Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Bahia Doumandji-Mitiche

20 Thermal Processing of Zn-Bi Layered Double Hydroxide ZnO Doped Bismuth for a Photo-Catalytic Efficiency under Light Visible

Authors: Benyamina Imane, Benalioua Bahia, Mansour Meriem, Bentouami Abdelhadi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to use a synthetic route of the layered double hydroxide as a method of zinc oxide by doping a transition metal. The material is heat-treated at different temperatures then tested on the photo-fading of an acid dye indigo carmine under visible radiation compared with ZnO. The photo catalytic efficiency of Bi-ZnO in a visible light of 500 W was tested on photo-bleaching of an indigoid dye in comparison with the commercial ZnO. Indeed, a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg / L was obtained after 40 and 120 minutes of irradiation in the presence of ZnO and ZnO-Bi respectively.

Keywords: Poa, LDH, photo-catalysis, Bi-ZnO doping

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19 The Sociocultural and Critical Theories under the Empiricism of a Study Abroad Program

Authors: Magda Silva

Abstract:

This paper presents the sociocultural and critical theories used in the creation of a study abroad program in Brazil, as well as the successful results obtained in the fourteen years of experience provided by the program in distinct regions of Brazil. This program maximizes students’ acquisition of the Portuguese language, and affords them an in-depth intercultural and intracultural competence by on site studies in cosmopolitan Rio de Janeiro, afro-heritage Salvador da Bahia, and Amazonian Belém do Pará. The program provides the means to acknowledge the presence, influence, similarities, and differences of Portuguese-speaking Brazil in Latin America.

Keywords: Foreign Language, Theoretical, Critical thinking, Study Abroad, sociocultural theory, empirical

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18 Effect of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on the Haemolymph of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria

Authors: Fatima Zohra Bissaad, Farid Bounaceur, Nassima Behidj, Nadjiba Chebouti, Fatma Halouane, Bahia Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

Effect of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on the 5th instar nymphs of Schistocerca gregaria was studied in the laboratory. Infection by these both entomopathogenic fungi caused reduction in the hemolymph total protein. The average amounts of total proteins were 2.3, 2.07, 2.09 µg/100 ml of haemolymph in the control and M. anisopliae var. acridum, and B. bassiana based-treatments, respectively. Three types of haemocytes were recognized and identified as prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes. The treatment caused significant reduction in the total haemocyte count and in each haemocyte type on the 9th day after its application.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, haemolymph picture, haemolymph protein, Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, Schistocerca gregaria

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17 Preparation of Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polycaprolactone by Melt Mixture

Authors: Mohamed Amine Zenasni, Bahia Meroufel, André Merlin, Said Benfarhi, Stéphane Molina, Béatrice George

Abstract:

The introduction of nano-fillers into polymers field lead to the creation of the nano composites. This creation is starting up a new revolution into the world of materials. Nano composites are similar to traditional composite of a polymer blend and filler with at least one nano-scopic dimension. In our project, we worked with nano composites of biodegradable polymer: polycaprolactone, combined with nano-clay (Maghnite) and with different nano-organo-clays. These nano composites have been prepared by melt mixture method. The advantage of this polymer is its degradability and bio compatibility. A study of the relationship between development, micro structure and physico chemical properties of nano composites, clays modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and Hexadecyltriméthy ammonium bromide (CTAB) and untreated clays were made. Melt mixture method is most suitable methods to get a better dispersion named exfoliation.

Keywords: nanocomposite, biodegradable, polycaprolactone, maghnite, melt mixture, APTES, CTAB

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16 Thermal Transformation of Zn-Bi Double Hydroxide Lamellar in ZnO Doped with Bismuth in Application for Photo Catalysis under Visible Light

Authors: Benyamina Imane, Benalioua Bahia, Mansour Meriem, Bentouami Abdelhadi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to use a synthetic route of the layered double hydroxide as a method of zinc oxide by doping a transition metal. The material is heat-treated at different temperatures then tested on the photo-fading of acid dye indigo carmine under visible radiation compared with ZnO. The material having a better efficacy was characterized by XRD and thereafter SEM. The result of XRD untreated Bi-Zn-LDH material thermally revealed peaks characteristic lamellar materials. Indeed, the lamellar morphology is very visible, observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the lamellar character partially disappears when the material is treated at 550 °C in a muffle furnace. Thus obtained, a zinc oxide doped with bismuth confirmed by XRD. The photocatalytic efficiency of Bi-ZnO in a visible light of 500 W at 114,6 µw/cm2 as maximum of irradiance was tested on photo-bleaching of an indigoid dye in comparison with the commercial ZnO. Indeed, a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg / L was obtained after 40 and 120 minutes of irradiation in the presence of Bi-ZnO and ZnO respectively.

Keywords: Doping, photocatalysis, ZnO, Bi-ZnO-LDH

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15 A Practical Guide to Collaborative Writing Assignments as a Pedagogical Technique in Higher Education Implemented in an Economics Course

Authors: Bahia Braktia, Belkacem Braktia

Abstract:

Collaborative writing is now an established pedagogical technique in higher education. Since most educators do not have training in the design, execution, and evaluation of writing assignments, implementing such tasks has proven difficult. This paper firstly proposes a framework for a collaborative writing assignment based on a literature study and adopting a writing-to-learn concept. It then describes the research undertaken and shows how this framework is implemented in an economics course, at an Algerian university, with undergraduate students. Finally, using a mixed methods design, it examines the students’ perceptions of what they have learned about collaborative writing. Preliminary results show that group assignments will always be a challenge, but with careful planning and structure, a collaborative writing assignment can be used effectively to help students improve their analytical and critical thinking abilities, research and group work skills, as well as writing proficiency. Students have a positive experience of working in a team and identified a wide variety of different team skills that they have learned through the process.

Keywords: Survey, collaborative writing, students’ perception, research assignment

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14 Students' Perceptions of Social Media as a Means to Improve Their Language Skills

Authors: Bahia Braktia, Ana Marcela Montenegro Sanchez

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Social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, has been used for teaching and learning for quite some time. These platforms have been proven to be a good tool to improve various language skills, students’ performance of the English language, motivation as well as trigger the authentic language interaction. However, little is known about the potential effects of social media usage on the learning performance of Arabic language learners. The present study explores the potential role that the social media technologies play in learning Arabic as a foreign language at a university in Southeast of United States. In order to investigate this issue, an online survey was administered to examine the perceptions and attitudes of American students learning Arabic. The research questions were: How does social media, specifically Facebook and Twitter, impact the students' Arabic language skills, and what is their attitude toward it? The preliminary findings of the study showed that students had a positive attitude toward the use of social media to enhance their Arabic language skills, and that they used a range of social media features to expose themselves to the Arabic language and communicate in Arabic with native Arabic speaking friends. More detailed findings will be shared in the light data analysis with the audience during the presentation.

Keywords: Social Media, Survey, foreign language learning, students’ perceptions

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13 Women Trainees' Perception on Non-Formal Educational Workshops in Improving Their Socio-Economic Status in Algeria and Costa Rica

Authors: Bahia Braktia, S. Anna Marcela Montenegro, Imene Abdessemed

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Adult education is still considered a crucial area of education. In a developing framework, it is regarded as a practical approach for social inclusion and poverty reduction. They are also perceived as a way to serve adults who did not have the chance to education in their early ages by providing them knowledge, skills and values. Non-formal adult education and trainings are critical means in a society to break poverty and unemployment, and to decrease the social inequality. This paper investigates the perception of women trainees about a series of workshops in natural beauty products, held in Algeria and Costa Rica and organized by a non-profit educational organization, to improve their socio-economic status. This research seeks to explore ways of empowering women by assessing their needs and providing them with skills to start their own business. A questionnaire is administered before the workshops and focus groups are held at the end. A qualitative research method is employed to analyze the data. Preliminary results show that the trainees aspire to create their businesses with the objectives of poverty reduction and social inclusion. The findings also reveal the need for small business funding programs and entrepreneurial training programs.

Keywords: Adult Education, socio-economic status, Non-Formal Education, Women Empowerment

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12 Peer-Review as a Means to Improve Students' Translation Skills

Authors: Bahia Braktia, Ahlem Ghamri

Abstract:

Years ago, faculties and administrators realized that students entering college were not prepared for the academic sphere; however, as a type of collaborative learning, peer-review gave students a social context in which they could learn more efficiently. Peer-review has proven its effectiveness in higher education. Numerous studies have been conducted on peer review and its effects on the quality of students’ writing, and several publications recommended peer-review as part of the feedback process. Student writers showed a tendency towards making significant meaning-level revisions and surface-level revisions. Last but not least, studies reported that peer-review helps students develop their self-assessment skills as well as critical thinking. The use of peer-review has become well known and widely adopted to the L2 classroom environment. However, little is known about peer review on translation students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the students' perspective on peer-review, and whether this method affected the quality of their translation. A mixed method design was adopted. Students were requested to translate two texts from Arabic into English, and they gave and received structured feedback to their classmates' translations. A survey was administered, followed by semi-structured interviews, to examine the students' attitudes toward peer-review. The results of the study showed that peer-review was considered a good proofreading method for most students. The students also showed a positive attitude toward it, and they reported that they benefited from the interaction with their peers. The findings implied that the inclusion of peer-review can be an effective pedagogical practice for teaching translation and writing to foreign language learners.

Keywords: Language Teaching, Translation, Feedback, peer-review

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11 Critical Approach to Define the Architectural Structure of a Health Prototype in a Rural Area of Brazil

Authors: Domenico Chizzoniti, Monica Moscatelli, Letizia Cattani, Luca Preis

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A primary healthcare facility in developing countries should be a multifunctional space able to respond to different requirements: Flexibility, modularity, aggregation and reversibility. These basic features could be better satisfied if applied to an architectural artifact that complies with the typological, figurative and constructive aspects of the context in which it is located. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify a procedure that can define the figurative aspects of the architectural structure of the health prototype for the marginal areas of developing countries through a critical approach. The application context is the rural areas of the Northeast of Bahia in Brazil. The prototype should be located in the rural district of Quingoma, in the municipality of Lauro de Freitas, a particular place where there is still a cultural fusion of black and indigenous populations. Based on the historical analysis of settlement strategies and architectural structures in spaces of public interest or collective use, this paper aims to provide a procedure able to identify the categories and rules underlying typological and figurative aspects, in order to detect significant and generalizable elements, as well as materials and constructive techniques typically adopted in the rural areas of Brazil. The object of this work is therefore not only the recovery of certain constructive approaches but also the development of a procedure that integrates the requirements of the primary healthcare prototype with its surrounding economic, social, cultural, settlement and figurative conditions.

Keywords: developing countries, primary health care, architectural typology, local construction techniques

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10 Moving from Practice to Theory

Authors: Maria Lina Garrido

Abstract:

This paper aims to reflect upon instruction in English classes with the specific purpose of reading comprehension development, having as its paradigm the considerations presented by William Grabe, in his book Reading in a Second Language: Moving from theory to practice. His concerns regarding the connection between research findings and instructional practices have stimulated the present author to re-evaluate both her long practice as an English reading teacher and as the author of two reading textbooks for graduate students. Elements of the reading process such as linguistic issues, prior knowledge, reading strategies, critical evaluation, and motivation are the main foci of this analysis as far as the activities developed in the classroom are concerned. The experience with university candidates on postgraduate courses with different levels of English knowledge in Bahia, Brazil, has definitely demanded certain adjustments to this author`s classroom setting. Word recognition based on cognates, for example, has been emphasized given the fact that academic texts use many Latin words which have the same roots as the Brazilian Portuguese lexicon. Concerning syntactic parsing, the tenses/verbal aspects, modality and linking words are included in the curriculum, but not with the same depth as the general English curricula. Reading strategies, another essential predictor for developing reading skills, have been largely stimulated in L2 classes in order to compensate for a lack of the appropriate knowledge of the foreign language. This paper presents results that demonstrate that this author`s teaching practice is compatible with the implications and instruction concerning the reading process outlined by Grabe, however, it admits that each class demands specific instructions to meet the needs of that particular group.

Keywords: reading comprehension, reading skills, classroom practice, instructional activities

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9 Evaluation of Electro-Flocculation for Biomass Production of Marine Microalgae Phaodactylum tricornutum

Authors: Luciana C. Ramos, Leandro J. Sousa, Antônio Ferreira da Silva, Valéria Gomes Oliveira Falcão, Suzana T. Cunha Lima

Abstract:

The commercial production of biodiesel using microalgae demands a high-energy input for harvesting biomass, making production economically unfeasible. Methods currently used involve mechanical, chemical, and biological procedures. In this work, a flocculation system is presented as a cost and energy effective process to increase biomass production of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. This diatom is the only species of the genus that present fast growth and lipid accumulation ability that are of great interest for biofuel production. The algae, selected from the Bank of Microalgae, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil), have been bred in tubular reactor with photoperiod of 12 h (clear/dark), providing luminance of about 35 μmol photons m-2s-1, and temperature of 22 °C. The medium used for growing cells was the Conway medium, with addition of silica. The seaweed growth curve was accompanied by cell count in Neubauer camera and by optical density in spectrophotometer, at 680 nm. The precipitation occurred at the end of the stationary phase of growth, 21 days after inoculation, using two methods: centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 5 min, and electro-flocculation at 19 EPD and 95 W. After precipitation, cells were frozen at -20 °C and, subsequently, lyophilized. Biomass obtained by electro-flocculation was approximately four times greater than the one achieved by centrifugation. The benefits of this method are that no addition of chemical flocculants is necessary and similar cultivation conditions can be used for the biodiesel production and pharmacological purposes. The results may contribute to improve biodiesel production costs using marine microalgae.

Keywords: biomass, Microalgae, Flocculation, diatom

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8 A Settlement Strategy for Health Facilities in Emerging Countries: A Case Study in Brazil

Authors: Domenico Chizzoniti, Monica Moscatelli, Letizia Cattani, Piero Favino, Luca Preis

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A settlement strategy is to anticipate and respond the needs of existing and future communities through the provision of primary health care facilities in marginalized areas. Access to a health care network is important to improving healthcare coverage, often lacking, in developing countries. The study explores that a good sanitary system strategy of rural contexts brings advantages to an existing settlement: improving transport, communication, water and social facilities. The objective of this paper is to define a possible methodology to implement primary health care facilities in disadvantaged areas of emerging countries. In this research, we analyze the case study of Lauro de Freitas, a municipality in the Brazilian state of Bahia, part of the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, with an area of 57,662 km² and 194.641 inhabitants. The health localization system in Lauro de Freitas is an integrated process that involves not only geographical aspects, but also a set of factors: population density, epidemiological data, allocation of services, road networks, and more. Data were collected also using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to the local population. Synthesized data suggest that moving away from the coast where there is the greatest concentration of population and services, a network of primary health care facilities is able to improve the living conditions of small-dispersed communities. Based on the health service needs of populations, we have developed a methodological approach that is particularly useful in rural and remote contexts in emerging countries.

Keywords: Healthcare, Rural, Urban Health, settlement strategy

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7 Lexicographic Rules on the Use of Technologies for Realization of the National Signs-Terms Inventory of Cultural Heritage Field in Libras

Authors: Gláucio de Castro Júnior, Daniela Prometi, Patrícia Tuxi

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The project 'Inventory Signs-terms of the cultural heritage field in Libras' provides for the establishment of an inventory of signs, terms relating to the field of cultural heritage in Libras, from the results of research in progress as the pilot project' Accessibility Communication, Translation and Interpretation to the Application Portal Libras Heritage 'and the Pilot Project' registration-signal terms for the preparation of bilingual lexicon Libras / Portuguese terms available in the Portal Heritage. The project's goal is to spread the lexicographical rules on the use of technologies in video graphic records of sign language and foster the training of undergraduate students and graduate to the registration of the linguistic diversity of Libras through social and communicative interaction with the community deaf and enable access to Deaf information relating to the field of cultural heritage in Libras. As a result, we expect the spread of the inventory of cultural heritage-signs in terms Libras in application usage 'Portal Heritage'. To achieve the proposed objectives are accomplished technical consulting and continuous training for the production of academic material through theoretical and practical meetings, taught by experts Libras LIP / UNB in partnership with some institutions. The Inventory project signals-Terms under Heritage in Libras field initially took place in Rio de Janeiro in order to allow its development in the Midwest region, due to technical, elected some cities in Brazil, including Manaus in Amazon Macapa in Amapa, Salvador Bahia, Goiás and Goiânia in Florianopolis in Santa Catarina. At the end of all this process, the assessment by preparing a technical report presenting all the advances and points achieved in the project looking for social improvement, economic, environmental and language in the use of technology will be conducted.

Keywords: Technology, Sign Language, signs-terms, equity-cultural accessibility

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6 The Effects of Mountain Biking as Psychomotor Instrument in Physical Education: Balance’s Evaluation

Authors: Péricles Maia Andrade, Temístocles Damasceno Silva, Hector Luiz Rodrigues Munaro

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The school physical education is going through several changes over the years, and diversification of its content from specific interests is one of the reasons for these changes, soon, the formality in education do not have to stay out, but needs to open up the possibilities offered by the world, so the Mountain Bike, an adventure sport, offers several opportunities for intervention Its application in the school allows diverse interventions in front of the psychomotor development, besides opening possibilities for other contents, respecting the previous experiences of the students in their common environment. The choice of theme was due to affinity with the practice and experience of the Mountain Bike at different levels. Both competitive as recreational, professional standard and amateur, focus as principle the bases of the Cycling, coupled with the inclusion in the Centre for Studies in Management of Sport and Leisure and of the Southwest Bahia State University and the preview of the modality's potential to help the children’s psychomotor development. The goal of this research was to demonstrate like a pilot project the effects of the Mountain Bike as psychomotor instrument in physical education at one of the psychomotor valences, Balance, evaluating Immobility, Static Balance and Dynamic Balance. The methodology used Fonseca’s Psychomotor Battery in 10 students (n=10) of a brazilian public primary’s school, with ages between 9 and 11 years old to use the Mountain Biking contents. The balance’s skills dichotomized in Regular and Good. Regarding the variable Immobility, in the initial test, regardless of gender, 70% (n = 7) were considered Regular. After four months of activity, the Good profile, which had only 30% (n = 3) of the sample, evolved to 60% (n = 6). As in Static and Dynamic Balance there was an increase of 30% (n = 3) and 50% (n = 5) respectively for Good. Between genders, female evolution was better for Good in Immobility and in Static Equilibrium. Already the male evolution was better observed in the Dynamic Equilibrium, with 66.7% (n = 4) for Good. Respecting the particularities of the motor development, an indication of the positive effects of the MTB for the evolution in the balance perceived, necessitating studies with greater sampling.

Keywords: Education, Balance, psychomotricity, mountain biking

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5 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Basic Life Support Teaching in Second and Third Year Medical Students

Authors: Bianca W. O. Silva, Adriana C. M. Andrade, Gustavo C. M. Lucena, Virna M. S. Lima

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Introduction: Basic life support (BLS) involves the immediate recognition of cardiopulmonary arrest. Each year, 359.400 and 275.000 individuals with cardiac arrest are attended in emergency departments in USA and Europe. Brazilian data shows that 200.000 cardiac arrests occur every year, and half of them out of the hospital. Medical schools around the world teach BLS in the first years of the course, but studies show that there is a decline of the knowledge as the years go by, affecting the chain of survival. The objective was to analyze the knowledge of medical students about BLS and the retention of this learning throughout the course. Methods: This study included 150 students who were at the second and third year of a medical school in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The instrument of data collection was a structured questionnaire composed of 20 questions based on the 2015 American Heart Association guideline. The Pearson Chi-square test was used in order to study the association between previous training, sex and semester with the degree of knowledge of the students. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the different yields obtained between the various semesters. The number of correct answers was described by average and quartiles. Results: Regarding the degree of knowledge, 19.6% of the female students reached the optimal classification, a better outcome than the achieved by the male participants. Of those with previous training, 33.33% were classified as good and optimal, none of the students reached the optimal classification and only 2.2% of them were classified as bad (those who did not have 52.6% of correct answers). The analysis of the degree of knowledge related to each semester revealed that the 5th semester had the highest outcome: 30.5%. However, the acquaintance presented by the semesters was generally unsatisfactory, since 50% of the students, or more, demonstrated knowledge levels classified as bad or regular. When confronting the different semesters and the achieved scores, the value of p was 0.831. Conclusion: It is important to focus on the training of medical professionals that are capable of facing emergency situations, improving the systematization of care, and thereby increasing the victims' possibility of survival.

Keywords: Education, medical students, basic life support, cardiopulmonary ressucitacion

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4 Beneficial Effects of Curcumin against Stress Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulphonic Acid in Colon

Authors: Souad Mouzaoui, Bahia Djerdjouri

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Oxidative stress is one of the main factors involved in the onset and chronicity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of a potent natural antioxidant, curcumin (Cur) on colitis and mitochondrial dysfunction in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Rectal instillation of the chemical irritant TNBS (30 mg kg-1) induced the disruption of distal colonic architecture and a massive inflammatory cells influx to the mucosa and submucosa layers. Under these conditions, daily administration of Cur (25 mg kg-1) efficiently decreased colitis scores in the inflamed distal colon by reducing leukocyte infiltrate as attested by reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Moreover, the levels of nitrite, an end product of inducible NO synthase activity (iNOS) and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation increased in a time depending manner in response to TNBS challenge. Conversely, the markers of the antioxidant pool, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) were drastically reduced. Cur attenuated oxidative stress markers and partially restored CAT and GSH levels. Moreover, our results expanded the effect of Cur on TNBS-induced colonic mitochondrial dysfunction. In fact, TNBS induced mitochondrial swelling and lipids peroxidation. These events reflected in the opening of mitochondrial transition pore and could be an initial indication in the cascade process leading to cell death. TNBS inhibited also mitochondrial respiratory activity, caused overproduction of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-.) and reduced level of mitochondrial GSH. Nevertheless, Cur reduced the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by TNBS and restored colonic mitochondrial function. In conclusion, our results showed the critical role of oxidative stress in TNBS-induced colitis. They highlight the role of colonic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by TNBS, as a potential source of oxidative damages. Due to its potent antioxidant properties, Cur opens a promising therapeutic approach against oxidative inflammation in IBD.

Keywords: Mitochondria, Oxidative Stress, Curcumin, colitis, TNBS

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3 The Sustainable Development for Coastal Tourist Building

Authors: D. Avila

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The tourism industry is a phenomenon that has become a growing presence in international socio-economic dynamics, which in most cases exceeds the control parameters in the various environmental regulations and sustainability of existing resources. Because of this, the effects on the natural environment at the regional and national levels represent a challenge, for which a number of strategies are necessary to minimize the environmental impact generated by the occupation of the territory. The hotel tourist building and sustainable development in the coastal zone, have an important impact on the environment and on the physical and psychological health of the inhabitants. Environmental quality associated with the comfort of humans to the sustainable development of natural resources; applied to the hotel architecture this concept involves the incorporation of new demands on all of the constructive process of a building, changing customs of developers and users. The methodology developed provides an initial analysis to determine and rank the different tourist buildings, with the above it will be feasible to establish methods of study and environmental impact assessment. Finally, it is necessary to establish an overview regarding the best way to implement tourism development on the coast, containing guidelines to improve and protect the natural environment. This paper analyzes the parameters and strategies to reduce environmental impacts derived from deployments tourism on the coast, through a series of recommendations towards sustainability, in the context of the Bahia de Banderas, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco. The environmental impact caused by the implementation of tourism development, perceived in a coastal environment, forcing a series of processes, ranging from the identification of impacts, prediction and evaluation of them. For this purpose are described below, different techniques and valuation procedures: Identification of impacts. Methods for the identification of damage caused to the environment pursue general purpose to obtain a group of negative indicators that are subsequently used in the study of environmental impact. There are several systematic methods to identify the impacts caused by human activities. In the present work, develops a procedure based and adapted from the Ministry of works public urban reference in studies of environmental impacts, the representative methods are: list of contrast, arrays, and networks, method of transparencies and superposition of maps.

Keywords: Physical Health, Environmental Impact, Sustainability, tourist building

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2 Experiment on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater Implemented Project: Effect on the Infiltration Velocity by Vegetation Mulch

Authors: Cheh-Shyh Ting, Jiin-Liang Lin

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This study was conducted at the Wanglung Farm in Pingtung County to test the groundwater seepage influences on the implemented project for artificial groundwater recharge. The study was divided into three phases. The first phase, conducted on natural groundwater that was recharged through the local climate and growing conditions, observed the natural form of vegetation species. The original plants were flooded, and after 60 days it was observed that of the original plants only Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) and Black heart (Polygonum lapathifolium Linn.) remained. Direct infiltration tests were carried out, and calculations for the effect of vegetation on infiltration velocity of the recharge pool were noted. The second phase was an indoor test. Bahia grass and wild amaranth were selected as vegetation roots. After growth, the distribution of different grassroots was observed in order to facilitate a comparison permeability coefficient calculated by the amount of penetration and to explore the relationship between density and the efficiency to groundwater recharge. The third phase was the root tomography analysis, further observation of the development of plant roots using computed tomography technology. Computed Tomography, also known as (CT), is a diagnostic imaging examination, normally used in the medical field. In the first phase of the feasibility study, most non-aquatic plants wilted and died within seven days. In seven days, the remaining plants were used for experimental infiltration analysis. Results showed that in eight hours of infiltration test, Eleusine indica stems averaged 0.466 m/day and wild amaranth averaged 0.014 m/day. The second phase of the experiment was conducted on the remains of the plant a week in it had died and rotted, and the infiltration experiment was performed under these conditions. The results showed eight hours in end of the infiltration test, Eleusine indica stems averaged 0.033 m/day, and wild amaranth averaged 0.098 m/day. Non-aquatic plants died within two weeks, and their rotted remains clogged the pores of bottom soil particles, causing obstruction of recharge pool infiltration. Experiment results showed that eight hours in the test the average infiltration velocity for Eleusine indica stems was 0.0229 m/day and wild amaranth averaged 0.0117 m/day. Since the rotted roots of the plants blocked the pores of the soil in the recharge pool, which resulted in the obstruction of the artificial infiltration pond and showed an immediate impact on recharge efficiency. In order to observe the development of plant roots, the third phase used computed tomography imaging. Iodine developer was injected into the Black heart, allowing its cross-sectional images to be shown on CT and to be used to observe root development.

Keywords: Computed Tomography, artificial recharge of groundwater, infiltration velocity, vegetation root system

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1 Impact Analysis of a School-Based Oral Health Program in Brazil

Authors: Fabio L. Vieira, Micaelle F. C. Lemos, Luciano C. Lemos, Rafaela S. Oliveira, Ian A. Cunha

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Brazil has some challenges ahead related to population oral health, most of them associated with the need of expanding into the local level its promotion and prevention activities, offer equal access to services and promote changes in the lifestyle of the population. The program implemented an oral health initiative in public schools in the city of Salvador, Bahia. The mission was to improve oral health among students on primary and secondary education, from 2 to 15 years old, using the school as a pathway to increase access to healthcare. The main actions consisted of a team's visit to the schools with educational sessions for dental cavity prevention and individual assessment. The program incorporated a clinical surveillance component through a dental evaluation of every student searching for dental disease and caries, standardization of the dentists’ team to reach uniform classification on the assessments, and the use of an online platform to register data directly from the schools. Sequentially, the students with caries were referred for free clinical treatment on the program’s Health Centre. The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the effects and outcomes of this school-based oral health program. The study sample was composed by data of a period of 3 years - 2015 to 2017 - from 13 public schools on the suburb of the city of Salvador with a total number of assessments of 9,278 on this period. From the data collected the prevalence of children with decay on permanent teeth was chosen as the most reliable indicator. The prevalence was calculated for each one of the 13 schools using the number of children with 1 or more dental caries on permanent teeth divided by the total number of students assessed for school each year. Then the percentage change per year was calculated for each school. Some schools presented a higher variation on the total number of assessments in one of the three years, so for these, the percentage change calculation was done using the two years with less variation. The results show that 10 of the 13 schools presented significative improvements for the indicator of caries in permanent teeth. The mean for the number of students with caries percentage reduction on the 13 schools was 26.8%, and the median was 32.2% caries in permanent teeth institution. The highest percentage of improvement reached a decrease of 65.6% on the indicator. Three schools presented a rise in caries prevalence (8.9, 18.9 and 37.2% increase) that, on an initial analysis, seems to be explained with the students’ cohort rotation among other schools, as well as absenteeism on the treatment. In conclusion, the program shows a relevant impact on the reduction of caries in permanent teeth among students and the need for the continuity and expansion of this integrated healthcare approach. It has also been evident the significative of the articulation between health and educational systems representing a fundamental approach to improve healthcare access for children especially in scenarios such as presented in Brazil.

Keywords: Data Management, Public Health, Primary Care, Oral health, school-based oral health

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