Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 374

Search results for: COD fractions

374 In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Methanol Extracts of Tamus communis L. from Algeria

Authors: F. Belkhiri, A. Baghiani, S. Boumerfeg, N. Charef, S. Khennouf, L. Arrar


The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts from roots of Tamus communis L. (TCRE), which is a plant used in traditional medicine in Algeria. The antioxidant potential of pattern was evaluated using tow complementary techniques, inhibition of free radical DPPH and the test of β-Carotene/linoleic acid. The antioxidant test indicates that non-polar fractions of TCRE (chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions) were more active than the polar fractions. Among these fractions, the chloroform extract appear in the DPPH test an IC50 of (18.89 µg/ml) comparable to that of BHT (18.6 µg/ml). This fraction was able to inhibiting the oxidation of β-Carotene with a percentage of inhibition (89.84 %). In antibacterial test, non-polar fractions showed antibacterial activity very important compared with the polar fractions. These fractions have inhibited the growth of four from nine bacterial strains, causing zones of inhibition from 08 to 23 mm of diameter.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, Tamus communis L., polar fractions

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373 Properties of Cement Pastes with Different Particle Size Fractions of Metakaolin

Authors: M. Boháč, R. Novotný, F. Frajkorová, R. S. Yadav, T. Opravil, M. Palou


Properties of Portland cement mixtures with various fractions of metakaolin were studied. 10 % of Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R was replaced by different fractions of high reactivity metakaolin with defined chemical and mineralogical properties. Various fractions of metakaolin were prepared by jet mill classifying system. There is a clear trend between fineness of metakaolin and hydration heat development. Due to metakaolin presence in mixtures the compressive strength development of mortars is rather slower for coarser fractions but 28-day flexural strengths are improved for all fractions of metakaoline used in mixtures compared to reference sample of pure Portland cement. Yield point, plastic viscosity and adhesion of fresh pastes are considerably influenced by fineness of metakaolin used in cement pastes.

Keywords: calorimetry, cement, metakaolin fineness, rheology, strength

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372 In Vitro Hepatoprotective and Anti-Hepatitis B Activitis of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome Fractions

Authors: Mohammad K. Parvez, Ahmed H. Arbab, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari


Cyperus rotendus rhizomes are used as traditional medicine, including Ayurveda in chronic liver diseases and hepatitis B. We investigated the in vitro hepatoprotective and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of Cyperus rotundus rhizome organic and aqueous fractions. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-injured HepG2 cells at 48 h. DCFH-toxicated cells were recovered to about 88% and 96%, upon treatment with n-butanol and aqueous fractions (200 g/ml), respectively compared to DCFH-only treated cells. Further, C. rotundus fractions were tested for anti-HBV activities by measuring the expression levels of viral antigens (HBsAg and HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 culture supernatants. At 48 h post-treatment, the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed dose-dependent inhibition wherein at a higher dose (100 g/ml), HBsAg production was reduced to 60.27%, 46.87 and 42.76%, respectively. In a time-course study, HBsAg production was inhibited up to 50% and 40% by ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions (100 g/ml), respectively on day 5. Three three active fractions were further subjected to time-dependent inhibition of HBeAg expression, an indirect measure of HBV active DNA replication. At day 5 post-treatment, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions downregulated HBV replication by 44.14% and 24.70%, respectively. In conclusion, our results showed very promising hepatoprotective and anti-HBV potential of C. rotendus tubers fractions in vitro. Our data could, therefore, provide the basis for the claimed traditional use of C. rotendus for jaundice and hepatitis.

Keywords: anti-hepatitis B, cyperus rotundus, hepatitis B virus, hepatoprotection

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371 Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Different Pinus Species from Kosovo

Authors: Fatbardhë Kurti, Giangiacomo Beretta, Behxhet Mustafa, Fabrizio Gelmini, Avni Hajdari


Chemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of total and fractionated essential oils (EOs) (F1 – hexane, F2 – hexane/diethyl ether, F3 – diethyl ether) derived from five Pinus species (Pinus heldreichii, P. peuce, P. mugo, Pinus nigra, P. sylvestris), were investigated. The hydrodistilled EOs and their chromatographic fractions (direct solid phase extraction, SPE) were analysed by GC-MS and 112 compounds separated and identified. The main constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, D-limonene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bornyl acetate and 3-carene. The antioxidant activities of total EOs were lower than those of the corresponding fractions, with F2 the strongest in all cases. EOs and fractions showed different degrees of antibacterial efficacy against different microbial pathogens (moderately strong antimicrobial activity against C. albicans and C. krusei ,while low or no activity against E. faecalis and E. coli strains). The detected inhibition zones and MICs for the EOs and fractions were in the range of 14 -35 mm and 0.125 - 1% (v/v), respectively. The components responsible for the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes recovered in the polar EO fractions. These activities seem to be regulated by reciprocal interactions among the different subclasses of phytochemical species present in the EOs.

Keywords: antagonism, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, essential oil, fractions, GC-MS, pinus

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370 Evaluation of Anti-Typhoid Effects of Azadirachta indica L. Fractions

Authors: A. Adetutu, T. M. Awodugba, O. A. Owoade


The development of resistance to currently known conventional anti-typhoid drugs has necessitated search into cheap, more potent and less toxic anti-typhoid drugs of plant origin. Therefore, this study investigated the anti-typhoid activity of fractions of A. indica in Salmonella typhi infected rats. Leaves of A. indica were extracted in methanol and fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate, and aqueous fractions. The anti-salmonella potentials of fractions of A. indica were assessed via in-vitro inhibition of S. typhi using agar well diffusion, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and biofilm assays. The biochemical and haematological parameters were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The histological analysis was performed using Haematoxylin and Eosin staining methods. Data analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA. Results of this study showed that S. typhi was sensitive to aqueous and chloroform fractions of A. indica, and the fractions showed biofilm inhibition at concentrations of 12.50, 1.562, and 0.39 mg/mL. In the in-vivo study, the extract and chloroform fraction had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the number of viable S. typhi recovered from the blood and stopped salmonellosis after 6 days of treatment of rats at 500 mg/kg b.w. Treatments of infected rats with chloroform and aqueous fractions of A. indica normalized the haematological parameters in the animals. Similarly, treatment with fractions of the plants sustained a normal antioxidant status when compared with the normal control group. Chloroform and ethyl-acetate fractions of A. indica reversed the liver and intestinal degeneration induced by S. typhi infection in rats. The present investigation indicated that the aqueous and chloroform fractions of A. indica showed the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis, including typhoid fever. The results of the study may justify the ethno-medicinal use of the extract in traditional medicine for the treatment of typhoid and salmonella infections.

Keywords: Azadirachta indica L, salmonella, typhoid, leave fractions

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369 Density Determination by Dilution for Extra Heavy Oil Residues Obtained Using Molecular Distillation and Supercritical Fluid Extraction as Upgrading and Refining Process

Authors: Oscar Corredor, Alexander Guzman, Adan Leon


Density is a bulk physical property that indicates the quality of a petroleum fraction. It is also a useful property to estimate various physicochemical properties of fraction and petroleum fluids; however, the determination of density of extra heavy residual (EHR) fractions by standard methodologies, (ASTM D70) shows limitations for samples with higher densities than 1.0879 g/cm3. For this reason, a dilution methodology was developed in order to determinate density for those particular fractions, 87 (EHR) fractions were obtained as products of the fractionation of Colombian typical Vacuum Distillation Residual Fractions using molecular distillation (MD) and extraction with Solvent N-hexane in Supercritical Conditions (SFEF) pilot plants. The proposed methodology showed reliable results that can be demonstrated with the standard deviation of repeatability and reproducibility values of 0.0031 and 0.0061 g/ml respectively. In the same way, it was possible to determine densities in fractions EHR up to 1.1647g/cm3 and °API values obtained were ten times less than the water reference value.

Keywords: API, density, vacuum residual, molecular distillation, supercritical fluid extraction

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368 The Grade Six Pupils' Learning Styles and Their Achievements and Difficulties on Fractions Based on Kolb's Model

Authors: Faiza Abdul Latip


One of the ultimate goals of any nation is to produce competitive manpower and this includes Philippines. Inclination in the field of Mathematics has a significant role in achieving this goal. However, Mathematics, as considered by most people, is the most difficult subject matter along with its topics to learn. This could be manifested from the low performance of students in national and international assessments. Educators have been widely using learning style models in identifying the way students learn. Moreover, it could be the frontline in knowing the difficulties held by each learner in a particular topic specifically concepts pertaining to fractions. However, as what many educators observed, students show difficulties in doing mathematical tasks and in great degree in dealing with fractions most specifically in the district of Datu Odin Sinsuat, Maguindanao. This study focused on the Datu Odin Sinsuat district grade six pupils’ learning styles along with their achievements and difficulties in learning concepts on fractions. Five hundred thirty-two pupils from ten different public elementary schools of the Datu Odin Sinsuat districts were purposively used as the respondents of the study. A descriptive research using the survey method was employed in this study. Quantitative analysis on the pupils’ learning styles on the Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (KLSI) and scores on the mathematics diagnostic test on fraction concepts were made using this method. The simple frequency and percentage counts were used to analyze the pupils’ learning styles and their achievements on fractions. To determine the pupils’ difficulties in fractions, the index of difficulty on every item was determined. Lastly, the Kruskal-Wallis Test was used in determining the significant difference in the pupils’ achievements on fractions classified by their learning styles. This test was set at 0.05 level of significance. The minimum H-Value of 7.82 was used to determine the significance of the test. The results revealed that the pupils of Datu Odin Sinsuat districts learn fractions in varied ways as they are of different learning styles. However, their achievements in fractions are low regardless of their learning styles. Difficulties in learning fractions were found most in the area of Estimation, Comparing/Ordering, and Division Interpretation of Fractions. Most of the pupils find it very difficult to use fraction as a measure, compare or arrange series of fractions and use the concept of fraction as a quotient.

Keywords: difficulties in fraction, fraction, Kolb's model, learning styles

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367 A Qualitative Study: Teaching Fractions with Augmented Reality for 5th Grade Students in Turkey

Authors: Duygu Özdemir, Bilal Özçakır


Usage of augmented reality in education helps students to make sense of the three-dimensional world of mathematics. In this study, it was aimed to develop activities about fractions for 5th-grade students by augmented reality and also aimed to assess these activities in terms of students’ understanding and views. Data obtained from 60 students in a private school in Marmaris, Turkey was obtained through classroom observations, students’ worksheets and semi-structured interviews during two weeks. Data analysis was conducted by using constant-comparative analysis which leads to meaningful categories of findings. Findings of this study indicated that usage of augmented reality is a facilitator to make concretize and provide real-life application for fractions. Moreover, students’ opinions about its usage were lead to categories as benefit for learning, enjoyment and creating awareness of usage of augmented reality in mathematics education. In general, this study could be a bridge to show the contributions of augmented reality applications to mathematics education and also highlights that augmented reality could be used with subjects like fractions rather than subjects only in geometry learning domain.

Keywords: augmented reality, mathematics, fractions, students

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366 Removal of Aromatic Fractions of Natural Organic Matter from Synthetic Water Using Aluminium Based Electrocoagulation

Authors: Tanwi Priya, Brijesh Kumar Mishra


Occurrence of aromatic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) led to formation of carcinogenic disinfection by products such as trihalomethanes in chlorinated water. In the present study, the efficiency of aluminium based electrocoagulation on the removal of prominent aromatic groups such as phenol, hydrophobic auxochromes, and carboxyl groups from NOM enriched synthetic water has been evaluated using various spectral indices. The effect of electrocoagulation on turbidity has also been discussed. The variation in coagulation performance as a function of pH has been studied. Our result suggests that electrocoagulation can be considered as appropriate remediation approach to reduce trihalomethanes formation in water. It has effectively reduced hydrophobic fractions from NOM enriched low turbid water. The charge neutralization and enmeshment of dispersed colloidal particles inside metallic hydroxides is the possible mechanistic approach in electrocoagulation.

Keywords: aromatic fractions, electrocoagulation, natural organic matter, spectral indices

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365 Characterization of Domestic Sewage Mixed with Baker's Yeast Factory Effluent of Beja Wastewater Treatment Plant by Respirometry

Authors: Fezzani Boubaker


In this work, a comprehensive study of respirometric method was performed to assess the biodegradable COD fractions of domestic sewage mixed with baker’s yeast factory effluent treated by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Beja. Three respirometric runs were performed in a closed tank reactor to characterize this mixed raw effluent. Respirometric result indicated that the readily biodegradable fraction (SS) was in range of 6-22%, the slowly biodegradable fraction (Xs) was in range of 33-42%, heterotrophic biomass (XH) was in range of 9-40% and the inert fractions: XI and SI were in range of 2-40% and 6-12% respectively which were high due to the presence of baker’s yeast factory effluent compared to domestic effluent alone. The fractions of the total nitrogen showed that SNO fraction is between 6 and 9% of TKN, the fraction of nitrogen ammonia SNH was ranging from 5 to 68%. The organic fraction divided into two compartments SND (11-85%) and XND (5-20%) the inert particulate nitrogen fraction XNI was between 0.4 and 1% and the inert soluble fraction of nitrogen SNI was ranged from 0.4 to 3%.

Keywords: wastewater characterization, COD fractions, respirometry, domestic sewage

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364 Off-Line Detection of "Pannon Wheat" Milling Fractions by Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods

Authors: E. Izsó, M. Bartalné-Berceli, Sz. Gergely, A. Salgó


The aims of this investigation is to elaborate near-infrared methods for testing and recognition of chemical components and quality in “Pannon wheat” allied (i.e. true to variety or variety identified) milling fractions as well as to develop spectroscopic methods following the milling processes and evaluate the stability of the milling technology by different types of milling products and according to sampling times, respectively. This wheat categories produced under industrial conditions where samples were collected versus sampling time and maximum or minimum yields. The changes of the main chemical components (such as starch, protein, lipid) and physical properties of fractions (particle size) were analysed by dispersive spectrophotometers using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) regions of the electromagnetic radiation. Close correlation were obtained between the data of spectroscopic measurement techniques processed by various chemometric methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and operation condition of milling technology. Its obvious that NIR methods are able to detect the deviation of the yield parameters and differences of the sampling times by a wide variety of fractions, respectively. NIR technology can be used in the sensitive monitoring of milling technology.

Keywords: near infrared spectroscopy, wheat categories, milling process, monitoring

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363 Air Classification of Dust from Steel Converter Secondary De-dusting for Zinc Enrichment

Authors: C. Lanzerstorfer


The off-gas from the basic oxygen furnace (BOF), where pig iron is converted into steel, is treated in the primary ventilation system. This system is in full operation only during oxygen-blowing when the BOF converter vessel is in a vertical position. When pig iron and scrap are charged into the BOF and when slag or steel are tapped, the vessel is tilted. The generated emissions during charging and tapping cannot be captured by the primary off-gas system. To capture these emissions, a secondary ventilation system is usually installed. The emissions are captured by a canopy hood installed just above the converter mouth in tilted position. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of Zn and other components on the particle size of BOF secondary ventilation dust. Because of the high temperature of the BOF process it can be expected that Zn will be enriched in the fine dust fractions. If Zn is enriched in the fine fractions, classification could be applied to split the dust into two size fractions with a different content of Zn. For this air classification experiments with dust from the secondary ventilation system of a BOF were performed. The results show that Zn and Pb are highly enriched in the finest dust fraction. For Cd, Cu and Sb the enrichment is less. In contrast, the non-volatile metals Al, Fe, Mn and Ti were depleted in the fine fractions. Thus, air classification could be considered for the treatment of dust from secondary BOF off-gas cleaning.

Keywords: air classification, converter dust, recycling, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
362 Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts and Fractions from Phyllanthus amarus

Authors: Van Tang Nguyen, Jennette A. Sakoff, Christopher J. Scarlett


Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) has been used as a traditional herbal plant for the treatment of chronic ailments such as hepatitis, diabetes and cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude P. amarus extracts and fractions using MTT and CCK-8 assays for cytotoxic evaluation. The outcomes indicated that P. amarus methanol (PAM) extract had lower residual moisture (7.40%) and water activity (0.24) and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins (1657.86 mg escin equivalents, 250.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, 274.73 mg rutin equivalents and 61.22 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively) than those of P. amarus water (PAW) extract, resulting antioxidant activity of PAM extract was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of PAW extract, PAM fractions and phyllanthin (a major compound in P. amarus). Cytotoxic activity of PAM extract for cancer cell lines of MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas), HT29 (colon), A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MCF-7 (breast), MCF-10A (normal breast), and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma) was higher than those of PAW extract and PAM fractions. Therefore, we can conclude that the PA extracts are a potential source for the development of natural antioxidant products and/or novel anticancer drugs.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, Phyllanthus amarus, physicochemical

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361 Using Thinking Blocks to Encourage the Use of Higher Order Thinking Skills among Students When Solving Problems on Fractions

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdullah, Nur Liyana Zainal Abidin, Mahani Mokhtar


Problem-solving is an activity which can encourage students to use Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Learning fractions can be challenging for students since empirical evidence shows that students experience difficulties in solving the fraction problems. However, visual methods can help students to overcome the difficulties since the methods help students to make meaningful visual representations and link abstract concepts in Mathematics. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were any changes in students’ HOTS at the four highest levels when learning the fractions by using Thinking Blocks. 54 students participated in a quasi-experiment using pre-tests and post-tests. Students were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n=32) received a treatment to improve the students’ HOTS and the other group acted as the control group (n=22) which used a traditional method. Data were analysed by using Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that during post-test, students who used Thinking Blocks showed significant improvement in their HOTS level (p=0.000). In addition, the results of post-test also showed that the students’ performance improved significantly at the four highest levels of HOTS; namely, application (p=0.001), analyse (p=0.000), evaluate (p=0.000), and create (p=0.000). Therefore, it can be concluded that Thinking Blocks can effectively encourage students to use the four highest levels of HOTS which consequently enable them to solve fractions problems successfully.

Keywords: Thinking Blocks, Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS), fractions, problem solving

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
360 A Principal-Agent Model for Sharing Mechanism in Integrated Project Delivery Context

Authors: Shan Li, Qiuwen Ma


Integrated project delivery (IPD) is a project delivery method distinguished by a shared risk/rewards mechanism and multiparty agreement. IPD has drawn increasingly attention from construction industry because of its efficiency of solving adversarial problems and reliability to deliver high-performing buildings. However, some evidence showed that some project participants obtained less profit from IPD projects than the typical projects. They attributed it to the unfair IPD sharing mechanism, which resulted in additional time and cost of negotiation on the sharing fractions among project participants. The study is aimed to investigate the reward distribution by constructing a principal-agent model. Based on cooperative game theory, it is examined how to distribute the shared project rewards between client and non-client parties, and identify the sharing fractions among non-client parties. It is found that at least half of the project savings should be allocated to the non-client parties to motivate them to create more project value. Second, the client should raise his sharing fractions when the integration among project participants is efficient. In addition, the client should allocate higher sharing fractions to the non-client party who is more able. This study can help the IPD project participants make fair and motivated sharing mechanisms.

Keywords: cooperative game theory, IPD, principal agent model, sharing mechanism

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359 The Determination of Aflatoxins in Paddy and Milled Fractions of Rice in Guyana: Preliminary Results

Authors: Donna M. Morrison, Lambert Chester, Coretta A. N. Samuels, David R. Ledoux


A survey was conducted in the five rice-growing regions in Guyana to determine the presence of aflatoxins in multiple fractions of rice in June/October 2015 growing season. The fractions were paddy, steamed paddy, cargo rice, white rice and parboiled rice. Samples were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A subset of the samples was further analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for concurrence. All analyses were conducted at the University of Missouri, USA. Of the 186 samples tested, 16 had aflatoxin concentrations greater than 20 ppb the recommended limit for aflatoxins in food according to the United States Food and Drug Administration. An additional three samples had aflatoxin B1 concentrations greater than the European Union Commission maximum levels for aflatoxin B1 in rice at 5 µg/kg and total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) at 10 µg/kg. The survey indicates that there is no widespread aflatoxin problem in rice in Guyana. The incidence of aflatoxins appears to be localized.

Keywords: aflatoxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), rice fractions

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358 Profiling, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Acacia decurrens (Willd) an Invasive South Africa Tree

Authors: Joe Modise, Bamidel Joseph Okoli, Nas Molefe, Imelda Ledwaba


The present study describes the chemical profile and antioxidant potential of the stem bark of Acacia decurrens. The methanol fraction of A. decurrens stem bark gave the highest yield (20 %), while the hexane fraction had the lowest yield (0.2 %). The GC-MS spectra of the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions confirm the presence of fifty two major compounds and the ICP-OES analysis of the stem bark was found to contain Co(0.41), Zn(1.75), Mn(3.69), Ca(8.67), Ni(10.54), Mg(12.98), Cr(24.38), K(47.88), Fe(154.62) ppm; which is an indication of hyper-accumulation capacity. The UV-Visible spectra of showed four absorption maxima for hexane fraction at 665 (0.028), 410 (0.116), 335 (0.278) and 250 (0.007) nm, three for chloroform fraction at 665 (0.028), 335 (0.278) and 250 (0.007) nm , three for ethyl acetate fraction at 665 (0.070), 390 (0.648) and 345 (0.663) nm and three for methanol fraction at 385 (0.508), 310 (0.886) and 295 (0.899) nm respectively. Quantitative phytochemical screening indicated that the alkaloid (0.6-3.3) % and saponins (5.1-8.6) % contents of the various fractions were significantly lower than the tannin (30.9-55.8) mg TAE/g, steroid(13.92-41.2) %, phenol (40.6-65.5) mgGAE/g and flavonoids (210.2 -284.9) mg RUE/g contents. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was analysed by different methods and revealed good to moderate antioxidant potential with different IC50 values viz. (42.2-49.6) mg/mL for ABTS and (37.8-75.0) μg/ml for DPPH respectively, compared to standard antioxidants. Based on obtained results, the A.decurrens stem bark fractions can be a source of safe, sustainable natural antioxidant drug and can be exploited as a source of controlled green-heavy metal cleaner.

Keywords: Acacia decurrens, antioxidant, DPPH, ABTS, hyperaccumulation, Menstruum, ICP-OES, GC-MS, UV/visible

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357 Characterization of High Carbon Ash from Pulp and Paper mill for Potential Utilization

Authors: Ruma Rano, Firoza Sultana, Bishal Bhuyan, Nurul Alam Mazumder


Fly ash collected from Cachar Paper Mill, Assam, India has been thoroughly characterized in respect of its physico-chemical, morphological and mineralogical features were concerned by using density, LOI, FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDS etc. The results reveal that there is a striking difference in the features and properties of the coarser and finer fractions .The high carbon ash consists of large unburnt carbon (chars), irregular carbonaceous particles in the coarser fraction, which appear to be porous and may be used as domestic fuel. The percentage of char albeit the carbon content decreases with decrease in size of particles. The various fractions essentially contain quartz and mullite as the main mineral phases. For suggesting the potential utilization channels, number of experiments were performed correlating the total characteristic features. Water holding capacities of different size classified fractions were determined, the coarser fractions have unexpectedly higher water holding capacities than the finer ones. An attempt has been made to correlate the results obtained with potential use in agriculture. Another potential application of coarser particles is used as adsorbent for effluents containing waste organic materials. Thus thorough characterization leads to not only a definite direction about the uses of the value added components but also gives useful information regarding the prevailing combustion process.

Keywords: chars, porous, water holding capacity, combustion process

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356 The Potential of Acanthaster Plancii Fractions as Anti-Atherosclerotic Agent by Inhibiting the Expression of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin-Kexin Type 9

Authors: Nurjannatul Naim Kamaruddin, Tengku Sifziuzl Tengku Muhammad, Aina Farahiyah Abdul Manan, Habsah Mohamad


Atherosclerosis which leads to cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, unstable angina (ischemic heart pain), sudden cardiac death and stroke is the principal cause of death worldwide. It has been a very critical issue as current common drug treatment, statin therapy has left bad side effects like rhabdomyolysis, atrial fibrillation, liver disease, abdominal and chest pain. Interestingly, the discoveries of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 have paved a new way in the treatment of atherosclerosis. This serine protease is believed to involve in the regulation of LDL- uptake by LDL-receptor. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Acanthaster plancii fractions to reduce the transcriptional activity of the PCSK9 promoter. In this study, the marine organism which is Acanthaster plancii has been used as the source for marine compounds in inhibiting PCSK9. The cytotoxicity activity of ten fractions from the methanol extracts of Acanthaster plancii was investigated on HepG2 cell lines using MTS assay and dual glo luciferase assay was carried out later to analyses the effects of the samples in reducing the transcriptional activity of the PCSK9 promoter. Both assays used fractions with five different concentrations, 3.13µg/mL, 6.25µg/mL, 12.5µg/mL, 25µg/mL, and 50µg/mL. MTS assay indicated that the fractions are non-cytotoxic towards HepG2 cell lines as their IC50 value is greater than 30µg/mL. Whilst, for the dual glo luciferase assay, among all the fractions, Enhance Fraction 2 (EF2) showed the best potential in reducing the transcriptional activity of the PCSK9 promoter. The results indicated that this EF2 gave the lowest PCSK9 promoter expression at low concentration which is 0.2 fold change at 6.25µg/mL. This finding suggested that further analysis should be done to validate the potential of Acanthaster plancii as the source of anti-atherosclerotic agent.

Keywords: Acanthaster plancii, atherosclerosis, luciferase assay, PCSK9

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355 Influence of Cyperus Rotundus Active Principles Inhibit Viral Multiplication and Stimulate Immune System in Indian White Shrimp Fenneropenaeus Indicus against White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

Authors: Thavasimuthu Citarasu, Mariavincent Michaelbabu, Vikram Vakharia


The rhizome of Java grass, Cyperus rotundus was extracted different organic polar and non-polar solvents and performed the in vitro antiviral and immunostimulant activities against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively. Based on the initial screening the ethyl acetate extract of C. rotundus was strong activities and further it was purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions were screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. Among the different fractions screened against the WSSV and V. harveyi, the fractions, F-III to FV had strong activities. In order to study the in vivo influence of C. rotundus, the fractions (F-III to FV) were pooled and delivered to the F. indicus through artificial feed for 30 days. After the feeding trail the experimental and control diet fed F. indicus were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the survival, molecular diagnosis, biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. Surprisingly, the pooled fractions (F-III to FV) incorporated diets helped to significantly (P < 0.01) suppressed viral multiplication, showed significant (P < 0.01) differences in protein and glucose levels, improved total haemocyte count (THC), coagulase activity, significantly increased (P < =0.001) prophenol oxidase and intracellular superoxide anion production compared to the control shrimps. Based on the results, C. rotundus extracts effectively suppressed WSSV multiplication and improve the immune system in F. indicus against WSSV infection and this knowledge will helps to develop novel drugs from C. rotundus against WSSV.

Keywords: antiviral drugs, cyperus rotundus, fenneropenaeus indicus, WSSV

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354 Oil-Oil Correlation Using Polar and Non-Polar Fractions of Crude Oil: A Case Study in Iranian Oil Fields

Authors: Morteza Taherinezhad, Ahmad Reza Rabbani, Morteza Asemani, Rudy Swennen


Oil-oil correlation is one of the most important issues in geochemical studies that enables to classify oils genetically. Oil-oil correlation is generally estimated based on non-polar fractions of crude oil (e.g., saturate and aromatic compounds). Despite several advantages, the drawback of using these compounds is their susceptibility of being affected by secondary processes. The polar fraction of crude oil (e.g., asphaltenes) has similar characteristics to kerogen, and this structural similarity is preserved during migration, thermal maturation, biodegradation, and water washing. Therefore, these structural characteristics can be considered as a useful correlation parameter, and it can be concluded that asphaltenes from different reservoirs with the same genetic signatures have a similar origin. Hence in this contribution, an integrated study by using both non-polar and polar fractions of oil was performed to use the merits of both fractions. Therefore, five oil samples from oil fields in the Persian Gulf were studied. Structural characteristics of extracted asphaltenes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Graphs based on aliphatic and aromatic compounds (predominant compounds in asphaltenes structure) and sulphoxide and carbonyl functional groups (which are representatives of sulphur and oxygen abundance in asphaltenes) were used for comparison of asphaltenes structures in different samples. Non-polar fractions were analyzed by GC-MS. The study of asphaltenes showed the studied oil samples comprise two oil families with distinct genetic characteristics. The first oil family consists of Salman and Reshadat oil samples, and the second oil family consists of Resalat, Siri E, and Siri D oil samples. To validate our results, biomarker parameters were employed, and this approach completely confirmed previous results. Based on biomarker analyses, both oil families have a marine source rock, whereby marl and carbonate source rocks are the source rock for the first and the second oil family, respectively.

Keywords: biomarker, non-polar fraction, oil-oil correlation, petroleum geochemistry, polar fraction

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353 Isolation of Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Sponge Neopetrosia exigua

Authors: Haitham Qaralleh, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbudin Saad, Deny Susanti, Osama Althunibat


This study was carried out to isolate the active antimicrobial compounds from Neopetrosia exigua using bio-guided assay isolation against Staphylococcus aureus. N. exigua was extracted using methanol and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with different polarity (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, n-butanol and water). Purification of the active components of n-butanol and dichloromethane fractions was done using Sephadex LH-20 and reverse phase chromatography. Based on the biological guided fractionation results, dichloromethane and n-butanol fractions showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Purification of the active components of n-butanol and dichloromethane fractions yielded three compounds. The structure of the isolated compounds were elucidated and found to be 5-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester, cyclo-1`-demethylcystalgerone and avarol derivative. Avarol was showed potent bactericidal effect against S. aureus. N. exigua appears to be rich source of natural antimicrobial agents. Further studies are needed to investigate the mode of action of these compounds.

Keywords: antimicrobial, avarol, Neopetrosia exigua, Staphylococcus aureus

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352 Use of Recycled Aggregates in Current Concretes

Authors: K. Krizova, R. Hela


The paper a summary of the results of concretes with partial substitution of natural aggregates with recycled concrete is solved. Design formulas of the concretes were characterised with 20, 40 and 60% substitution of natural 8-16 mm fraction aggregates with a selected recycled concrete of analogous coarse fractions. With the product samples an evaluation of coarse fraction aggregates influence on fresh concrete consistency and concrete strength in time was carried out. The results of concretes with aggregates substitution will be compared to reference formula containing only the fractions of natural aggregates.

Keywords: recycled concrete, natural aggregates, fresh concrete, properties of concrete

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351 Influence of Particulate Fractions on Air Quality for Four Major Congested Cities of India over a Period of Four Years from 2006-2009

Authors: I. Mukherjee, J. Ghose, T. Chakraborty, S. Chaudhury, R. Majumder


India is the second most populated nation in the world. With the Indian population hitting the 1.26 billion mark in the year 2014, there has been an unprecedented rise in power and energy requirements throughout the nation. This mammoth demand for energy, both at the industrial as well as at the domestic household level, as well as the increase in the usage of automobiles has led to a corresponding increase in the total tonnage of fuels being burnt every year. This, in turn, has led to an increase in the concentration of atmospheric pollutants over the years with enhanced particulate concentrations being reported for different parts of the country. Considering the adverseness of the particulates, the paper analyses the role of the particulates on the air quality of four major congested cities of the country namely, Kolkata (22034’ N, 88024’ E), Delhi (28038’N , 77012’ E), Bangalore (12058’ N , 77038’E) and Mumbai (18.9750° N, 72.8258° E) over a period of four years from 2006-2009. The fractional contribution of the finer fractions to the coarser one has been considered in the study in addition to the relative occurrences of the particulate fractions with respect to the other gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX).

Keywords: air quality, particulates, yearly variation, relative occurrence, SO2, NOX

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350 Evaluation of Insulin Sensitizing Effects of Different Fractions from Total Alcoholic Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Bark in Dexamethasone-Induced Insulin Resistant Rats

Authors: Hasanpasha N. Sholapur, Basanagouda M.Patil


Alcoholic extract of the bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO), (Moringaceae), has been evaluated experimentally in the past for its insulin sensitizing potentials. In order to explore the possibility of the class of phytochemical(s) responsible for this experimental claim, the alcoholic extract was fractionated into non-polar [petroleum ether (PEF)], moderately non-polar [ethyl acetate (EAF)] and polar [aqueous (AQF)] fractions. All the fractions and pioglitazone (PIO) as standard (10mg/kg were p.o., once daily for 11 d) were investigated for their chronic effect on fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, insulin, oral glucose tolerance and acute effect on oral glucose tolerance in dexamethasone-induced (1 mg/kg s.c., once daily for 11 d) chronic model and acute model (1 mg/kg i.p., for 4 h) respectively for insulin resistance (IR) in rats. Among all the fractions tested, chronic treatment with EAF (140 mg/kg) and PIO (10 mg/kg) prevented dexamethasone-induced IR, indicated by prevention of hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia and oral glucose intolerance, whereas treatment with AQF (95 mg/kg) prevented hepatic IR but not peripheral IR. In acute study single dose treatment with EAF (140 mg/kg) and PIO (10 mg/kg) prevented dexamethasone-induced oral glucose intolerance, fraction PEF did not show any effect on these parameters in both the models. The present study indicates that the triterpenoidal and the phenolic class of phytochemicals detected in EAF of alcoholic extract of MO bark may be responsible for the prevention of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in rats.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera, insulin resistance, dexamethasone, serum triglyceride, insulin, oral glucose tolerance test

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349 Effects of Medium Composition on the Production of Biomass and a Carbohydrate Isomerase by a Novel Strain of Lactobacillus

Authors: M. Miriam Hernández-Arroyo, Ivonne Caro-Gonzales, Miguel Ángel Plascencia-Espinosa, Sergio R. Trejo-Estrada


A large biodiversity of Lactobacillus strains has been detected in traditional foods and beverages from Mexico. A selected strain of Lactobacillus sp - PODI-20, used for the obtained from an artisanal fermented beverage was cultivated in different carbon sources in a complex medium, in order to define which carbon sourced induced more effectively the isomerization of arabinose by cell fractions obtained by fermentation. Four different carbon sources were tested in a medium containing peptone and yeast extract and mineral salts. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, and lactose were tested individually at three different concentrations: 3.5, 6, and 10% w/v. The biomass yield ranged from 1.72 to 17.6 g/L. The cell pellet was processed by mechanical homogenization. Both fractions, the cellular debris, and the lysis supernatant were tested for their ability to isomerize arabinose into ribulose. The highest yield of isomer was 12 % of isomerization in the supernatant fractions; whereas up to 9.3% was obtained by the use of cell debris. The isomerization of arabinose has great significance in the production of lactic acid by fermentation of complex carbohydrate hydrolysates.

Keywords: isomerase, tagatose, aguamiel, isomerization

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348 In vivo Wound Healing Activity and Phytochemical Screening of the Crude Extract and Various Fractions of Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich (Crassulaceae) Leaves in Mice

Authors: Awol Mekonnen, Temesgen Sidamo, Epherm Engdawork, Kaleab Asresb


Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The leaves of Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich (Crassulaceae) are used in Ethiopian folk medicine for treatment of evil eye, fractured surface for bone setting and several skin disorders including for the treatment of sores, boils, and malignant wounds. Aim of the Study: In order to scientifically prove the claimed utilization of the plant, the effects of the extracts and the fractions were investigated using in vivo excision, incision and dead space wound models. Materials and Method: Mice were used for wound healing study, while rats and rabbit were used for skin irritation test. For studying healing activity, 80% methanolic extract and the fractions were formulated in strength of 5% and 10%, either as ointment (hydroalcoholic extract, aqueous and methanol fractions) or gel (chloroform fraction). Oral administration of the crude extract was used for dead space model. Negative controls were treated either with simple ointment or sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose xerogel, while positive controls were treated with nitrofurazone (0.2 w/v) skin ointment. Negative controls for dead space model were treated with 1% carboxy methyl cellulose. Parameters, including rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelializtion, hydroxyproline contents and skin breaking strength were evaluated. Results: Significant wound healing activity was observed with ointment formulated from the crude extract at both 5% and 10% concentration (p<0.01) compared to controls in both excision and incision models. In dead space model, 600 mg/kg (p<0.01), but not 300 mg/kg, significantly increased hydroxyproline content. Fractions showed variable effect, with the chloroform fraction lacking any significant effect. Both 5% and 10% formulations of the aqueous and methanolic fractions significantly increased wound contraction, decreased epithelializtion time and increased hydroxyproline content in excision wound model (p<0.05) as compared to controls. These fractions were also endowed with higher skin breaking strength in incision wound model (p<0.01). Conclusions: The present study provided evidence that the leaves of Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich possess remarkable wound healing activities supporting the folkloric assertion of the plant. Fractionation revealed that polar or semi-polar compound may play vital role, as both aqueous and methanolic fractions were endowed with wound healing activity.

Keywords: wound healing, Kalanchoae petitiana, excision wound, incision wound, dead space model

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347 Characterisation of Chitooligomers Prepared with the Aid of Cellulase, Xylanase and Chitosanase

Authors: Anna Zimoch-Korzycka, Dominika Kulig, Andrzej Jarmoluk


The aim of this study was to obtain chitooligosaccharides from chitosan with better functional properties using three different enzyme preparations and compare the products of enzymatic hydrolysis. Commercially available cellulase (CL), xylanase (X) and chitosanase (CS) preparations were used to investigate hydrolytic activity on chitosan (CH) with low molecular weight and DD of 75-85%. It has been reported that CL and X have side activities of other enzymes, such as β-glucanase or β-glucosidase. CS enzyme has a foreign activity of chitinase. Each preparation was used in 1000 U of activity and in the same reaction conditions. The degree of deacetylation and molecular weight of chitosan were specified using titration and viscometric methods, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of enzymes preparations on chitosan was monitored by dynamic viscosity measurement. After 4 h reaction with stirring, solutions were filtered and chitosan oligomers were isolated by methanol solution into two fractions: precipitate (A) and supernatant (B). A Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural changes of chitosan oligomers fractions and initial chitosan. Furthermore, the solubility of lyophilized hydrolytic mixture (C) and two chitooligomers fractions (A, B) of each enzyme hydrolysis was assayed. The antioxidant activity of chitosan oligomers was evaluated as DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The dynamic viscosity measured after addition of enzymes preparation to the chitosan solution decreased dramatically over time in the sample with X in comparison to solution without the enzyme. For mixtures with CL and CS, lower viscosities were also recorded but not as low as the ones with X. A and B fractions were characterized by the most similar viscosity obtained by the xylanase hydrolysis and were 15 mPas and 9 mPas, respectively. Structural changes of chitosan oligomers A, B, C and their differences related with various enzyme preparations used were confirmed. Water solubility of A fractions was not possible to filter and the result was not recorded. Solubility of supernatants was approximately 95% and was higher than hydrolytic mixture. It was observed that the DPPH radical scavenging effect of A, B, C samples is the highest for X products and was approximately 13, 17, 19% respectively. In summary, a mixture of chitooligomers may be useful for the design of edible protective coatings due to the improved biophysical properties.

Keywords: cellulase, xylanase, chitosanase, chitosan, chitooligosaccharides

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346 Determination of in vitro Antioxidative Activity of Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda

Authors: Hyun Young Kim, Min Jung Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Sanghyun Lee, Eun Ju Cho


Oxidative stress that results from overproduction of free radicals can lead to pathogenesis of human diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda (A. yomena) belonging to Compositae family is a perennial plant, and it has anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effect of A. yomena by measuring 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (˙OH) and superoxide radical (O₂⁻) scavenging activities in vitro. A. yomena was extracted with ethanol and then partitioned with n-hexane, methylene chloride (CH₂Cl₂), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (n-BuOH). In DPPH radical scavenging assay, the concentration of A. yomena from 10 to 100μg/mL dose-dependently raised the inhibition of DPPH oxidation. Especially, EtOAc fraction of A. yomena showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity among other fractions. The ˙OH radical scavenging activities of the extract and four fractions of A. yomena were increased by over 80% at a concentration of 50μg/mL. Especially, the IC50 value of EtOAc fraction was 0.03 μg/mL that is the lowest value compared with the values of other fractions. In addition, we found that the EtOAc fraction of A. yomena was showed to be better at O₂⁻ radical scavenging than other fractions. Taken together these results, we suggested that A. yomena, especially EtOAc fraction, can be used as a natural antioxidant against free radicals. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2016R1D1A1B03931593).

Keywords: Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda (A. yomena), free radicals, antioxidant, EtOAc fraction

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345 Physical Characterization of Indoor Dust Particles Using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Fatima S. Mohammed, Derrick Crump


Harmattan, a dusty weather condition characterized by thick smog-like suspended particles and dust storm are the peculiar events that happen during ¾ of the year in the Sahelian regions including Damaturu Town, Nigeria), resulting in heavy dust deposits especially indoors. The inhabitants of the Damaturu community are always inflicted with different ailments; respiratory tract infections, asthma, gastrointestinal infections and different ailments associated with the dusty nature of the immediate environment. This brought the need to investigate the nature of the settled indoor dust. Vacuum cleaner bag dust was collected from indoor of some Nigerian and UK homes, as well as outdoors including during seasonal dusty weather event (Harmattan and Storm dust). The dust was sieved, and the (150 µm size) particles were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physical characterization of the settled dust samples has revealed the various shapes and sizes, and elemental composition of the dust samples is indicating that some of the dust fractions were the respirable fractions and also the dust contained PM10 to PM 2.5 fractions with possible health effects. The elemental compositions were indicative of the diverse nature of the dust particle sources, which showed dust as a complex matrix.

Keywords: indoor dust, Harmattan dust, SEM, health effects

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