Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Bogale Girmaye Tamrat

11 Hyperthyroidism in a Private Medical Services Center, Addis Ababa: A 5-Year Experience

Authors: Ersumo Tessema, Bogale Girmaye Tamrat, Mohammed Burka


Background: Hyperthyroidism is a common thyroid disorder especially in women and characterized by increased thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion. The disorder manifests predominantly as Graves’ disease in iodine-sufficient areas and has increasing prevalence in iodine-deficient countries in patients with nodular thyroid disease and following iodine fortification. In Ethiopia, the magnitude of the disorder is unknown and, in Africa, due to scarcity of resources, its management remains suboptimal. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern and management of patients with hyperthyroidism at the United Vision Medical Services Center, Addis Ababa between August 30, 2013, and February 1, 2018. Patients and methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of medical records of all patients with hyperthyroidism at the United Vision Private Medical Services Center, Addis Ababa. A questionnaire was filled out; the collected data entered into a computer and statistically analyzed using the SPSS package. The results were tabulated and discussed with literature review. Results: A total of 589 patients were included in this study. The median age was 40 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.0:7.9. Most patients (93%) presented with goiter and the associated features of toxic goiter except weight loss, sweating and tachycardia were uncommon. Majority of patients presented more than two years after the onset of their presenting symptoms. The most common physical finding (91%), as well as diagnosis, was toxic nodular goiter. The most frequent (83%) derangement in the thyroid function tests was a low thyroid-stimulating hormone, and the most commonly (94%) used antithyroid drug was a propylthiouracil. The most common (96%) surgical procedure in 213 patients was a near-total thyroidectomy with a postoperative course without incident in 92% of all the patients. Conclusion: The incidence and prevalence of hyperthyroidism are apparently on the increase in Addis Ababa, which may be related to the existing severe iodine-deficiency and or the salt iodation program (iodine-induced hyperthyroidism). Hyperthyroidism predominantly affects women and, in surgical services, toxic nodular goiter is more common than diffuse goiter, and the treatment of choice in experienced hands is a near-total thyroidectomy.

Keywords: Ethiopia, grave’s disease, hyperthyroidism, toxic nodular goiter

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10 Dyeing Cotton with Dyes Extracted from Eucalyptus and Mango Trees

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole, K. Shabaridharan


The use of natural dyes to replace synthetic dyes has been advocated for to circumvent the environmental problems associated with synthetic dyes. This paper is a preliminary study on the use of natural dyes extracted from eucalyptus and mango trees. Dyes extracted from eucalyptus bark gave more colourized material than the dyes extracted from eucalyptus leaves and mango pills and leaves. Additionally, the extracts exhibited a deeper colour shade. Cotton fiber dyed using the same dye but with different mordants resulted in fabric that exhibited different colours. It appears that natural dyes from these plants could be effective dyes for use on cotton fabrics especially considering that the dyes exhibited excellent colour fastness.

Keywords: natural dyes, mango, eucalyptus, cotton, mordants, colour fastness

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9 Volarization of Sugarcane Bagasse: The Effect of Alkali Concentration, Soaking Time and Temperature on Fibre Yield

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Tilahun Seyoum, K. Shabaridharan


The objective of this paper was to determine the effect of NaOH concentration, soaking time, soaking temperature and their interaction on percentage yield of fibre extract using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the extraction process of cellulosic fibre from sugar cane by-product bagasse using low alkaline extraction technique. The quadratic model with the optimal technological conditions resulted in a maximum fibre yield of 56.80% at 0.55N NaOH concentration, 4 h steeping time and 60ᵒC soaking temperature. Among the independent variables concentration was found to be the most significant (P < 0.005) variable and the interaction effect of concentration and soaking time leads to securing the optimized processes.

Keywords: sugarcane bagasse, low alkaline, Box-Behnken, fibre

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8 Adsorption of Phosphate from Aqueous Solution Using Filter Cake for Urban Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Girmaye Abebe, Brook Lemma


Adsorption of phosphorus (P as PO43-) in filter cake was studied to assess the media's capability in removing phosphorous from wastewaters. The composition of the filter cake that was generated from alum manufacturing process as waste residue has high amount of silicate from the complete silicate analysis of the experiment. Series of batches adsorption experiments were carried out to evaluate parameters that influence the adsorption capacity of PO43-. The factors studied include the effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, thermal pretreatment of the adsorbent, neutralization of the adsorbent, initial PO43- concentration, pH of the solution and effect of co-existing anions. Results showed that adsorption of PO43- is fairly rapid in first 5 min and after that it increases slowly to reach the equilibrium in about 1 h. The treatment efficiency of PO43- was increased with adsorbent extent. About 90% removal efficiency was increased within 1 h at an optimum adsorbent dose of 10 g/L for initial PO43- concentration of 10 mg/L. The amount of PO43- adsorbed increased with increasing initial PO43- concentration. Heat treatment and surface neutralization of the adsorbent did not improve the PO43- removal capacity and efficiency. The percentage of PO43- removal remains nearly constant within the pH range of 3-8. The adsorption data at ambient pH were well fitted to the Langmuir Isotherm and Dubinin–Radushkevick (D–R) isotherm model with a capacity of 25.84 and 157.55 mg/g of the adsorbent respectively. The adsorption kinetic was found to follow a pseudo-second-order rate equation with an average rate constant of 3.76 g.min−−1. The presence of bicarbonate or carbonate at higher concentrations (10–1000 mg/L) decreased the PO43- removal efficiency slightly while other anions (Cl-, SO42-, and NO3-) have no significant effect within the concentration range tested. The overall result shows that the filter cake is an efficient PO43- removing adsorbent against many parameters.

Keywords: wastewater, filter cake, adsorption capacity, phosphate (PO43-)

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7 Performance of Visual Inspection Using Acetic Acid for Cervical Cancer Screening as Compared to HPV DNA Testingin Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Agajie Likie Bogale, Tilahun Teklehaymanot, Getnet Mitike Kassie, Girmay Medhin, Jemal Haidar Ali, Nega Berhe Belay


Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of visual inspection using acetic acid compared with HPV DNA testing among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Methods: Acomparative cross-sectional study was conducted to address the aforementioned objective. Data were collected from January to October 2021 to compare the performance of these two screening modalities. Trained clinicians collected cervical specimens and immediately applied acetic acid for visual inspection. The HPV DNA testing was done using Abbott m2000rt/SP by trained laboratory professionals in accredited laboratories. A total of 578 HIV positive women with age 25-49 years were included. Results: Test positivity was 8.9% using VIA and 23.3% using HPV DNA test. The sensitivity and specificity of the VIA test were 19.2% and 95.1%, respectively, while the positive and negative predictive values of the VIA test were 54.4% and 79.4%, respectively. The strength of agreement between the two screening methods was poor (k=0.184), and the area under the curve was 0.572. The burden of genetic distribution of high risk HPV16 was 3.8%, and mixed HPV16& other HR HPV was 1.9%. Other high risk HPV types were predominant in this study (15.7%). Conclusion: The high positivity result using HPV DNA testing compared with VIA, and low sensitivity of VIA are indicating that the implementation of HPV DNA testing as the primary screening strategy is likely to reduce cervical cancer cases and deaths of women in the country.

Keywords: cervical cancer screening, HPV DNA, VIA, Ethiopia

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6 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Cuprous Oxide/Graphene Nanocomposite

Authors: Bekan Bogale, Tsegaye Girma Asere, Tilahun Yai, Fekadu Melak


Aims: To study photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite. Background: Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles are among the metal oxides that demonstrated photocatalytic activity. However, the stability of Cu2O nanoparticles due to the fast recombination rate of electron/hole pairs remains a significant challenge in their photocatalytic applications. This, in turn, leads to mismatching of the effective bandgap separation, tending to reduce the photocatalytic activity of the desired organic waste (MB). To overcome these limitations, graphene has been combined with cuprous oxides, resulting in cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite as a promising photocatalyst. Objective: In this study, Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite was synthesized and evaluated for its photocatalytic performance of methylene blue (MB) dye degradation. Method: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized from graphite powder and copper nitrate using the facile sol-gel method. Batch experiments have been conducted to assess the applications of the nanocomposites for MB degradation. Parameters such as contact time, catalyst dosage, and pH of the solution were optimized for maximum MB degradation. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by using UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, and SEM. The photocatalytic performance of Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites was compared against Cu2O nanoparticles for cationic MB dye degradation. Results: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite exhibits higher photocatalytic activity for MB degradation (with a degradation efficiency of 94%) than pure Cu2O nanoparticles (67%). This has been accomplished after 180 min of irradiation under visible light. The kinetics of MB degradation by Cu2O/graphene composites can be demonstrated by the second-order kinetic model. The synthesized nanocomposite can be used for more than three cycles of photocatalytic MB degradation. Conclusion: This work indicated new insights into Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite as high-performance in photocatalysis to degrade MB, playing a great role in environmental protection in relation to MB dye.

Keywords: methylene blue, photocatalysis, cuprous oxide, graphene nanocomposite

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5 A Review on Valorisation of Chicken Feathers: Current Status and Future Prospects

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole, Deresh Ramjugernath


Worldwide, the poultry–processing industry generates large quantities of feather by-products that amount to 40 billion kilograms annually. The feathers are considered wastes although small amounts are often processed into valuable products such as feather meal and fertilizers. The remaining waste is disposed of by incineration or by burial in controlled landfills. Improper disposal of these biological wastes contributes to environmental damage and transmission of diseases. Economic pressures, environmental pressures, increasing interest in using renewable and sustainable raw materials, and the need to decrease reliance on non-renewable petroleum resources behove the industry to find better ways of dealing with waste feathers. A closer look at the structure and composition of feathers shows that the whole part of a chicken feather (rachis and barb) can be used as a source of a pure structural protein called keratin which can be exploited for conversion into a number of high-value bio products. Additionally, a number of technologies can be used to convert other biological components of feathers into high value added products. Thus, conversion of the waste into valuable products can make feathers an attractive raw material for the production of bio products. In this review, possible applications of chicken feathers in a variety of technologies and products are discussed. Thus, using waste feathers as a valuable resource can help the poultry industry to dispose of the waste feathers in an environmentally sustainable manner that also generates extra income for the industry. Their valorisation can result in their sustainable conversion into high-value materials and products on the proviso of existence or development of cost-effective technologies for converting this waste into the useful products.

Keywords: biodegradable product, keratin, poultry waste, feathers, valorisation

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4 Enhancing the Flotation of Fine and Ultrafine Pyrite Particles Using Electrolytically Generated Bubbles

Authors: Bogale Tadesse, Krutik Parikh, Ndagha Mkandawire, Boris Albijanic, Nimal Subasinghe


It is well established that the floatability and selectivity of mineral particles are highly dependent on the particle size. Generally, a particle size of 10 micron is considered as the critical size below which both flotation selectivity and recovery decline sharply. It is widely accepted that the majority of ultrafine particles, including highly liberated valuable minerals, will be lost in tailings during a conventional flotation process. This is highly undesirable particularly in the processing of finely disseminated complex and refractory ores where there is a requirement for fine grinding in order to liberate the valuable minerals. In addition, the continuing decline in ore grade worldwide necessitates intensive processing of low grade mineral deposits. Recent advances in comminution allow the economic grinding of particles down to 10 micron sizes to enhance the probability of liberating locked minerals from low grade ores. Thus, it is timely that the flotation of fine and ultrafine particles is improved in order to reduce the amount of valuable minerals lost as slimes. It is believed that the use of fine bubbles in flotation increases the bubble-particle collision efficiency and hence the flotation performance. Electroflotation, where bubbles are generated by the electrolytic breakdown of water to produce oxygen and hydrogen gases, leads to the formation of extremely finely dispersed gas bubbles with dimensions varying from 5 to 95 micron. The sizes of bubbles generated by this method are significantly smaller than those found in conventional flotation (> 600 micron). In this study, microbubbles generated by electrolysis of water were injected into a bench top flotation cell to assess the performance electroflotation in enhancing the flotation of fine and ultrafine pyrite particles of sizes ranging from 5 to 53 micron. The design of the cell and the results from optimization of the process variables such as current density, pH, percent solid and particle size will be presented at this conference.

Keywords: electroflotation, fine bubbles, pyrite, ultrafine particles

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3 Valorisation of Mango Seed: Response Surface Methodology Based Optimization of Starch Extraction from Mango Seeds

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole


Box-Behnken Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that give maximum extraction yield and whiteness index from mango seed. The steeping time ranges from 2 to 12 hours and slurring of the steeped seed in sodium metabisulphite solution (0.1 to 0.5 w/v) was carried out. Experiments were designed according to Box-Behnken Design with these three factors and a total of 15 runs experimental variables of were analyzed. At linear level, the concentration of sodium metabisulphite had significant positive influence on percentage yield and whiteness index at p<0.05. At quadratic level, sodium metabisulphite concentration and sodium metabisulphite concentration2 had a significant negative influence on starch yield; sodium metabisulphite concentration and steeping time*temperature had significant (p<0.05) positive influence on whiteness index. The adjusted R2 above 0.8 for starch yield (0.906465) and whiteness index (0.909268) showed a good fit of the model with the experimental data. The optimum sodium metabisulphite concentration, steeping hours, and temperature for starch isolation with maximum starch yield (66.428%) and whiteness index (85%) as set goals for optimization with the desirability of 0.91939 was 0.255w/v concentration, 2hrs and 50 °C respectively. The determined experimental value of each response based on optimal condition was statistically in accordance with predicted levels at p<0.05. The Mango seeds are the by-products obtained during mango processing and possess disposal problem if not handled properly. The substitution of food based sizing agents with mango seed starch can contribute as pertinent resource deployment for value-added product manufacturing and waste utilization which might play significance role of food security in Ethiopia.

Keywords: mango, synthetic sizing agent, starch, extraction, textile, sizing

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2 Reducing Road Traffic Accident: Rapid Evidence Synthesis for Low and Middle Income Countries

Authors: Tesfaye Dagne, Dagmawit Solomon, Firmaye Bogale, Yosef Gebreyohannes, Samson Mideksa, Mamuye Hadis, Desalegn Ararso, Ermias Woldie, Tsegaye Getachew, Sabit Ababor, Zelalem Kebede


Globally, road traffic accident (RTA) is causing millions of deaths and injuries every year. It is one of the leading causes of death among people of all age groups and the problem is worse among young reproductive age group. Moreover the problem is increasing with an increasing number of vehicles. The majority of the problem happen in low and middle income countries (LMIC), even if the number of vehicles in these countries is low compared to their population. So, the objective of this paper is to summarize the best available evidence on interventions that can reduce road traffic accidents in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Method: A rapid evidence synthesis approach adapted from the SURE Rapid Response Service was applied to search, appraise and summarize the best available evidence on effective intervention in reducing road traffic injury. To answer the question under review, we searched for relevant studies from databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, TRANSPORT, Health system evidence, Epistemonikos, and SUPPORT summary. The following key terms were used for searching: Road traffic accident, RTA, Injury, Reduc*, Prevent*, Minimiz*, “Low and middle-income country”, LMIC. We found 18 articles through a search of different databases mentioned above. After screening for the titles and abstracts of the articles, four of them which satisfy the inclusion criteria were included in the final review. Then we appraised and graded the methodological quality of systematic reviews that are deemed to be highly relevant using AMSTAR. Finding: The identified interventions to reduce road traffic accidents were legislation and enforcement, public awareness/education, speed control/ rumble strips, road improvement, mandatory motorcycle helmet, graduated driver license, street lighting. Legislation and Enforcement: Legislation focusing on mandatory motorcycle helmet usage, banning cellular phone usage when driving, seat belt laws, decreasing the legal blood alcohol content (BAC) level from 0.06 g/L to 0.02 g/L bring the best result where enforcement is there. Public Awareness/Education: focusing on seat belt use, child restraint use, educational training in health centers and schools/universities, and public awareness with media through the distribution of videos, posters/souvenirs, and pamphlets are effective in the short run. Speed Control: through traffic calming bumps, or speed bumps, rumbled strips are effective in reducing accidents and fatality. Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet: is associated with reduction in mortality. Graduated driver’s license (GDL): reduce road traffic injury by 19%. Street lighting: is a low-cost intervention which may reduce road traffic accidents.

Keywords: evidence synthesis, injury, rapid review, reducing, road traffic accident

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1 Psychosocial Challenges of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Patients at St. Peter TB Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa

Authors: Tamrat Girma Biru


Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as resistant to at least Refampicin and Isoniazed: the most two power full TB drugs. It is a leading cause of high rates of morbidity and mortality, and increasing psychosocial challenges to patients, especially when co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Ethiopia faces the highest rates of MDR-TB infection in the world. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to identify the psychosocial challenges of MDR-TB patients, to investigate the extent of the psychosocial challenges on (self-esteem, depression, and stigma) that MDR-TB patients encounter, to examine whether there is a sex difference in experiencing psychosocial challenges and assess the counseling needs of MDR-TB patients. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at St. Peter TB Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa on 40 patients (25 males and 15 females) who are hospitalized for treatment. The patients were identified by using purposive sampling and made fill a questionnaire measuring their level of self-esteem, depression and stigma. Besides, data were collected from 16 participants, 28 care providers and 8 guardians, using semi-structured interview. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS statistical program, descriptive statistics, independent t-test, and qualitative description. Results and Discussion: The results of the study showed that the majority (80%) of the respondents had suffered psychological challenges and social discriminations. Thus, the significance of MDR-TB and its association with HIV/AIDS problems is considered. Besides the psychosocial challenges, various aggravating factors such as length of treatment, drug burden and insecurity in economy together highly challenges the life of patients. In addition, 60% of participants showed low level of self-esteem. The patients also reported that they experienced high self-stigma and stigma by other members of the society. The majority of the participants (75%) showed moderate and severe level of depression. In terms of sex there is no difference between the mean scores of males and females in the level of depression and stigmatization by others and by themselves. But females showed lower level of self-esteem than males. The analysis of the t-test also shows that there were no statistically significant sex difference on the level of depression and stigma. Based on the qualitative data MDR-TB patients face various challenges in their life sphere such as: Psychological (depression, low self value, lowliness, anxiety), social (stigma, isolation from social relations, self-stigmatization,) and medical (drug side effect, drug toxicity, drug burden, treatment length, hospital stays). Recommendations: Based on the findings of this study possible recommendations were forwarded: develop and extend MDR-TB disease awareness creation through by media (printing and electronic), school net TB clubs, and door to door community education. Strengthen psychological wellbeing and social relationship of MDR-TB patients using proper and consistent psychosocial support and counseling. Responsible bodies like Ministry of Health (MOH) and its stakeholders and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) need to assess the challenges of patients and take measures on this pressing issue.

Keywords: psychosocial challenges, counseling, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), tuberculosis therapy

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