strikes before jet fighters took off from airfields in the northern theatre. It was not uncommon for leaders of insurgents to get the full details of military operations days before their implementation. Such intelligence failures led to major military disasters like the fall of Afabet (March, 1988), Enda Sellase (February, 1989), Massawa and Debre Tabor (February, 1990), Karra Mishig, Meragna and Alem Ketema (June, 1990). This paper, therefore, seeks to investigate the army’s intelligence failures using untapped archival documents kept at the Ministry of National Defence in Addis Ababa and interviewing key former commanders of the army and ex-leaders of the insurgents.

Keywords: Ethiopian army, intelligence, infiltration, insurgents

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13 War and the Battle of Lebanese Television over Gender

Authors: Natalie M. Khazaal

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The effects of the civil war on Lebanese women have been challenging to conceptualize. For some, war is a liberating and empowering force for women, while for others it is one that subjugates women and disempowers them in new ways. Scholars have explored the impact on the Lebanese civil war (1975-1990) on women in the fields of labor history, political activism and literary production. In all these arenas, women’s role and visibility were contested and negotiated in diverse ways. But probably the most visible arena where this contestation took place was television. Dramatized entertainment series were crucial sites where fictional women battled out the gender question, and which reflected and participated in the negotiations of gender politics. Even more stunningly, actual television stations became part of this battle through the plots and portrayals of women that they created. The state-backed Tele-Liban (TL) peddled patriarchal articulations of gender that directly competed with the edgy vision of liberated, independent women on the pirate Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation (LBC). This presentation explores how LBC used gender to distinguish its brand against the retrograde TL programing. Television series are an important medium for creating, testing and reenacting gender politics. They are even more consequential in another way. They are the sites where a dramatic shift in the relationship between Arab television and Arab publics—from benign neglect of public concerns towards engagement with audiences—took place for the first time. As this shift is at the heart of why Arab media was seen as a participant in the Arab uprisings, it is important to explore the roots of the shift in the dramas and comedy series of the mid-1980s Lebanese television. This presentation argues that television battles over gender were consequential and need serious consideration as sites of unexpected meaning.

Keywords: gender, Lebanon, television, war, women

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12 The Connection between Heroism and Violence in War Narratives from the Aspect of Rituals

Authors: Rita Fofai

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The aim of the study is to help peacebuilding by analyzing the symbolical level of fights in the war. Despite the sufferings, war heroism still represents such a noble value in war narratives (especially in literature and films, whether it is high- or popular culture) which can make warfare attractive for every age-group. The questions of the study will revolve around the events when heroism is not a necessary and unselfish act for a greater good, but when the primary aim is to express strength in order to build self-mythology. Since war is a scene where the mythological level can meet reality, and even modern narratives use the elements of rituals and sacral references in even secular contexts, understanding the connection between rites and modern battles will ground this study, and the analysis will follow the logic of the violent rites. From this aspect, war is not merely the fight for different countries and ideas, but the fight of mankind with superhuman and natural or supernatural phenomena, as well. In this context, enemy symbolizes the threat of the world which is unpredictable for mankind, and the fight becomes a ritual combat; therefore the winner’s symbolic reward is to redefine himself or herself not only in the human environment but in the context of the whole world. The analysis of the study reveals that this kind of violence does not represents real heroism and rarely results in recruitment, on the contrary, conserves fear and the feeling of weakness, which is the root cause of this kind of act. The result of this study is a way to reshape the attitude toward so-called heroic war violence which is often a part of war narratives even nowadays. Since stepping out of the war tradition is mainly a cultural question, redefining the connection between society and narratives which has an effect on mentality and emotions, giving a clear guide to making difference between heroism and useless violence is very important in peacebuilding.

Keywords: war, ritual, heroism, violence, narratives, culture

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11 A Temporal Analysis on the Legal Status of the Turkish Straits in the Scope of National and International Legislation

Authors: Gizem Kodak, Birsen Koldemir

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The Turkish Straits are at the crossroads of Europe and Asia continents and are unique waterways connecting the Black Sea countries to the rest of the world. Because of the geostrategic value of the location, passage of trade and war ships through the Turkish Straits has become a vital attraction and importance for the great powers and the riparian states throughout the history. This study contains a temporal analysis of the legal measures implemented in the Turkish Straits System. In this context, the historical alternation of the Turkish Straits has been examined, taking into account the relevant national and international regulations. In other words, relevant national and international regulations have been examined in this study according to historical time schedules. Parallel to the main concept mentioned above, the first chapter focuses on international regulations. These arrangements are organized according to date order and in three subheadings: Sèvres Treaty (1920), Lausanne Treaty (1923) and Montreux Convention (1936). Another topic, the national regulations, has been examined under five subheadings. These; (1982), Port Regulations of Canakkale (1982), Marine Traffic Regulations of the Turkish Straits and Marmara Region (1994) and Maritime Traffic Regulations for the Turkish Straits (1998). In doing so, the aim was to identify the differences in legal arrangements throughout the time regarding the navigation through the Turkish Straits. The current situation of the Turkish Straits has been presented in detail in the last part of the work, taking Montreux Convention into consideration. In this context, the articles of the Convention which regulate the passage of trade vessels have been examined from two perspectives; Peace time and war time. As for the measures that can be implemented in time of war, three options put forward depending on Turkey's stance: ‘Turkey not being belligerent’, ‘Turkey being belligerent’ and ‘situation in which Turkey considers herself threatened with imminent danger of war’.

Keywords: temporal analysis, maritime law, Turkish straits, maritime accidents

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10 Exploring the Relationship between Organisational Identity and Value Systems: Reflecting on the Values-Crafting Process in a Multi-National Organisation within the Entertainment Industry

Authors: Dieter Veldsman, Theo Heyns Veldsman

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The knowledge economy demands an organisation that is flexible, adaptable and able to navigate the ever-changing environment. This fast-paced environment has however resulted in an organizational landscape that battles to engage employees, retain top talent and create meaningful work for its members. In the knowledge economy, the concept of organizational identity has become an important consideration as organisations aim to create a compelling and inviting narrative for all stakeholders across the business value chain. Values are often seen as the behavioural framework that informs organisational culture, yet often values are perceived to be inauthentic and misaligned with the true character or identity of the organisation and how it is perceived by different role players. This paper focuses on exploring the relationship between organisational identity and value systems by focusing on a case study within a multi-national organisation within South Africa. The paper evaluates the implementation of mixed methods OD approach that gathered collaborative inputs of more than 4500 employees who participated in crafting the newly established values system post a retrenchment process. The paper will evaluate the relationship between the newly crafted value system and the identity of the organisation as described by various internal and external stakeholders in order to explore potential alignment, dissonance and key insights into understanding the relationship between organisational identity and values. The case study will be reported from the perspective of an OD consultant who supported the transformation process over a period of 8 months and aims to provide key insights into values and identity alignment within knowledge economy organisations. From a practical perspective, the paper provides insights into how values are created, perceived and lived within organisations and the impact on employee engagement and culture.

Keywords: culture, organisational development, organisational identity, values

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9 Determination of Potential Agricultural Lands Using Landsat 8 OLI Images and GIS: Case Study of Gokceada (Imroz) Turkey

Authors: Rahmi Kafadar, Levent Genc

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In present study, it was aimed to determine potential agricultural lands (PALs) in Gokceada (Imroz) Island of Canakkale province, Turkey. Seven-band Landsat 8 OLI images acquired on July 12 and August 13, 2013, and their 14-band combination image were used to identify current Land Use Land Cover (LULC) status. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to three Landsat datasets in order to reduce the correlation between the bands. A total of six Original and PCA images were classified using supervised classification method to obtain the LULC maps including 6 main classes (“Forest”, “Agriculture”, “Water Surface”, “Residential Area-Bare Soil”, “Reforestation” and “Other”). Accuracy assessment was performed by checking the accuracy of 120 randomized points for each LULC maps. The best overall accuracy and Kappa statistic values (90.83%, 0.8791% respectively) were found for PCA images which were generated from 14-bands combined images called 3-B/JA. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 15 m spatial resolution (ASTER) was used to consider topographical characteristics. Soil properties were obtained by digitizing 1:25000 scaled soil maps of rural services directorate general. Potential Agricultural Lands (PALs) were determined using Geographic information Systems (GIS). Procedure was applied considering that “Other” class of LULC map may be used for agricultural purposes in the future properties. Overlaying analysis was conducted using Slope (S), Land Use Capability Class (LUCC), Other Soil Properties (OSP) and Land Use Capability Sub-Class (SUBC) properties. A total of 901.62 ha areas within “Other” class (15798.2 ha) of LULC map were determined as PALs. These lands were ranked as “Very Suitable”, “Suitable”, “Moderate Suitable” and “Low Suitable”. It was determined that the 8.03 ha were classified as “Very Suitable” while 18.59 ha as suitable and 11.44 ha as “Moderate Suitable” for PALs. In addition, 756.56 ha were found to be “Low Suitable”. The results obtained from this preliminary study can serve as basis for further studies.

Keywords: digital elevation model (DEM), geographic information systems (GIS), gokceada (Imroz), lANDSAT 8 OLI-TIRS, land use land cover (LULC)

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8 An Investigation on Interactions between Social Security with Police Operation and Economics in the Field of Tourism

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Namdari, Hosein Torki

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Security as an abstract concept, has involved human being from the beginning of creation to the present, and certainly to the future. Accordingly, battles, conflicts, challenges, legal proceedings, crimes and all issues related to human kind are associated with this concept. Today by interviewing people about their life, the security of societies and Social crimes are interviewed too. Along with the security as an infrastructure and vital concept, the economy and related issues e.g. welfare, per capita income, total government revenue, export, import and etc. is considered another infrastructure and vital concept. These two vital concepts (Security and Economic) have linked together complexly and significantly. The present study employs analytical-descriptive research method using documents and Statistics of official sources. Discovery and explanation of this mutual connection are comprising a profound and extensive research; so management, development and reform in system and relationships of the scope of this two concepts are complex and difficult. Tourism and its position in today's economy is one of the main pillars of the economy of the 21st century that maybe associate with the security and social crimes more than other pillars. Like all human activities, economy of societies and partially tourism dependent on security especially in the public and social security. On the other hand, the true economic development (generally) and the growth of the tourism industry (dedicated) are a security generating and supporting for it, because a dynamic economic infrastructure prevents the formation of centers of crime and illegal activities by providing a context for socio-economic development for all segments of society in a fair and humane. This relationship is a formula of the complexity between the two concept of economy and security. Police as a revealed or people-oriented organization in the field of security directly has linked with the economy of a community and is very effective In the face of the tourism industry. The relationship between security and national crime index, and economic indicators especially ones related to tourism is confirming above discussion that is notable. According to understanding processes about security and economic as two key and vital concepts are necessary and significant for sovereignty of governments.

Keywords: economic, police, tourism, social security

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7 The Personal Characteristics of Nurse Managers and the Personal and Professional Factors That Affect Them

Authors: Handan Alan, Ulkü Baykal

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Personal characteristics help people understand and recognize both themselves and other people. They are also known to have direct effects on managerial behaviors. Managers’ personalities indicate how they think, perceive reality and relate to others, and affect their decision-making and problem-solving methods. This descriptive study aims to determine the personal characteristics of nurse managers and the personal and professional factors that affect them since sufficient data does not exist on personal characteristics despite the focus on the leadership and managerial characteristics in nursing. The study population consisted of nurses working in administrative positions at hospitals affiliated with the public hospitals union, research and practice hospitals affiliated with universities and private hospitals in cities in the Marmara Region. The study sample consisted of nurse managers working in the hospitals that permitted conducting the study (excluding private branch hospitals). The data were collected after obtaining the approval of the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University (Approval date: 1.7.2015, Decision No: 2015-01) and written official permissions from the administrations of the hospitals included in the study. The data analysis was carried out using means and standard deviations (SD) as descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance for inter-group comparisons and the independent samples t-test for paired group comparisons. A significance threshold of p < 0.05 was used to evaluate the findings. The data were collected using the Five Factor Personality Inventory. The study included 900 nurse managers, who obtained the highest mean score on the conscientiousness dimension (X=4.22 ±0.35). This dimension was followed by their mean scores on the agreeableness (X=4.06±0.40), intelligence (X=4.05±0.37), extroversion (X=3.50±0.43), and emotional instability (X=2.07±0.53) dimensions. Statistically significant differences were found between the independent variables of age, gender, marital status, education level, work institution, professional experience, institutional experience, managerial experience, administrative position, work unit and managerial education when compared using the five factor personality inventory (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the nurse managers described themselves having high conscientiousness. Statistically significant differences were found between the five factor personality inventory mean scores and their personal and professional characteristics.

Keywords: nurse manager, personality, personal characteristics, professional characteristics

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6 A Descriptive Study of Turkish Straits System on Dynamics of Environmental Factors Causing Maritime Accidents

Authors: Gizem Kodak, Alper Unal, Birsen Koldemir, Tayfun Acarer

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Turkish Straits System which consists of Istanbul Strait (Bosphorus), Canakkale Strait (Dardanelles) and the Marmara Sea has a strategical location on international maritime as it is a unique waterway between the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. Thus, this area has great importance since it is the only waterway between Black Sea countries and the rest of the World. Turkish Straits System has dangerous environmental factors hosts more vessel every day through developing World trade and this situation results in expanding accident risks day by day. Today, a lot of precautions have been taken to ensure safe navigation and to prevent maritime accidents, and international standards are followed to avoid maritime accidents. Despite this, the environmental factors that affect this area, trigger the maritime accidents and threaten the vessels with new accidents risks in different months with different hazards. This descriptive study consists of temporal and spatial analyses of environmental factors causing maritime accidents. This study also aims at contributing to safety navigation including monthly and regionally characteristics of variables. In this context, two different data sets are created consisting of environmental factors and accidents. This descriptive study on the accidents between 2001 and 2017 the mentioned region also studies the months and places of the accidents with environmental factor variables. Environmental factor variables are categorized as dynamic and static factors. Dynamic factors are appointed as meteorological and oceanographical while static factors are appointed as geological factors that threaten safety navigation with geometrical restricts. The variables that form dynamic factors are approached meteorological as wind direction, wind speed, wave altitude and visibility. The circulations and properties of the water mass on the system are studied as oceanographical properties. At the end of the study, the efficient meteorological and oceanographical parameters on the region are presented monthly and regionally. By this way, we acquired the monthly, seasonal and regional distributions of the accidents. Upon the analyses that are done; The Turkish Straits System that connects the Black Sea countries with the other countries and which is one of the most important parts of the world trade; is analyzed on temporal and spatial dimensions on the reasons of the accidents and have been presented as environmental factor dynamics causing maritime accidents.

Keywords: descriptive study, environmental factors, maritime accidents, statistics

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5 Komedya: St. Denis' Philippine Theater in the US

Authors: Nenita Pambid Domingo

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The komedya otherwise known as moro-moro or pretending to be Moors, is a traditional Filipino play in the vernacular adapted from the Spanish comedia de capa y espada. It was used by Spanish colonizers in the Philippines, circa 1766 to evangelize and strengthen the faith of Indios or Filipino natives to Christianity. Unlike the Moros y Cristianos festival held all over Spain celebrating the Reconquista from the 8th to the 15th century, the Philippine Moro-Moro or Komedya is a romance between a Muslim and a Christian and the battles between Christians and Moros, where the Moros are always defeated and the Muslim prince is converted to the Christian faith and marries the Christian princess at the end of the play. For over 200 years, the komedya has been part of the Filipinos’ life and has been dubbed by some Philippine scholars as the Philippine’s national theater. Until now postings of performances in different parts of the Philippines in different Philippine languages are uploaded at youtube. In the US, “San Dionisio sa America (SDA),” an organization of natives from Barrio San Dionisio, Parañaque, Philippines has been performing the komedya for the past 16 years during their town’s fiesta, in honor of the barrio's patron saints St Denis of Paris, France and Saint Joseph whom the devotees fondly call "Tata Dune" and "Tata Hosep". The komedya performed in the US is infused with modern elements in the production and content, but retain the basic form in verse and the stylized war dance, marches, and singsong delivery of lines. Most of the Celebras or town fiestas and komedya performances are held at The Barnsdall Art Park and Gallery Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles. The presentation will focus on the linguistic and content analysis of the Tagalog verses in the 2010 komedya entitled Mga Prinsesa ng Cordova (The Princesses of Cordova) publicized as a modern komedya. The presentation will also touch on the healing function of the language and performance that is part of the town’s religious festivities. It will also look into the aesthetics of the production, audience reception, participation of the sponsors, producers called Hermana/Hermano Mayor, the performers who are a mix of Filipinos from the Philippines and Filipino-Americans who are starting to lose the Tagalog language and the non-Filipino participants, as well as the general audience who are from Parañaque and those not from Parañaque, who come to witness the event and enjoy the festivities.

Keywords: devotion, diaspora nationalism, komedya, st. denis of Paris, France, traditional Philippine theater

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4 Bauhaus Exhibition 1922: New Weapon of Anti-Colonial Resistance in India

Authors: Suneet Jagdev

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The development of the original Bauhaus occurred at a time in the beginning of the 20th century when the industrialization of Germany had reached a climax. The cities were a reflection of the new living conditions of an industrialized society. The Bauhaus can be interpreted as an ambitious attempt to find appropriate answers to the challenges by using architecture-urban development and design. The core elements of the conviction of the day were the belief in the necessary crossing of boundaries between the various disciplines and courage to experiment for a better solution. Even after 100 years, the situation in our cities is shaped by similar complexity. The urban consequences of developments are difficult to estimate and to predict. The paper critically reflected on the central aspects of the history of the Bauhaus and its role in bringing the modernism in India by comparative studies of the methodology adopted by the artists and designer in both the countries. The paper talked in detail about how the Bauhaus Exhibition in 1922 offered Indian artists a new weapon of anti-colonial resistance. The original Bauhaus fought its aesthetic and political battles in the context of economic instability and the rise of German fascism. The Indians had access to dominant global languages and in a particular English. The availability of print media and a vibrant indigenous intellectual culture provided Indian people a tool to accept technology while denying both its dominant role in culture and the inevitability of only one form of modernism. The indigenous was thus less an engagement with their culture as in the West than a tool of anti-colonial struggle. We have shown how the Indian people used Bauhaus as a critique of colonialism itself through an undermining of its typical modes of representation and as a means of incorporating the Indian desire for spirituality into art and as providing the cultural basis for a non-materialistic and anti-industrial form of what we might now term development. The paper reflected how through painting the Bauhaus entered the artistic consciousness of the sub-continent not only for its stylistic and technical innovations but as a tool for a critical and even utopian modernism that could challenge both the hegemony of academic and orientalist art and as the bearer of a transnational avant-garde as much political as it was artistic, and as such the basis of a non-Eurocentric but genuinely cosmopolitan alternative to the hierarchies of oppression and domination that had long bound India and were at that moment rising once again to a tragic crescendo in Europe. We have talked about how the Bauhaus of today can offer an innovative orientation towards discourse around architecture and design.

Keywords: anti-colonial struggle, art over architecture, Bauhaus exhibition of 1922, industrialization

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3 The Convention of Culture: A Comprehensive Study on Dispute Resolution Pertaining to Heritage and Related Issues

Authors: Bhargavi G. Iyer, Ojaswi Bhagat

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In recent years, there has been a lot of discussion about ethnic imbalance and diversity in the international context. Arbitration is now subject to the hegemony of a small number of people who are constantly reappointed. When a court system becomes exclusionary, the quality of adjudication suffers significantly. In such a framework, there is a misalignment between adjudicators' preconceived views and the interests of the parties, resulting in a biased view of the proceedings. The world is currently witnessing a slew of intellectual property battles around cultural appropriation. The term "cultural appropriation" refers to the industrial west's theft of indigenous culture, usually for fashion, aesthetic, or dramatic purposes. Selena Gomez exemplifies cultural appropriation by commercially using the “bindi,” which is sacred to Hinduism, as a fashion symbol. In another case, Victoria's Secret insulted indigenous peoples' genocide by stealing native Indian headdresses. In the case of yoga, a similar process can be witnessed, with Vedic philosophy being reduced to a type of physical practice. Such a viewpoint is problematic since indigenous groups have worked hard for generations to ensure the survival of their culture, and its appropriation by the western world for purely aesthetic and theatrical purposes is upsetting to those who practise such cultures. Because such conflicts involve numerous jurisdictions, they must be resolved through international arbitration. However, these conflicts are already being litigated, and the aggrieved parties, namely developing nations, do not believe it prudent to use the World Intellectual Property Organization's (WIPO) already established arbitration procedure. This practise, it is suggested in this study, is the outcome of Europe's exclusionary arbitral system, which fails to recognise the non-legal and non-commercial nature of indigenous culture issues. This research paper proposes a more comprehensive, inclusive approach that recognises the non-legal and non-commercial aspects of IP disputes involving cultural appropriation, which can only be achieved through an ethnically balanced arbitration structure. This paper also aspires to expound upon the benefits of arbitration and other means of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the context of disputes pertaining to cultural issues; positing that inclusivity is a solution to the existing discord between international practices and localised cultural points of dispute. This paper also hopes to explicate measures that will facilitate ensuring inclusion and ideal practices in the domain of arbitration law, particularly pertaining to cultural heritage and indigenous expression.

Keywords: arbitration law, cultural appropriation, dispute resolution, heritage, intellectual property

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2 Media Response to Kashmir Conflict: How Press Differed in Highlighting Protest Shutdowns between 1990-2010

Authors: Danish Gadda

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Kashmir has been a bleeding-spot in the South Asian politics since 1947 when the subcontinent was bifurcated into Hindu, India and Muslim Pakistan by the departing British colonisers. Kashmir couldn’t accede to either of the two new-born, sovereign nations until tribal invasion from Pakistan forced an unfortunate change of events. India, driven by conditional accession signed by the Kashmir’s last monarch, sent its army to defend Kashmir Valley, with a promise, made subsequently, that the region’s fate would be decided by the natives through an internationally-monitored plebiscite. The country, however, broke its promise, choosing not to withdraw its military to allow the plebiscite, and, instead, strengthened its claim over Kashmir, which it later started describing as her integral part. War, fought in the shape of three and a half bloody battles, ensued between India and Pakistan, even as the United Nations’ intervention managed a ceasefire as early as in the 1950s, though not before Kashmir had come to be divided into its India-controlled and Pakistan-controlled halves. Prolonged, the dispute over Kashmir took a violent turn in 1989-90 with the start of an anti-India armed rebellion. Kashmiris have been fighting for their right to self-determination, and bringing their own life to a grinding halt has been one of their preferred forms of protest against the Indian rule. This form of resistance is locally called ‘Hartals’, and recognised as shutdowns, which have often been prolonged and violent. Since 1989-90, the shutdowns have become only more frequent and forceful, and there are marked days on which Kashmir shuts down in protest every year, like a ritual. This paper is based on a study of how the Indian and Kashmir press covered the shutdowns observed in the troubled valley on four such days: January 26 (Indian Republic Day), February 11 (the day on which India executed a prominent Kashmiri resistance leader), August 15 (India’s Independence Day), and October 27 (the day on which the Indian military has landed in Kashmir). The coverage given by the Indian and Kashmiri press to the shutdowns observed on these days has been studied using the multi-tier content analysis approach: 1) Difference in the number of shutdowns covered by the two section is looked at, 2) the placement of the stories in the two section of the press is analysed, 3) the discourse highlighted by the two section of the press is compared, and 4) the editorials written by the two section of the press about the shutdowns are analysed. The findings show the Indian and the local press have been focussing on the two, predictable extremes of the situation: the Indian press has favoured the state, while the Kashmir or the local press has focussed on the narrative opposing the state’s. The difference is noticed in the quantitative as well as the qualitative aspects of their coverage.

Keywords: Indo-Pak tension, Kashmir conflict, protest shutdowns, South-Asian politics

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1 As a Secure Bridge Country about Oil and Gas Sources Transfer after Arab Spring: Turkey

Authors: Fatih Ercin Guney, Hami Karagol

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Day by day, humanity's energy needs increase, to facilitate access to energy sources by energy importing countries is of great importance in terms of issues both in terms of economic security and political security. The geographical location of the oil exporting countries in the Middle East (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar) today, it is observed that evaluated by emerging Arab Spring(from Tunisia to Egypt) and freedom battles(in Syria) with security issues arise sourced from terrorist activities(ISIS). Progresses related with limited natural resources, energy and it's transportation issues which worries the developing countries, the energy in the region is considered to how to transfer safely. North Region of the Black Sea , the beginning of the conflict in the regional nature formed between Russia and Ukraine (2010), followed by the relevant regions of the power transmission line (From Russia to Europe) the discovery is considered to be the east's hand began to strengthen in terms of both the economical and political sides. With the growing need for safe access to the west of the new energy transmission lines are followed by Turkey, re-interest is considered to be shifted to the Mediterranean and the Middle East by West. Also, Russia, Iran and China (three axis of east) are generally performing as carry out parallel policies about energy , economical side and security in both United Nations Security Council (Two of Five Permanent Members are Russia and China) and Shanghai Cooperation Organization. In addition, Eastern Mediterranean Region Tension are rapidly increasing about research new oil and natural gas sources by Israel, Egypt, Cyprus, Lebanon. This paper provides, new energy corridor(s) are needed to transfer sources (Oil&Natural Gas) by Europe from East to West. So The West needs either safe bridge country to transfer natural sources to Europe in region or is needed to discovery new natural sources in extraterritorial waters of Eastern Mediterranean Region. But in two opportunities are evaluated with secure transfer corridors form region to Europe in safely. Even if the natural sources can be discovered, they are considered to transfer in safe manner. This paper involved, Turkey’s importance as a leader country in region over both of political and safe energy transfer sides as bridge country between south and north of Turkey why natural sources shall be transferred over Turkey, Even if diplomatic issues-For Example; Cyprus membership in European Union, Turkey membership candidate duration, Israel-Cyprus- Egypt-Lebanon researches about new natural sources in Mediterranean - occurred. But politic balance in Middle-East is changing quickly because of lack of democratic governments in region. So it is evaluated that the alliance of natural sources researches may not be long-time relations due to share sources after discoveries. After evaluating over causes and reasons, aim to reach finding foresight about future of region for energy transfer periods in secure manner.

Keywords: Middle East, natural gas, oil, Turkey

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