Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Boris A. Katsnelson

43 In-Vivo Association of Multivalent 11 Zinc Fingers Transcriptional Factors CTCF and Boris to YB-1 in Multiforme Glioma-RGBM Cell Line

Authors: Daruliza Kernain, Shaharum Shamsuddin, See Too Wei Cun

Abstract:

CTCF is a unique, highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed 11 zinc finger (ZF) transcriptional factor with multiple target sites. It is able to bind to various target sequences to perform different regulatory roles including promoter activation or repression, creating hormone-responsive gene silencing element, and functional block of enhancer-promoter interactions. The binding of CTCF to the essential binding site is through the combination of different ZF domain. On the other hand, BORIS for brother of the regulator of imprinted sites, which expressed only in the testis and certain cancer cell line is homology to CTCF 11 ZF domains. Since both transcriptional factors share the same ZF domains hence there is a possibility for both to bind to the same target sequences. In this study, the interaction of these two proteins to multi-functional Y-box DNA/RNA-binding factor, YB-1 was determined. The protein-protein interaction between CTCF/YB-1 and BORIS/YB-1 were discovered by Co-immuno-precipitation (CO-IP) technique through reciprocal experiment from RGBM total cell lysate. The results showed that both CTCF and BORIS were able to interact with YB-1 in Glioma RGBM cell line. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first findings demonstrating the ability of BORIS and YB-1 to form a complex in vivo.

Keywords: Molecular Medicine, Transcription Factor, immunoprecipitation, CTCF/BORIS/YB-1

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42 Comparative and Combined Toxicity of NiO and Mn₃O₄ Nanoparticles as Assessed in vitro and in vivo

Authors: Ilzira A. Minigalieva, Tatiana V. Bushueva, Eleonore Frohlich, Vladimir Panov, Ekaterina Shishkina, Boris A. Katsnelson

Abstract:

Background: The overwhelming majority of the experimental studies in the field of metal nanotoxicology have been performed on cultures of established cell lines, with very few researchers focusing on animal experiments, while a juxtaposition of conclusions inferred from these two types of research is blatantly lacking. The least studied aspect of this problem relates to characterizing and predicting the combined toxicity of metallic nanoparticles. Methods: Comparative and combined toxic effects of purposefully prepared spherical NiO and Mn₃O₄ nanoparticles (mean diameters 16.7 ± 8.2 nm and 18.4 ± 5.4 nm respectively) were estimated on cultures of human cell lines: MRC-5 fibroblasts, THP-1 monocytes, SY-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, as well as on the latter two lines differentiated to macrophages and neurons, respectively. The combined cytotoxicity was mathematically modeled using the response surface methodology. Results: The comparative assessment of the studied NPs unspecific toxicity previously obtained in vivo was satisfactorily reproduced by the present in vitro tests. However, with respect to manganese-specific brain damage which had been demonstrated by us in animal experiment with the same NPs, the testing on neuronall cell culture showed only a certain enhancing effect of Mn₃O₄-NPs on the toxic action of NiO-NPs, while the role of the latter prevailed. Conclusion: From the point of view of the preventive toxicology, the experimental modeling of metallic NPs combined toxicity on cell cultures can give non-reliable predictions of the in vivo action’s effects.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, manganese oxide, nickel oxide, in vitro toxicity

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41 Study of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Acceleration by Cylindrical TE₀₁₁ Mode

Authors: Oswaldo Otero, Eduardo A. Orozco, Ana M. Herrera

Abstract:

In this work, we present results from analytical and numerical studies of the electron acceleration by a TE₀₁₁ cylindrical microwave mode in a static homogeneous magnetic field under electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition. The stability of the orbits is analyzed using the particle orbit theory. In order to get a better understanding of the interaction wave-particle, we decompose the azimuthally electric field component as the superposition of right and left-hand circular polarization standing waves. The trajectory, energy and phase-shift of the electron are found through a numerical solution of the relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation in a finite difference method by the Boris method. It is shown that an electron longitudinally injected with an energy of 7 keV in a radial position r=Rc/2, being Rc the cavity radius, is accelerated up to energy of 90 keV by an electric field strength of 14 kV/cm and frequency of 2.45 GHz. This energy can be used to produce X-ray for medical imaging. These results can be used as a starting point for study the acceleration of electrons in a magnetic field changing slowly in time (GYRAC), which has some important applications as the electron cyclotron resonance ion proton accelerator (ECR-IPAC) for cancer therapy and to control plasma bunches with relativistic electrons.

Keywords: X-Ray, finite difference method, Boris method, electron cyclotron resonance, particle orbit theory

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40 Using High Performance Computing for Online Flood Monitoring and Prediction

Authors: Stepan Kuchar, Michal Podhoranyi, Martin Golasowski, Radim Vavrik, Boris Sir, Jan Martinovic

Abstract:

The main goal of this article is to describe the online flood monitoring and prediction system Floreon+ primarily developed for the Moravian-Silesian region in the Czech Republic and the basic process it uses for running automatic rainfall-runoff and hydrodynamic simulations along with their calibration and uncertainty modeling. It takes a long time to execute such process sequentially, which is not acceptable in the online scenario, so the use of high-performance computing environment is proposed for all parts of the process to shorten their duration. Finally, a case study on the Ostravice river catchment is presented that shows actual durations and their gain from the parallel implementation.

Keywords: High Performance Computing, parallelization, flood prediction process, online flood prediction system

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39 The Locus of Action - Tinted Windows

Authors: Devleminck Steven, Debackere Boris

Abstract:

This research is about the ways artists and scientists deal with (and endure) new meaning and comprehend and construct the world. The project reflects on the intense connection between comprehension and construction and their place of creation – the ‘locus of action’. It seeks to define a liquid form of understanding and analysis capable of approaching our complex liquid world as discussed by Zygmunt Bauman. The aim is to establish a multi-viewpoint theoretical approach based on the dynamic concept of the Flâneur as introduced by Baudelaire, replacing single viewpoint categorization. This is coupled with the concept of thickening as proposed by Clifford Geertz with its implication of interaction between multi-layers of meaning. Here walking and looking is introduced as a method or strategy, a model or map, providing a framework of understanding in conditions of hybridity and change.

Keywords: Science, Liquid, Art, Action, place, Negotiation, locus

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38 A 5-V to 30-V Current-Mode Boost Converter with Integrated Current Sensor and Power-on Protection

Authors: Kevin Chai Tshun Chuan, Jun Yu, Yat-Hei Lam, Boris Grinberg

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This paper presents a 5-V to 30-V current-mode boost converter for powering the drive circuit of a micro-electro-mechanical sensor. The design of a transconductance amplifier and an integrated current sensing circuit are presented. In addition, essential building blocks for power-on protection such as a soft-start and clamp block and supply and clock ready block are discussed in details. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. Measurement results show that the soft-start and clamp block can effectively limit the inrush current during startup and protect the boost converter from startup failure.

Keywords: boost converter, current sensing, power-on protection, step-up converter, soft-start

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37 National Project 'Environment' of Russian Federation as a Management Tool in Achieving SDGs

Authors: Ekaterina Posokhova, Boris Gavrilov

Abstract:

Priority national projects have become an essential phenomenon in the Russian Federation. Both regional and local government institutions and a significant part of the society have been involved in their implementation. The scale and multispectricity of the national projects give a reason to believe that their concept is beyond the scope of the individual state programs. The national project “environment” contains federal projects on waste management, water, and air quality, ecotourism development, and biodiversity conservation highlights the importance of the preservation and restoration of Volga River and Lake Baikal ecosystems. This study assesses the national projects according to their relativeness with the current SDGs (i.e., SGD 14 and 15), evaluates the methodology of the projects. The paper considers the peculiarities of the national projects as strategic management tools as well as the possibility of amending the project objective indicators. Conclusion on the effectiveness of NP in terms of achieving SDGs is provided.

Keywords: Management, Law, Conservation, Russia, SDP

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36 The Criteria of the Aesthetic Quality of Art: Contemporary Photography

Authors: Artem Surkov

Abstract:

This work is devoted to a problem of aesthetic quality determinism in the context of contemporary art. The object of study is photography regarding as a kind of art which demands specific system of quality marking. Objective: To define aesthetic criteria in photography art. For current searching different kind of texts by such powerful authors like Clement Greenberg and Rosalind Krauss, Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse, Charlott Cotton and Boris Groys, Viktor Miziano and Ekaterina Degot' were analyzed. Before all, there are two different kinds of photography: the classic art photography (by Ansel Adams) and the photography as kind of art (by Andreas Gursky). In this text we are talking about the photography as kind of art. The main principle of current searching is synthesis of two different approaches: modernism and postmodernism. This method helps us to define uniform criteria of aesthetic quality in photography as kind of art. The criteria mentioned in conclusion paragraph are: aesthetic rationality, aesthetic economy, awareness (using photographic technics or references), and intention to go beyond form, practice and method.

Keywords: Aesthetic, Photography, Art, criteria of quality, visually

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35 Conceptualizing the Knowledge to Manage and Utilize Data Assets in the Context of Digitization: Case Studies of Multinational Industrial Enterprises

Authors: Martin Böhmer, Agatha Dabrowski, Boris Otto

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The trend of digitization significantly changes the role of data for enterprises. Data turn from an enabler to an intangible organizational asset that requires management and qualifies as a tradeable good. The idea of a networked economy has gained momentum in the data domain as collaborative approaches for data management emerge. Traditional organizational knowledge consequently needs to be extended by comprehensive knowledge about data. The knowledge about data is vital for organizations to ensure that data quality requirements are met and data can be effectively utilized and sovereignly governed. As this specific knowledge has been paid little attention to so far by academics, the aim of the research presented in this paper is to conceptualize it by proposing a “data knowledge model”. Relevant model entities have been identified based on a design science research (DSR) approach that iteratively integrates insights of various industry case studies and literature research.

Keywords: Knowledge Engineering, Data Management, Digitization, Industry 4.0, metamodel

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34 The Impact of Ship Traffic and Harbor Activities on the Atmospheric Pollution in Two Northern Adriatic Ports: Venice and Rijeka

Authors: Daniele Contini, Andrea Gambaro, Elena Barbaro, Elena Gregoris, Rossano Piazza, Boris Mifka, Tatjana Ivošević, Ivo Orlić, Ana Alebić-Juretić

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The aim of the POSEIDON project is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbor activities to atmospheric pollutants concentration in four port-cities of the Adriatic Sea. This study focuses on the harbors of Venice and Rijeka. In order to investigate the main pollution sources, emission inventories were used as input for receptor models: PMF (positive matrix factorization) and PCA (principal components analysis); moreover source identification was also conducted using PAHs diagnostic ratios. The ship traffic impact was quantified: i) on gaseous and particulate PAHs, collected using a new method which consisted in a double simultaneous sampling, in different wind sectors; ii) applying PMF to data of metals, PAHs and ions in PM10; iii) using the vanadium concentration according to the Agrawal methodology.

Keywords: harbor, ship traffic, PMF, POSEIDON

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33 Modelling of Polymeric Fluid Flows between Two Coaxial Cylinders Taking into Account the Heat Dissipation

Authors: Alexander Blokhin, Ekaterina Kruglova, Boris Semisalov

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Mathematical model based on the mesoscopic theory of polymer dynamics is developed for numerical simulation of the flows of polymeric liquid between two coaxial cylinders. This model is a system of nonlinear partial differential equations written in the cylindrical coordinate system and coupled with the heat conduction equation including a specific dissipation term. The stationary flows similar to classical Poiseuille ones are considered, and the resolving equations for the velocity of flow and for the temperature are obtained. For solving them, a fast pseudospectral method is designed based on Chebyshev approximations, that enables one to simulate the flows through the channels with extremely small relative values of the radius of inner cylinder. The numerical analysis of the dependance of flow on this radius and on the values of dissipation constant is done.

Keywords: heat dissipation, Chebyshev polynomials, dynamics of polymeric liquid, singularly perturbed problem, pseudospectral method, stabilization technique

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32 Mixed Natural Adsorbents and Oxides for Oil Remediation

Authors: Cesar Maximo Oliva González, Javier Acevedo Cortez, Boris Kharisov, Thelma Serrano Quezada

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The importance of the crude oil refining process is due to the demand for petroleum products such as gasoline, kerosene, asphalt, etc., which are used in daily activities and have a high impact on the global economy. In the processes of oil obtaining and refining, it is common to find problems such as spills on seabed and high energy consumption in processing. In order to quickly and efficiently attack these problems, the use of adsorbents has taken on great importance due to its ease of implementation, as well as the possibility of their regeneration to be reused. In this work, the use of two types of adsorbents is proposed: the first is a natural adsorbent such as aloe vera or nopal, which were lyophilized and hydrophobized to achieve a selectivity in oil adsorption in oil / water mixtures. The second is a mixed iron/nickel oxide, which is specially designed to adsorb the asphaltenes in the heavy fractions of the oil; in addition, this type of adsorbents presents catalytic properties that manage to decompose the heavier fractions of the petroleum in light hydrocarbons, descending thus the energy required for the oil refining process.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Remediation, Mixed Oxides, Oil Spills, natural adsorbents

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31 Antioxidant Characteristics of Serbian Conifers

Authors: Milan Popović, Dubravka Štajner, Boris M. Popović, Saša Orlović, Ružica Ždero, Aleksandra Popović

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Many plants possess antioxidant ingredients that provides efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Present article highlights an antioxidant capacity of Serbian conifer plants. Antioxidant activities of the crude extracts were assessed using different assays. In this study, quantities of phenolic compounds (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins), contents of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids), soluble proteins and proline were examined. MDA quantities and ability of extracts to remove reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) were also investigated. Furthermore, antioxidant activities of extracts against DPPH∙, ferric reducing antioxidant power, permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity were also determined. According to almost all used assays, antioxidant and scavenging capacities of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were superior compared to spruce. Presented results implicated that leaves of Douglas fir and silver fir possessed outstanding antioxidant characteristics that could diminish damage caused by oxygen radicals which are responsible for many of the bodily changes and susceptibility to different diseases.

Keywords: Lipid Peroxidation, antioxidant activity, conifers, reducing power

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30 Regularities of Changes in the Fractal Dimension of Acoustic Emission Signals in the Stages Close to the Destruction of Structural Materials When Exposed to Low-Cycle Loaded

Authors: Phyo Wai Aung, Sysoev Oleg Evgenevich, Boris Necolavet Maryin

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The article deals with theoretical problems of correlation of processes of microstructure changes of structural materials under cyclic loading and acoustic emission. The ways of the evolution of a microstructure under the influence of cyclic loading are shown depending on the structure of the initial crystal structure of the material. The spectra of the frequency characteristics of acoustic emission signals are experimentally obtained when testing titanium samples for cyclic loads. Changes in the fractal dimension of the acoustic emission signals in the selected frequency bands during the evolution of the microstructure of structural materials from the action of cyclic loads, as well as in the destruction of samples, are studied. The experimental samples were made of VT-20 structural material widely used in aircraft and rocket engineering. The article shows the striving of structural materials for synergistic stability and reduction of the fractal dimension of acoustic emission signals, in accordance with the degradation of the microstructure, which occurs as a result of fatigue processes from the action of low cycle loads. As a result of the research, the frequency range of acoustic emission signals of 100-270 kHz is determined, in which the fractal dimension of the signals, it is possible to most reliably predict the durability of structural materials.

Keywords: acoustic emission, fractal dimension, cyclic loadings, material structure changing

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29 Energy Efficient Construction and the Seismic Resistance of Passive Houses

Authors: Vojko Kilar, David Koren, Boris Azinović

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Recently, an increasing trend of passive and low-energy buildings transferring form non earthquake-prone to earthquake-prone regions has thrown out the question about the seismic safety of such buildings. The paper describes the most commonly used thermal insulating materials and the special details, which could be critical from the point of view of earthquake resistance. The most critical appeared to be the cases of buildings founded on the RC foundation slab lying on a thermal insulation (TI) layer made of extruded polystyrene (XPS). It was pointed out that in such cases the seismic response of such buildings might differ to response of their fixed based counterparts. The main parameters that need special designers’ attention are: the building’s lateral top displacement, the ductility demand of the superstructure, the foundation friction coefficient demand, the maximum compressive stress in the TI layer and the percentage of the uplifted foundation. The analyses have shown that the potentially negative influences of inserting the TI under the foundation slab could be expected only for slender high-rise buildings subjected to severe earthquakes. Oppositely it was demonstrated for the foundation friction coefficient demand which could exceed the capacity value yet in the case of low-rise buildings subjected to moderate earthquakes. Some suggestions to prevent the horizontal shifts are also given.

Keywords: extruded polystyrene (XPS), earthquake response, low-energy buildings, foundations on thermal insulation layer

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28 Quasistationary States and Mean Field Model

Authors: Sergio Curilef, Boris Atenas

Abstract:

Systems with long-range interactions are very common in nature. They are observed from the atomic scale to the astronomical scale and exhibit anomalies, such as inequivalence of ensembles, negative heat capacity, ergodicity breaking, nonequilibrium phase transitions, quasistationary states, and anomalous diffusion. These anomalies are exacerbated when special initial conditions are imposed; in particular, we use the so-called water bag initial conditions that stand for a uniform distribution. Several theoretical and practical implications are discussed here. A potential energy inspired by dipole-dipole interactions is proposed to build the dipole-type Hamiltonian mean-field model. As expected, the dynamics is novel and general to the behavior of systems with long-range interactions, which is obtained through molecular dynamics technique. Two plateaus sequentially emerge before arriving at equilibrium, which are corresponding to two different quasistationary states. The first plateau is a type of quasistationary state the lifetime of which depends on a power law of N and the second plateau seems to be a true quasistationary state as reported in the literature. The general behavior of the model according to its dynamics and thermodynamics is described. Using numerical simulation we characterize the mean kinetic energy, caloric curve, and the diffusion law through the mean square of displacement. The present challenge is to characterize the distributions in phase space. Certainly, the equilibrium state is well characterized by the Gaussian distribution, but quasistationary states in general depart from any Gaussian function.

Keywords: dipole-type interactions, dynamics and thermodynamics, mean field model, quasistationary states

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27 Determining G-γ Degradation Curve in Cohesive Soils by Dilatometer and in situ Seismic Tests

Authors: Ivandic Kreso, Spiranec Miljenko, Kavur Boris, Strelec Stjepan

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This article discusses the possibility of using dilatometer tests (DMT) together with in situ seismic tests (MASW) in order to get the shape of G-g degradation curve in cohesive soils (clay, silty clay, silt, clayey silt and sandy silt). MASW test provides the small soil stiffness (Go from vs) at very small strains and DMT provides the stiffness of the soil at ‘work strains’ (MDMT). At different test locations, dilatometer shear stiffness of the soil has been determined by the theory of elasticity. Dilatometer shear stiffness has been compared with the theoretical G-g degradation curve in order to determine the typical range of shear deformation for different types of cohesive soil. The analysis also includes factors that influence the shape of the degradation curve (G-g) and dilatometer modulus (MDMT), such as the overconsolidation ratio (OCR), plasticity index (IP) and the vertical effective stress in the soil (svo'). Parametric study in this article defines the range of shear strain gDMT and GDMT/Go relation depending on the classification of a cohesive soil (clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sandy silt), function of density (loose, medium dense and dense) and the stiffness of the soil (soft, medium hard and hard). The article illustrates the potential of using MASW and DMT to obtain G-g degradation curve in cohesive soils.

Keywords: shear strain, shear wave, dilatometer testing, MASW testing, soil stiffness, stiffness reduction

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26 Alpha-To-Omega Phase Transition in Bulk Nanostructured Ti and (α+β) Ti Alloys

Authors: Askar Kilmametov, Julia Ivanisenko, Boris Straumal, Horst Hahn

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The high-pressure α- to ω-phase transition was discovered in elemental Ti and Zr fifty years ago using static high pressure and then observed to appear between 2 and 12 GPa at room temperature, depending on the experimental technique, the pressure environment, and the sample purity. The fact that ω-phase is retained in a metastable state in ambient condition after the removal of the pressure has been used to check the changes in magnetic and superconductive behavior, electron band structure and mechanical properties. However, the fundamental knowledge on a combination of both mechanical treatment and high applied pressure treatments for ω-phase formation in Ti alloys is currently lacking and has to be studied in relation to improved mechanical properties of bulk nanostructured states. In the present study, nanostructured (α+β) Ti alloys containing β-stabilizing elements such as Co, Fe, Cr, Nb were performed by severe plastic deformation, namely high pressure torsion (HPT) technique. HPT-induced α- to ω-phase transformation was revealed in dependence on applied pressure and shear strains by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation kinetics was compared with the kinetics of pressure-induced transition. Orientation relationship between α-, β- and ω-phases was taken into consideration and analyzed according to theoretical calculation proposed earlier. The influence of initial state before HPT appeared to be considerable for subsequent α- to ω-phase transition. Thermal stability of the HPT-induced ω-phase was discussed as well in the frame of mechanical behavior of Ti and Ti-based alloys produced by shear deformation under high applied pressure.

Keywords: Severe Plastic Deformation, Titanium Alloys, bulk nanostructured materials, high pressure phase transitions

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25 Probabilistic Approach to the Spatial Identification of the Environmental Sources behind Mortality Rates in Europe

Authors: Alina Svechkina, Boris A. Portnov

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In line with a rapid increase in pollution sources and enforcement of stricter air pollution regulation, which lowers pollution levels, it becomes more difficult to identify actual risk sources behind the observed morbidity patterns, and new approaches are required to identify potential risks and take preventive actions. In the present study, we discuss a probabilistic approach to the spatial identification of a priori unidentified environmental health hazards. The underlying assumption behind the tested approach is that the observed adverse health patterns (morbidity, mortality) can become a source of information on the geographic location of environmental risk factors that stand behind them. Using this approach, we analyzed sources of environmental exposure using data on mortality rates available for the year 2015 for NUTS 3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) subdivisions of the European Union. We identified several areas in the southwestern part of Europe as primary risk sources for the observed mortality patterns. Multivariate regressions, controlled by geographical location, climate conditions, GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, dependency ratios, population density, and the level of road freight revealed that mortality rates decline as a function of distance from the identified hazard location. We recommend the proposed approach an exploratory analysis tool for initial investigation of regional patterns of population morbidity patterns and factors behind it.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Europe, Environmental Hazards, Mortality, distance decay gradient, multi regression analysis, NUTS3

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24 The Differences and Similarities in Neurocognitive Deficits in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Depression

Authors: Boris Ershov

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Depression is the most common mood disorder experienced by patients who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with poorer cognitive functional outcomes. However, in some cases, similar cognitive impairments can also be observed in depression. There is not enough information about the features of the cognitive deficit in patients with TBI in relation to patients with depression. TBI patients without depressive symptoms (TBInD, n25), TBI patients with depressive symptoms (TBID, n31), and 28 patients with bipolar II disorder (BP) were included in the study. There were no significant differences in participants in respect to age, handedness and educational level. The patients clinical status was determined by using Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). All participants completed a cognitive battery (The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Affective Disorders (BAC-A)). Additionally, the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) was used to assess visuospatial construction abilities and visual memory, as well as planning and organizational skills. Compared to BP, TBInD and TBID showed a significant impairments in visuomotor abilities, verbal and visual memory. There were no significant differences between BP and TBID groups in working memory, speed of information processing, problem solving. Interference effect (cognitive inhibition) was significantly greater in TBInD and TBID compared to BP. Memory bias towards mood-related information in BP and TBID was greater in comparison with TBInD. These results suggest that depressive symptoms are associated with impairments some executive functions in combination at decrease of speed of information processing.

Keywords: Depression, traumatic brain injury, bipolar II disorder, neurocognitive deficits

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23 Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic, Alkaloids Contents and Inhibited Properties against α-Amylase and Invertase Enzymes of Stem Bark Extracts Coula edulis B

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

Abstract:

Background: It is clearly that phytochemical constituents of plants in relation exhibit free radical scavenging, antioxidant and glycosylation properties. This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging, inhibited activities against α-amylase and invertase enzymes of stem bark extracts C. edulis (Olacaceae). Methods: Four extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and aqueous) from the barks of C. edulis were used in this study. Colorimetric in vitro methods were using for evaluate free radical scavenging activity DPPH, ABTS, NO, OH, antioxidant capacity, glycosylation activity, inhibition of α-amylase and invertase activities, phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid contents. Results: C. edulis extracts (CEE) had a higher scavenging potential on the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), nitrite oxide (NO), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals and glucose scavenging with the IC50 varied between 41.95 and 36694.43 µg/ml depending on the solvent of extraction. The ethanol extract of C. edulis stem bark (CE EtOH) showed the highest polyphenolic (289.10 + 30.32), flavonoid (1.12 + 0.09) and alkaloids (18.47 + 0.16) content. All the tested extracts demonstrated a relative high inhibition potential against α-amylase and invertase digestive enzymes activities. Conclusion: This study suggests that CEE exhibited higher antioxidant potential and significant inhibition potential against digestive enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant, amylase, scavenging activity, invertase, Coula edulis

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22 Effect of 8 Weeks of Intervention on Physical Fitness, Hepatokines, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Subjects

Authors: Boris Bajer, Andrea Havranova, Miroslav Vlcek, Adela Penesova, Zofia Radikova

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Background: The aim of our study was to compare the effect of intensified lifestyle intervention on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 after 8 weeks of lifestyle intervention. Methods: A group of 43 obese patients (13M/30F; 43.0±12.4 years; BMI (body mass index) 31.2±6.3 kg/m2 participated in a weight loss interventional program (NCT02325804) following an 8-week hypocaloric diet (-30% energy expenditure) and physical activity 150 minutes/week. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity indices according to Matsuda and Cederholm were calculated (ISImat and ISIced). Plasma ALT, AST, Fetuin-A, FGF 21, and physical fitness were measured. Results: The average reduction of body weight was 6.8±4.9 kg (0-15 kg; p=0.0006), accompanied with a significant reduction of body fat amount of fat mass (p=0.03), and waist circumference (p=0.02). Insulin sensitivity has been improved (IR HOMA 2.71±3.90 vs 1.24±0.83; p=0.01; ISIMat 6.64±4.38 vs 8.93±5.36 p ≤ 0.001). Total, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides decreased (p=0.05, p=0.04, p=0.04, respectively). Physical fitness significantly improved after intervention (as measure VO2 max (maximal oxygen uptake) (p ≤ 0.001). ALT decreased significantly (0.44±0.26 vs post 0.33±0.18 ukat/l, p=0.004); however, AST not (pre 0.40±0.15 vs 0.35±0.09 ukat/l, p=0.07). Hepatokine Fetuin-A significantly decreased after intervention (43.1±10.8 vs 32.6±8.6 ng/ml, p < 0.001); however, FGF 21 levels tended to decrease (146±152 vs 132±164 pg/ml, p=0.07). Conclusion: 8-weeks of diet and physical activity intervention program in obese otherwise healthy subjects led to an improvement of insulin resistance parameters and liver marker profiles, as well as increased physical fitness. This study was supported by grants APVV 15-0228; VEGA 2/0161/16.

Keywords: Obesity, diet, exercice, insulin sensitivity

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21 Dietary Supplementation with Coula edulis B. Walnuts Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Rats

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

Abstract:

Background: Dietary supplement may potentially help to fight obesity and other metabolic disorders such as adipogenesis, insulin resistance, and inflammation. The present study aimed to test whether supplementation with African walnuts (Aw) could have an effect on adipogenesis and others dysfunctions associated with obesity in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were fed with standard diet (SD) or high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFS) and HFS with supplemented (HFS-Aw) for eight weeks. Results: HFS diet-induced body weight gain and increased fat mass compared to SD. In addition HFS-fed rats developed fasting hyperglycaemia and insulinaemia as well as insulin resistance. Aw supplementation in HFS rats had a protective effect against adipose tissues weigh gain but slightly against body weight gain and major study related disorders. This could be mainly due to decreased food intake dependently of effect in food intake in central nervous system, which decreased in HFS rats supplemented with African walnut compared to the HFS-diet group. Interestingly, African walnut supplementation induced a slight decrease of fasting glycaemia, insulinaemia and Nitric Oxide which could partially explain its minor protective effect against diet-induced insulin resistance. Additionally a decrease in hepatic TG and transaminases levels suggesting a protective effect against liver injury. Conclusion: Taken together these data suggested that supplementation of African walnut could be used to prevent adipose weight gain and related disorders on the other hand, minimally reduced insulin resistance.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, insulin resistance, African walnut, dietary fiber

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20 In vitro Effects of Salvia officinalis on Bovine Spermatozoa

Authors: Eva Tvrda, Marek Halenar, Norbert Lukáč, Tomáš Slanina, Boris Botman

Abstract:

In vitro storage and processing of animal semen represents a risk factor to spermatozoa vitality, potentially leading to reduced fertility. A variety of substances isolated from natural sources may exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus extending the lifespan of stored ejaculates. This study compared the ability of different concentrations of the Salvia officinalis extract on the motility, mitochondrial activity, viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by bovine spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, 6 and 24 h) of in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined using the metabolic activity MTT assay, the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the sperm viability and ROS generation was quantified using luminometry. The CASA analysis revealed that the motility in the experimental groups supplemented with 0.5-2 µg/mL Salvia extract was significantly lower in comparison with the control (P<0.05; Time 24 h). At the same time, a long-term exposure of spermatozoa to concentrations ranging between 0.05 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL had a negative impact on the mitochondrial metabolism (P<0.05; Time 24 h). The viability staining revealed that 0.001-1 µg/mL Salvia extract had no effects on bovine male gametes, however 2 µg/mL Salvia had a persisting negative effect on spermatozoa (P<0.05). Furthermore 0.05-2 µg/mL Salvia exhibited an immediate ROS-promoting effect on the sperm culture (P>0.05; Time 0 h and 2 h), which remained significant throughout the entire in vitro culture (P<0.05; Time 24 h). Our results point out to the necessity to examine specific effects the biomolecules present in Salvia officinalis may have individually or collectively on the in vitro sperm vitality and oxidative profile.

Keywords: Salvia officinalis, spermatozoa, reactive oxygen species, SAGE, CASA, bulls, MTT test

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
19 Dynamic Test for Stability of Columns in Sway Mode

Authors: Elia Efraim, Boris Blostotsky

Abstract:

Testing of columns in sway mode is performed in order to determine the maximal allowable load limited by plastic deformations or their end connections and a critical load limited by columns stability. Motivation to determine accurate value of critical force is caused by its using as follow: - critical load is maximal allowable load for given column configuration and can be used as criterion of perfection; - it is used in calculation prescribed by standards for design of structural elements under combined action of compression and bending; - it is used for verification of theoretical analysis of stability at various end conditions of columns. In the present work a new non-destructive method for determination of columns critical buckling load in sway mode is proposed. The method allows performing measurements during the tests under loads that exceeds the columns critical load without losing its stability. The possibility of such loading is achieved by structure of the loading system. The system is performed as frame with rigid girder, one of the columns is the tested column and the other is additional two-hinged strut. Loading of the frame is carried out by the flexible traction element attached to the girder. The load applied on the tested column can achieve values that exceed the critical load by choice of parameters of the traction element and the additional strut. The system lateral stiffness and the column critical load are obtained by the dynamic method. The experiment planning and the comparison between the experimental and theoretical values were performed based on the developed dependency of lateral stiffness of the system on vertical load, taking into account semi-rigid connections of the column's ends. The agreement between the obtained results was established. The method can be used for testing of real full-size columns in industrial conditions.

Keywords: Columns, buckling, dynamic method, end-fixity factor, sway mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
18 Dynamic Test for Sway-Mode Buckling of Columns

Authors: Elia Efraim, Boris Blostotsky

Abstract:

Testing of columns in sway mode is performed in order to determine the maximal allowable load limited by plastic deformations or their end connections and a critical load limited by columns stability. Motivation to determine accurate value of critical force is caused by its using as follow: - critical load is maximal allowable load for given column configuration and can be used as criterion of perfection; - it is used in calculation prescribed by standards for design of structural elements under combined action of compression and bending; - it is used for verification of theoretical analysis of stability at various end conditions of columns. In the present work a new non-destructive method for determination of columns critical buckling load in sway mode is proposed. The method allows performing measurements during the tests under loads that exceeds the columns critical load without losing its stability. The possibility of such loading is achieved by structure of the loading system. The system is performed as frame with rigid girder, one of the columns is the tested column and the other is additional two-hinged strut. Loading of the frame is carried out by the flexible traction element attached to the girder. The load applied on the tested column can achieve a values that exceed the critical load by choice of parameters of the traction element and the additional strut. The system lateral stiffness and the column critical load are obtained by the dynamic method. The experiment planning and the comparison between the experimental and theoretical values were performed based on the developed dependency of lateral stiffness of the system on vertical load, taking into account a semi-rigid connections of the column's ends. The agreement between the obtained results was established. The method can be used for testing of real full-size columns in industrial conditions.

Keywords: Columns, buckling, Semi-Rigid Connections, dynamic method, sway mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
17 Non-Destructive Test of Bar for Determination of Critical Compression Force Directed towards the Pole

Authors: Elia Efraim, Boris Blostotsky

Abstract:

The phenomenon of buckling of structural elements under compression is revealed in many cases of loading and found consideration in many structures and mechanisms. In the present work the method and results of dynamic test for buckling of bar loaded by a compression force directed towards the pole are considered. Experimental determination of critical force for such system has not been made previously. The tested object is a bar with semi-rigid connection to the base at one of its ends, and with a hinge moving along a circle at the other. The test includes measuring the natural frequency of the bar at different values of compression load. The lateral stiffness is calculated based on natural frequency and reduced mass on the bar's movable end. The critical load is determined by extrapolation the values of lateral stiffness up to zero value. For the experimental investigation the special test-bed was created that allows the stability testing at positive and negative curvature of the movable end's trajectory, as well as varying the rotational stiffness of the other end connection. Decreasing a friction at the movable end allows extend the diapason of applied compression force. The testing method includes: - Methodology of the experiment planning, that allows determine the required number of tests under various loads values in the defined range and the type of extrapolating function; - Methodology of experimental determination of reduced mass at the bar's movable end including its own mass; - Methodology of experimental determination of lateral stiffness of uncompressed bar rotational semi-rigid connection at the base. For planning the experiment and for comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values of critical load, the analytical dependencies of lateral stiffness of the bar with defined end conditions on compression load. In the particular case of perfectly rigid connection of the bar to the base, the critical load value corresponds to solution by S.P. Timoshenko. Correspondence of the calculated and experimental values was obtained.

Keywords: buckling, Semi-Rigid Connections, dynamic method, non-destructive test

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
16 Dynamic Test for Stability of Bar Loaded by a Compression Force Directed Towards the Pole

Authors: Elia Efraim, Boris Blostotsky

Abstract:

The phenomenon of buckling of structural elements under compression is revealed in many cases of loading and found consideration in many structures and mechanisms. In the present work the method and results of dynamic test for buckling of bar loaded by a compression force directed towards the pole are considered. Experimental determination of critical force for such system has not been made previously. The tested object is a bar with semi-rigid connection to the base at one of its ends, and with a hinge moving along a circle at the other. The test includes measuring the natural frequency of the bar at different values of compression load. The lateral stiffness is calculated based on natural frequency and reduced mass on the bar's movable end. The critical load is determined by extrapolation the values of lateral stiffness up to zero value. For the experimental investigation the special test-bed was created that allows the stability testing at positive and negative curvature of the movable end's trajectory, as well as varying the rotational stiffness of the other end connection. Decreasing a friction at the movable end allows extend the diapason of applied compression force. The testing method includes : - methodology of the experiment planning, that allows determine the required number of tests under various loads values in the defined range and the type of extrapolating function; - methodology of experimental determination of reduced mass at the bar's movable end including its own mass; - methodology of experimental determination of lateral stiffness of uncompressed bar rotational semi-rigid connection at the base. For planning the experiment and for comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values of critical load, the analytical dependencies of lateral stiffness of the bar with defined end conditions on compression load. In the particular case of perfectly rigid connection of the bar to the base, the critical load value corresponds to solution by S.P. Timoshenko. Correspondence of the calculated and experimental values was obtained.

Keywords: buckling, dynamic method, end-fixity factor, force directed towards a pole

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
15 Enhancing the Flotation of Fine and Ultrafine Pyrite Particles Using Electrolytically Generated Bubbles

Authors: Bogale Tadesse, Krutik Parikh, Ndagha Mkandawire, Boris Albijanic, Nimal Subasinghe

Abstract:

It is well established that the floatability and selectivity of mineral particles are highly dependent on the particle size. Generally, a particle size of 10 micron is considered as the critical size below which both flotation selectivity and recovery decline sharply. It is widely accepted that the majority of ultrafine particles, including highly liberated valuable minerals, will be lost in tailings during a conventional flotation process. This is highly undesirable particularly in the processing of finely disseminated complex and refractory ores where there is a requirement for fine grinding in order to liberate the valuable minerals. In addition, the continuing decline in ore grade worldwide necessitates intensive processing of low grade mineral deposits. Recent advances in comminution allow the economic grinding of particles down to 10 micron sizes to enhance the probability of liberating locked minerals from low grade ores. Thus, it is timely that the flotation of fine and ultrafine particles is improved in order to reduce the amount of valuable minerals lost as slimes. It is believed that the use of fine bubbles in flotation increases the bubble-particle collision efficiency and hence the flotation performance. Electroflotation, where bubbles are generated by the electrolytic breakdown of water to produce oxygen and hydrogen gases, leads to the formation of extremely finely dispersed gas bubbles with dimensions varying from 5 to 95 micron. The sizes of bubbles generated by this method are significantly smaller than those found in conventional flotation (> 600 micron). In this study, microbubbles generated by electrolysis of water were injected into a bench top flotation cell to assess the performance electroflotation in enhancing the flotation of fine and ultrafine pyrite particles of sizes ranging from 5 to 53 micron. The design of the cell and the results from optimization of the process variables such as current density, pH, percent solid and particle size will be presented at this conference.

Keywords: pyrite, electroflotation, fine bubbles, ultrafine particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
14 A Review of Critical Framework Assessment Matrices for Data Analysis on Overheating in Buildings Impact

Authors: Martin Adlington, Boris Ceranic, Sally Shazhad

Abstract:

In an effort to reduce carbon emissions, changes in UK regulations, such as Part L Conservation of heat and power, dictates improved thermal insulation and enhanced air tightness. These changes were a direct response to the UK Government being fully committed to achieving its carbon targets under the Climate Change Act 2008. The goal is to reduce emissions by at least 80% by 2050. Factors such as climate change are likely to exacerbate the problem of overheating, as this phenomenon expects to increase the frequency of extreme heat events exemplified by stagnant air masses and successive high minimum overnight temperatures. However, climate change is not the only concern relevant to overheating, as research signifies, location, design, and occupation; construction type and layout can also play a part. Because of this growing problem, research shows the possibility of health effects on occupants of buildings could be an issue. Increases in temperature can perhaps have a direct impact on the human body’s ability to retain thermoregulation and therefore the effects of heat-related illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat syncope and even death can be imminent. This review paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the current literature on the causes and health effects of overheating in buildings and has examined the differing applied assessment approaches used to measure the concept. Firstly, an overview of the topic was presented followed by an examination of overheating research work from the last decade. These papers form the body of the article and are grouped into a framework matrix summarizing the source material identifying the differing methods of analysis of overheating. Cross case evaluation has identified systematic relationships between different variables within the matrix. Key areas focused on include, building types and country, occupants behavior, health effects, simulation tools, computational methods.

Keywords: Climate Change, Health, Thermal comfort, overheating

Procedia PDF Downloads 249