Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Brucella abortus

15 Differential Antibrucella Activity of Bovine and Murine Macrophages

Authors: Raheela Akhtar, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Yongqun Oliver He, Muhammad Younus, Aftab Ahmad Anjum


Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen affecting macrophages. Macrophages release some components such as lysozymes (LZ), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrite intermediates (RNI) which are important tools against intracellular survival of Brucella. The antibrucella activity of bovine and murine macrophages was compared following stimulation with Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharides. Our results revealed that murine macrophages were ten times more potent to produce antibrucella components than bovine macrophages. The differential production of these components explained the differential Brucella killing ability of these species that was measured in terms of intramacrophagic survival of Brucella in murine and bovine macrophages.

Keywords: bovine macrophages, Brucella abortus, cell stimulation, cytokines, Murine macrophages

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14 Serological Evidence of Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetti, Chlamydophila abortus, and Toxoplasma gondii Infections in Sheep and Goat Herds in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Nabeeha Hassan Abdel Jalil, Robert Barigye, Hamda Al Alawi, Afra Al Dhaheri, Fatma Graiban Al Muhairi, Maryam Al Khateri, Nouf Al Alalawi, Susan Olet, Khaja Mohteshamuddin, Ahmad Al Aiyan, Mohamed Elfatih Hamad


A serological survey was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, and Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goat herds in the UAE. A total of 915 blood samples [n= 222, [sheep]; n= 215, [goats]) were collected from livestock farms in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah and Ras Al-Khaimah (RAK). An additional 478 samples (n= 244, [sheep]; n= 234, (goats]) were collected from the Al Ain livestock central market and tested by indirect ELISA for pathogen-specific antibodies with the Brucella antibodies being further corroborated by the Rose-Bengal agglutination test. Seropositivity for the four pathogens is variably documented in sheep and goats from the study area. Respectively, the overall livestock farm prevalence rates for Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii were 2.7%, 27.9%, 8.1%, and 16.7% for sheep, and 0.0%, 31.6%, 9.3%, and 5.1% for goats. Additionally, the seroprevalence rates Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii in samples from the livestock market were 7.4%, 21.7%, 16.4%, and 7.0% for sheep, and 0.9%, 32.5%, 19.2%, and 11.1% for goats respectively. Overall, sheep had 12.59 more chances than goats of testing seropositive for Brucella spp (OR, 12.59 [95% CI 2.96-53.6]) but less likely to be positive for C. burnetii-antibodies (OR, 0.73 [95% CI 0.54-0.97]). Notably, the differences in the seroprevalence rates of C. abortus and T. gondii in sheep and goats were not statistically significant (p > 0.0500). The present data indicate that all the four study pathogens are present in sheep and goat populations in the UAE where coxiellosis is apparently the most seroprevalent followed by chlamydophilosis, toxoplasmosis, and brucellosis. While sheep from the livestock market were more likely than those from farms to be Brucella-seropositive than those, the overall exposure risk of C. burnetii appears to be greater for goats than sheep. As more animals from the livestock market were more likely to be seropositive to Chlamydophila spp, it is possible that under the UAE animal production conditions, at least, coxiellosis and chlamydophilosis are more likely to increase the culling rate of domesticated small ruminants than toxoplasmosis and brucellosis. While anecdotal reports have previously insinuated that brucellosis may be a significant animal health risk in the UAE, the present data suggest C. burnetii, C. abortus and T. gondii to be more significant pathogens of sheep and goats in the country. Despite this possibility, the extent to which these pathogens may nationally be contributing to reproductive failure in sheep and goat herds is not known and needs to be investigated. Potentially, these agents may also carry a potentially zoonotic risk that needs to be investigated in risk groups like farm workers, and slaughter house personnel. An ongoing study is evaluating the seroprevalence of bovine coxiellosis in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the data thereof will further elucidate on the broader epidemiological dynamics of the disease in the national herd.

Keywords: Brucella spp, Chlamydophila abortus, goat, sheep, Toxoplasma gondii, UAE

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13 Determining the Presence of Brucella abortus Antibodies by the Indirect Elisa Method in Bovine Bulk Milk and Risk Factors in the Peri-Urban Zones of Bamenda Cameroon

Authors: Cha-ah C. N., Awah N. J., Mouiche M. M. M.


Brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic disease of animals and man caused by bacteria of genus Brucella. Though eradicated in some parts of the world, it remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa including Cameroon. The aim of this study was to contribute to the epidemiology of brucellosis in the North-West region of Cameroon by detecting the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies in bovine bulk milk as this serves as a route of transmission from animals to man. A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies in bovine bulk milk in the peri-urban zones of Bamenda. One hundred bulk milk samples were collected from 100 herds and tested by milk I-ELISA test. The conducted study revealed the presence of anti-Brucella abortus antibodies in bovine bulk milk. The study revealed that bovine brucellosis is widespread in animal production systems in this area. The animal infection pressure in these systems has remained strong due to movement of livestock in search of pasture, co-existence of animal husbandry, communal sharing of grazing land, concentration of animals around water points, abortions in production systems, locality of production systems and failure to quarantine upon introduction of new animals. The circulation of Brucella abortus antibodies in cattle farms recorded in the study revealed potential public health implication and suggest economic importance of brucellosis to the cattle industry in the Northwest region of Cameroon. The risk for re-emergence and transmission of brucellosis is evident as a result of the co-existence of animal husbandry activities and social-cultural activities that promote brucellosis transmission. Well-designed countrywide, evidence-based studies of brucellosis are needed. These could help to generate reliable frequency and potential impact estimates, to identify Brucella reservoirs, and to propose control strategies of proven efficacy.

Keywords: brucellosis, bulk milk, northwest region Cameroon, prevalence

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12 Detection and Dissemination of Putative Virulence Genes from Brucella Species Isolated from Livestock in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

Authors: Rudzani Manafe, Ezekiel Green


Brucella, has many different virulence factors that act as a causative agent of brucellosis, depending on the environment and other factors, some factors may play a role more than others during infection and as a result, play a role in becoming a causative agent for pathogenesis. Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus are considered to be pathogenic to humans. The genetic regularity of nine potential causes of virulence of two Brucella species in Eastern Cape livestock have been examined. A hundred and twenty isolates obtained from Molecular Pathogenesis and Molecular Epidemiology Research Group (MPMERG) were used for this study. All isolates were grown on Brucella agar medium. Nine primer pairs were used for the detection of virB2, virB5, vceC, btpA, btpB, prpA, betB, bpe275, and bspB virulence factors using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Approximately 100% was observed for genes BecC and BetB from B. arbotus. While the lowest gene observed was PrpA at 4.6% from B. arbotus. BetB was detected in 34.7%, while virB2 and prpA (0%) were not detected in B. melitensis. The results from this research suggest that most isolates of Brucella have virulence-related genes associated with disease pathogenesis. Finally, our findings showed that Brucella strains in the Eastern Cape Province are extremely virulent as virulence characteristics exist in most strains investigated.

Keywords: putative virulence genes, brucella, polymerase chain reaction, milk

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11 Molecular Identification and Genotyping of Human Brucella Strains Isolated in Kuwait

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa


Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in Kuwait. Human brucellosis can be caused by several Brucella species with Brucella melitensis causing the most severe and Brucella abortus the least severe disease. Furthermore, relapses are common after successful chemotherapy of patients. The classical biochemical methods of culture and serology for identification of Brucellae provide information about the species and serotypes only. However, to differentiate between relapse and reinfection/epidemiological investigations, the identification of genotypes using molecular methods is essential. In this study, four molecular methods [16S rRNA gene sequencing, real-time PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA)-16] were evaluated for the identification and typing of 75 strains of Brucella isolated in Kuwait. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing suggested that all the strains were B. melitensis and real-time PCR confirmed their species identity as B. melitensis. The ERIC-PCR band profiles produced a dendrogram of 75 branches suggesting each strain to be of a unique type. The cluster classification, based on ~ 80% similarity, divided all the ERIC genotypes into two clusters, A and B. Cluster A consisted of 9 ERIC genotypes (A1-A9) corresponding to 9 individual strains. Cluster B comprised of 13 ERIC genotypes (B1-B13) with B5 forming the largest cluster of 51 strains. MLVA-16 identified all isolates as B. melitensis and divided them into 71 MLVA-types. The cluster analysis of MLVA-16-types suggested that most of the strains in Kuwait originated from the East Mediterranean Region, a few from the African group and one new genotype closely matched with the West Mediterranean region. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that B. melitensis, the most pathogenic species of Brucella, is prevalent in Kuwait. Furthermore, MLVA-16 is the best molecular method, which can identify the Brucella species and genotypes as well as determine their origin in the global context. Supported by Kuwait University Research Sector grants MI04/15 and SRUL02/13.

Keywords: Brucella, ERIC-PCR, MLVA-16, RT-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing

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10 Current Status and Prospects of Further Control of Brucellosis in Humans and Domestic Ruminants in Bangladesh

Authors: A. K. M. Anisur Rahman


Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world's most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. Its current status in humans and domestic ruminants along with probable means to control further in Bangladesh are described. The true exposure prevalence of brucellosis in cattle, goats, and sheep seems to be low: 0.3% in cattle, 1% in goats and 1.2% in sheep. The true prevalence of brucellosis in humans was also reported to be around 2%. In such a low prevalence scenario both in humans and animals, the positive predictive values of the diagnostic tests were very low. The role Brucella species in the abortion of domestic ruminants is less likely. Still now, no Brucella spp. was isolated from animal and human samples. However, Brucella abortus DNA was detected from seropositive humans, cattle, and buffalo; milk of cow, goats, and gayals and semen of an infected bull. Consuming raw milk and unpasteurized milk products by Bangladeshi people are not common. Close contact with animals, artificial insemination using semen from infected bulls, grazing mixed species of animals together in the field and transboundary animal movement are important factors, which should be considered for the further control of this zoonosis in Bangladesh.

Keywords: brucellosis, control, human, zoonosis

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9 Efficacy of Preimplantation Genetic Screening in Women with a Spontaneous Abortion History with Eukaryotic or Aneuploidy Abortus

Authors: Jayeon Kim, Eunjung Yu, Taeki Yoon


Most spontaneous miscarriage is believed to be a consequence of embryo aneuploidies. Transferring eukaryotic embryos selected by PGS is expected to decrease the miscarriage rate. Current PGS indications include advanced maternal age, recurrent pregnancy loss, repeated implantation failure. Recently, use of PGS for healthy women without above indications for the purpose of improving in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes is on the rise. However, it is still controversy about the beneficial effect of PGS in this population, especially, in women with a history of no more than 2 miscarriages or miscarriage of eukaryotic abortus. This study aimed to investigate if karyotyping result of abortus is a good indicator of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in subsequent IVF cycle in women with a history of spontaneous abortion. A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed. Women who had spontaneous abortion(s) (less than 3) and dilatation and evacuation, and subsequent IVF from January 2016 to November 2016 were included. Their medical information was extracted from the charts. Clinical pregnancy was defined as presence of a gestational sac with fetal heart beat detected on ultrasound in week 7. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Total 234 women were included. 121 out of 234 (51.7%) underwent karyotyping of the abortus, and 113 did not have the abortus karyotyped. Embryo biopsy was performed on 3 or 5 days after oocyte retrieval, followed by embryo transfer (ET) on a fresh or frozen cycle. The biopsied materials were subjected to microarray comparative genomic hybridization. Clinical pregnancy rate per ET was compared between PGS and non-PGS group in each study group. Patients were grouped by two criteria: karyotype of the abortus from previous miscarriage (unknown fetal karyotype (n=89, Group 1), eukaryotic abortus (n=36, Group 2) or aneuploidy abortus (n=67, Group 3)), and pursuing PGS in subsequent IVF cycle (pursuing PGS (PGS group, n=105) or not pursuing PGS (non-PGS group, n=87)). The PGS group was significantly older and had higher number of retrieved oocytes and prior miscarriages compared to non-PGS group. There were no differences in BMI and AMH level between those two groups. In PGS group, the mean number of transferable embryos (eukaryotic embryo) was 1.3 ± 0.7, 1.5 ± 0.5 and 1.4 ± 0.5, respectively (p = 0.049). In 42 cases, ET was cancelled because all embryos biopsied turned out to be abnormal. In all three groups (group 1, 2, and 3), clinical pregnancy rates were not statistically different between PGS and non-PGS group (Group 1: 48.8% vs. 52.2% (p=0.858), Group 2: 70% vs. 73.1% (p=0.730), Group 3: 42.3% vs. 46.7% (p=0.640), in PGS and non-PGS group, respectively). In both groups who had miscarriage with eukaryotic and aneuploidy abortus, the clinical pregnancy rate between IVF cycles with and without PGS was not different. When we compare miscarriage and ongoing pregnancy rate, there were no significant differences between PGS and non-PGS group in all three groups. Our results show that the routine application of PGS in women who had less than 3 miscarriages would not be beneficial, even in cases that previous miscarriage had been caused by fetal aneuploidy.

Keywords: preimplantation genetic diagnosis, miscarriage, kpryotyping, in vitro fertilization

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8 Isolate-Specific Variations among Clinical Isolates of Brucella Identified by Whole-Genome Sequencing, Bioinformatics and Comparative Genomics

Authors: Abu S. Mustafa, Mohammad W. Khan, Faraz Shaheed Khan, Nazima Habibi


Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide prevalence. There are at least four species and several strains of Brucella that cause human disease. Brucella genomes have very limited variation across strains, which hinder strain identification using classical molecular techniques, including PCR and 16 S rDNA sequencing. The aim of this study was to perform whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates of Brucella and perform bioinformatics and comparative genomics analyses to determine the existence of genetic differences across the isolates of a single Brucella species and strain. The draft sequence data were generated from 15 clinical isolates of Brucella melitensis (biovar 2 strain 63/9) using MiSeq next generation sequencing platform. The generated reads were used for further assembly and analysis. All the analysis was performed using Bioinformatics work station (8 core i7 processor, 8GB RAM with Bio-Linux operating system). FastQC was used to determine the quality of reads and low quality reads were trimmed or eliminated using Fastx_trimmer. Assembly was done by using Velvet and ABySS softwares. The ordering of assembled contigs was performed by Mauve. An online server RAST was employed to annotate the contigs assembly. Annotated genomes were compared using Mauve and ACT tools. The QC score for DNA sequence data, generated by MiSeq, was higher than 30 for 80% of reads with more than 100x coverage, which suggested that data could be utilized for further analysis. However when analyzed by FastQC, quality of four reads was not good enough for creating a complete genome draft so remaining 11 samples were used for further analysis. The comparative genome analyses showed that despite sharing same gene sets, single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions existed across different genomes, which provided a variable extent of diversity to these bacteria. In conclusion, the next generation sequencing, bioinformatics, and comparative genome analysis can be utilized to find variations (point mutations, insertions and deletions) across different genomes of Brucella within a single strain. This information could be useful in surveillance and epidemiological studies supported by Kuwait University Research Sector grants MI04/15 and SRUL02/13.

Keywords: brucella, bioinformatics, comparative genomics, whole genome sequencing

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7 Sensitivity and Specificity of Some Serological Tests Used for Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis in Egypt on Bacteriological and Molecular Basis

Authors: Hosein I. Hosein, Ragab Azzam, Ahmed M. S. Menshawy, Sherin Rouby, Khaled Hendy, Ayman Mahrous, Hany Hussien


Brucellosis is a highly contagious bacterial zoonotic disease of a worldwide spread and has different names; Infectious or enzootic abortion and Bang's disease in animals; and Mediterranean or Malta fever, Undulant Fever and Rock fever in humans. It is caused by the different species of genus Brucella which is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming, facultative intracellular bacterium. Brucella affects a wide range of mammals including bovines, small ruminants, pigs, equines, rodents, marine mammals as well as human resulting in serious economic losses in animal populations. In human, Brucella causes a severe illness representing a great public health problem. The disease was reported in Egypt for the first time in 1939; since then the disease remained endemic at high levels among cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat and is still representing a public health hazard. The annual economic losses due to brucellosis were estimated to be about 60 million Egyptian pounds yearly, but actual estimates are still missing despite almost 30 years of implementation of the Egyptian control programme. Despite being the gold standard, bacterial isolation has been reported to show poor sensitivity for samples with low-level of Brucella and is impractical for regular screening of large populations. Thus, serological tests still remain the corner stone for routine diagnosis of brucellosis, especially in developing countries. In the present study, a total of 1533 cows (256 from Beni-Suef Governorate, 445 from Al-Fayoum Governorate and 832 from Damietta Governorate), were employed for estimation of relative sensitivity, relative specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of buffered acidified plate antigen test (BPAT), rose bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis revealed (19.63%). Relative sensitivity, relative specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of BPAT,RBT and CFT were estimated as, (96.27 %, 96.76 %, 87.65 % and 99.10 %), (93.42 %, 96.27 %, 90.16 % and 98.35%) and (89.30 %, 98.60 %, 94.35 %and 97.24 %) respectively. BPAT showed the highest sensitivity among the three employed serological tests. RBT was less specific than BPAT. CFT showed the least sensitivity 89.30 % among the three employed serological tests but showed the highest specificity. Different tissues specimens of 22 seropositive cows (spleen, retropharyngeal udder, and supra-mammary lymph nodes) were subjected for bacteriological studies for isolation and identification of Brucella organisms. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 could be recovered from 12 (54.55%) cows. Bacteriological examinations failed to classify 10 cases (45.45%) and were culture negative. Bruce-ladder PCR was carried out for molecular identification of the 12 Brucella isolates at the species level. Three fragments of 587 bp, 1071 bp and 1682 bp sizes were amplified indicating Brucella melitensis. The results indicated the importance of using several procedures to overcome the problem of escaping of some infected animals from diagnosis.Bruce-ladder PCR is an important tool for diagnosis and epidemiologic studies, providing relevant information for identification of Brucella spp.

Keywords: brucellosis, relative sensitivity, relative specificity, Bruce-ladder, Egypt

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6 Proteomics Application in Disease Diagnosis and Reproduction İmprovement in Cow

Authors: Abdollah Sobhani, Hossein Vaseghi-Dodaran


Proteomics is defined as the study of the component of a cell, tissue and biological fluid. This technique has the potential to identify protein biomarkers of a disease states. In this study which was performed on bovine ovarian follicular cysts (BOFC), eight proteins are over expressed in BOFC that these proteins could be useful biomarkers for BOFC. The difference between serum proteome pattern cows affected by postpartum endometritis with healthy cows revealed that concentrations orosomucoid was decreased in endometritis. The comparison proteome of brucella abortus between laboratory adapted strains and clinical isolates could be useful to better understand this disease and vaccine development. Proteomics experiments identified new proteins and pathways that may be important in future hypothesis-driven studies of glucocorticoid-induced immunosuppression. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of effective parameters on male fertility is essential for obtaining high reproductive efficiency by decreasing cost and time. The investigations on proteome of high fertility spermatozoa indicated that expression of some proteins such as casein kinase 2 (CKII) prime poly peptide and tyrosine kinase in high fertility spermatozoa was higher compared to low fertility spermatozoa. Also, some evidence has indicated that variation in protein types and amounts in seminal fluid regulates fertility indexes in dairy bull. In conclusion, proteomics is a useful technique for discovering drugs, vaccine development, and diagnosis disease by biomarkers and improvement of reproduction efficiency.

Keywords: proteomics, reproduction, biomarker, immunity

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5 Association of Temperature Factors with Seropositive Results against Selected Pathogens in Dairy Cow Herds from Central and Northern Greece

Authors: Marina Sofia, Alexios Giannakopoulos, Antonia Touloudi, Dimitris C Chatzopoulos, Zoi Athanasakopoulou, Vassiliki Spyrou, Charalambos Billinis


Fertility of dairy cattle can be affected by heat stress when the ambient temperature increases above 30°C and the relative humidity ranges from 35% to 50%. The present study was conducted on dairy cattle farms during summer months in Greece and aimed to identify the serological profile against pathogens that could affect fertility and to associate the positive serological results at herd level with temperature factors. A total of 323 serum samples were collected from clinically healthy dairy cows of 8 herds, located in Central and Northern Greece. ELISA tests were performed to detect antibodies against selected pathogens that affect fertility, namely Chlamydophila abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus (IBRV). Eleven climatic variables were derived from the WorldClim version 1.4. and ArcGIS V.10.1 software was used for analysis of the spatial information. Five different MaxEnt models were applied to associate the temperature variables with the locations of seropositive Chl. abortus, C. burnetii, N. caninum, T. gondii and IBRV herds (one for each pathogen). The logistic outputs were used for the interpretation of the results. ROC analyses were performed to evaluate the goodness of fit of the models’ predictions. Jackknife tests were used to identify the variables with a substantial contribution to each model. The seropositivity rates of pathogens varied among the 8 herds (0.85-4.76% for Chl. abortus, 4.76-62.71% for N. caninum, 3.8-43.47% for C. burnetii, 4.76-39.28% for T. gondii and 47.83-78.57% for IBRV). The variables of annual temperature range, mean diurnal range and maximum temperature of the warmest month gave a contribution to all five models. The regularized training gains, the training AUCs and the unregularized training gains were estimated. The mean diurnal range gave the highest gain when used in isolation and decreased the gain the most when it was omitted in the two models for seropositive Chl.abortus and IBRV herds. The annual temperature range increased the gain when used alone and decreased the gain the most when it was omitted in the models for seropositive C. burnetii, N. caninum and T. gondii herds. In conclusion, antibodies against Chl. abortus, C. burnetii, N. caninum, T. gondii and IBRV were detected in most herds suggesting circulation of pathogens that could cause infertility. The results of the spatial analyses demonstrated that the annual temperature range, mean diurnal range and maximum temperature of the warmest month could affect positively the possible pathogens’ presence. Acknowledgment: This research has been co‐financed by the European Regional Development Fund of the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, under the call RESEARCH–CREATE–INNOVATE (project code: T1EDK-01078).

Keywords: dairy cows, seropositivity, spatial analysis, temperature factors

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4 Proteomic Analysis of Cytoplasmic Antigen from Brucella canis to Characterize Immunogenic Proteins Responded with Naturally Infected Dogs

Authors: J. J. Lee, S. R. Sung, E. J. Yum, S. C. Kim, B. H. Hyun, M. Her, H. S. Lee


Canine brucellosis is a critical problem in dogs leading to reproductive diseases which are mainly caused by Brucella canis. There are, nonetheless, not clear symptoms so that it may go unnoticed in most of the cases. Serodiagnosis for canine brucellosis has not been confirmed. Moreover, it has substantial difficulties due to broad cross-reactivity between the rough cell wall antigens of B. canis and heterospecific antibodies present in normal, uninfected dogs. Thus, this study was conducted to characterize the immunogenic proteins in cytoplasmic antigen (CPAg) of B. canis, which defined the antigenic sensitivity of the humoral antibody responses to B. canis-infected dogs. In analysis of B. canis CPAg, first, we extracted and purified the cytoplasmic proteins from cultured B. canis by hot-saline inactivation, ultrafiltration, sonication, and ultracentrifugation step by step according to the sonicated antigen extract method. For characterization of this antigen, we checked the sort and range of each protein on SDS-PAGE and verified the immunogenic proteins leading to reaction with antisera of B. canis-infected dogs. Selected immunodominant proteins were identified using MALDI-MS/MS. As a result, in an immunoproteomic assay, several polypeptides in CPAg on one or two-dimensional electrophoresis (DE) were specifically reacted to antisera from B. canis-infected dogs but not from non-infected dogs. The polypeptides with approximate 150, 80, 60, 52, 33, 26, 17, 15, 13, 11 kDa on 1-DE were dominantly recognized by antisera from B. canis-infected dogs. In the immunoblot profiles on 2-DE, ten immunodominant proteins in CPAg were detected with antisera of infected dogs between pI 3.5-6.5 at approximate 35 to 10 KDa, without any nonspecific reaction with sera in non-infected dogs. Ten immunodominant proteins identified by MALDI-MS/MS were identified as superoxide dismutase, bacteroferritin, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, extracellular solute-binding protein family3, transaldolase, 26kDa periplasmic immunogenic protein, Rhizopine-binding protein, enoyl-CoA hydratase, arginase and type1 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Most of these proteins were determined by their cytoplasmic or periplasmic localization with metabolism and transporter functions. Consequently, this study discovered and identified the prominent immunogenic proteins in B. canis CPAg, highlighting that those antigenic proteins may accomplish a specific serodiagnosis for canine brucellosis. Furthermore, we will evaluate those immunodominant proteins for applying to the advanced diagnostic methods with high specificity and accuracy.

Keywords: Brucella canis, Canine brucellosis, cytoplasmic antigen, immunogenic proteins

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3 Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Microbial Study of Urethanized Poly Vinyl Alcohol Metal Complexes

Authors: Maha A. Younus, Dhefaf H. Badri, Maha A. Al Abayaji, Taha M. Salih


Polymer metal complexes of poly vinyl alcohol and Cu (II), Ni (II), Mn (II) and Co (III) were prepared from the reaction of PVA with three different percentages of urea. The compound was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) Analysis. It has been established that the polymer and its metal complexes showed good activities against nine pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumonae, Staphylococcusaureus, Staphylococcus Albus, Salmonella Typhoid, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Shigella Dysentery, Proteus Morgani, Brucella Militensis). The polymer metal complexes show activity higher than that of the free polymer. The increasing activities were in the order (polymer < pol-Mn< pol-Co < pol-Ni ˂ pol-Cu). The ability of these compounds to show antimicrobial properties suggests that they can be further evaluated for medicinal and/or environmental applications.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, PVA, polymer-metal complex, urea

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2 Epidemiological, Clinical and Bacteriological Profile of Human Brucellosis in the District of Tunis

Authors: Jihene Bettaieb, Ghassen kharroubi, Rym mallekh, Ines Cherif, Taoufik Atawa, Kaouther Harrabech


Brucellosis is a major worldwide zoonosis. It is a reportable condition in Tunisia where the disease remains endemic, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and bacteriological profile of human brucellosis cases notified in the district of Tunis. It was a retrospective descriptive study of cases reported in the district of Tunis through the national surveillance system between the 1st January and 31th December 2017. During the study period, 133 brucellosis confirmed cases were notified. The mean age was 37.5 ± 18.0 years, and 54.9% of cases were males. More than four-fifths (82.7%) of cases were reported in spring and summer with a peak in the month of May (36 cases). Fever and sweats were the most common symptoms; they occurred in 95% and 72% of cases, respectively. Osteoarticular complications occurred in 10 cases, meningitis in one case and endocarditis in one other case. Wright agglutination test and Rose Bengale test were positive in 100% and 91% of cases, respectively. While blood culture was positive in 9 cases and PCR in 2 cases. Brucella melitensis was the only identified specie (9 cases). Almost all cases (99.2%) reported the habit of consuming raw dairy products. Only 5 cases had a suspect contact with animals; among them, 3 persons were livestock breeders. The transmission was essentially due to raw dairy product consumption. It is important to enhance preventive measures to control animal Brucellosis and to educate the population regarding the risk factors of the disease.

Keywords: brucellosis, risk factors, surveillance system, Tunisia

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1 Integrated Microsystem for Multiplexed Genosensor Detection of Biowarfare Agents

Authors: Samuel B. Dulay, Sandra Julich, Herbert Tomaso, Ciara K. O'Sullivan


An early, rapid and definite detection for the presence of biowarfare agents, pathogens, viruses and toxins is required in different situations which include civil rescue and security units, homeland security, military operations, public transportation securities such as airports, metro and railway stations due to its harmful effect on the human population. In this work, an electrochemical genosensor array that allows simultaneous detection of different biowarfare agents within an integrated microsystem that provides an easy handling of the technology which combines a microfluidics setup with a multiplexing genosensor array has been developed and optimised for the following targets: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella abortis and melitensis, Bacteriophage lambda, Francisella tularensis, Burkholderia mallei and pseudomallei, Coxiella burnetii, Yersinia pestis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. The electrode array was modified via co-immobilisation of a 1:100 (mol/mol) mixture of a thiolated probe and an oligoethyleneglycol-terminated monopodal thiol. PCR products from these relevant biowarfare agents were detected reproducibly through a sandwich assay format with the target hybridised between a surface immobilised probe into the electrode and a horseradish peroxidase-labelled secondary reporter probe, which provided an enzyme based electrochemical signal. The potential of the designed microsystem for multiplexed genosensor detection and cross-reactivity studies over potential interfering DNA sequences has demonstrated high selectivity using the developed platform producing high-throughput.

Keywords: biowarfare agents, genosensors, multipled detection, microsystem

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