Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Bülent Tarim

23 Determination of the Some IGF and IGFBP2 Polymorphisms and Their Association with Growth and Egg Traits in Atak-S Chickens

Authors: Huseyi̇n Das, Bülent Tarim, Sunay Demi̇r, Nurçi̇n Küçükkent, Sevi̇l Cengi̇z, Engi̇n Tülek, Veci̇hi̇ Aksakal


Atak-S laying hens are a high-performance strain obtained by crossing of the Rhode Island Red (RIR) X the Barred Plymouth Rock (BR) and are being produced in the Ankara Poultry Research Institute since 1997. Phenotypic and genetic improving studies are continued for this strain. In this study, 2 from IGF and 1 from IGFBP2, totally 3 different SNP polymorphisms were examined in 200 Atak-S chickens. Genotypes of SNPs were compared using ANOVA to body weight and egg number thorough 32 weeks of age, body weight at sexual maturity, age at sexual maturity and also egg quality traits such as egg shell breaking strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, albumen index, yolk index, shape index. Only IGF(a) locus was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while, the other loci were not. As a result of the performance comparisons to the 3 SNP loci, it was determined that there has a significant association (P<0.05) between only TC genotypes of the IGF(b) locus and body weight at 32 weeks of age, but there was not any association to the other traits.

Keywords: Atak-S, Igf, Igfbp2, single nucleotide polymorphism

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22 Overview of Smart Grid Applications in Turkey

Authors: Onur Elma, Giray E. Kıral, Ugur S. Selamoğuları, Mehmet Uzunoğlu, Bulent Vural


Electrical energy has become indispensable for people's lives and with rapidly developing technology and continuously changing living standards the need for the electrical energy has been on the rise. Therefore, both energy generation and efficient use of energy are very important topics. Smart grid concept has been introduced to provide monitoring, energy efficiency, reliability and energy quality. Under smart grid concept, smart homes, which can be considered as key component in smart grid operation, have appeared as another research area. In this study, first, smart grid research in the world will be reviewed. Then, overview of smart grid applications in Turkey will be given.

Keywords: energy efficiency, smart grids, smart home, applications

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21 3 Dimensional (3D) Assesment of Hippocampus in Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Mehmet Bulent Ozdemir, Sultan Çagirici, Sahika Pinar Akyer, Fikri Turk


Neuroanatomical appearance can be correlated with clinical or other characteristics of illness. With the introduction of diagnostic imaging machines, producing 3D images of anatomic structures, calculating the correlation between subjects and pattern of the structures have become possible. The aim of this study is to examine the 3D structure of hippocampus in cases with Alzheimer disease in different dementia severity. For this purpose, 62 female and 38 male- 68 patients’s (age range between 52 and 88) MR scanning were imported to the computer. 3D model of each right and left hippocampus were developed by a computer aided propramme-Surf Driver 3.5. Every reconstruction was taken by the same investigator. There were different apperance of hippocampus from normal to abnormal. In conclusion, These results might improve the understanding of the correlation between the morphological changes in hippocampus and clinical staging in Alzheimer disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, hippocampus, computer-assisted anatomy, 3D

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20 Prediction and Reduction of Cracking Issue in Precision Forging of Engine Valves Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Xi Yang, Bulent Chavdar, Alan Vonseggern, Taylan Altan


Fracture in hot precision forging of engine valves was investigated in this paper. The entire valve forging procedure was described and the possible cause of the fracture was proposed. Finite Element simulation was conducted for the forging process, with commercial Finite Element code DEFORMTM. The effects of material properties, the effect of strain rate and temperature were considered in the FE simulation. Two fracture criteria were discussed and compared, based on the accuracy and reliability of the FE simulation results. The selected criterion predicted the fracture location and shows the trend of damage increasing with good accuracy, which matches the experimental observation. Additional modification of the punch shapes was proposed to further reduce the tendency of fracture in forging. Finite Element comparison shows a great potential of such application in the mass production.

Keywords: hotforging, engine valve, fracture, tooling

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19 Numerical Analysis of Passive Controlled Turbulent Flow around a Circular Cylinder

Authors: Mustafa Soyler, Mustafa M. Yavuz, Bulent Yaniktepe, Coskun Ozalp


In this study, unsteady two-dimensional turbulent flow around a circular cylinder and passive control of the flow with groove on the cylinder was examined. In the CFD analysis, solutions were made using turbulent flow conditions. Steady and unsteady solutions were used in turbulent flow analysis. Numerical analysis of the flow around the circular cylinder is difficult since flow is not in a stable regime when Reynold number is between 1000 and 10000. The analyses in this study were performed at a subcritical Re number of 5000 and the results were compared with available experimental results of the drag coefficient (Cd) and Strouhal (St) number values in the literature. The effect of different groove types and depths on the Cd coefficient has been analyzed and grooves increase the Cd coefficient compared to the smooth cylinder.

Keywords: CFD, drag coefficient, flow over cylinder, passive flow control

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18 PET/CT Patient Dosage Assay

Authors: Gulten Yilmaz, A. Beril Tugrul, Mustafa Demir, Dogan Yasar, Bayram Demir, Bulent Buyuk


A Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a radioisotope imaging technique that illustrates the organs and the metabolisms of the human body. This technique is based on the simultaneous detection of 511 keV annihilation photons, annihilated as a result of electrons annihilating positrons that radiate from positron-emitting radioisotopes that enter biological active molecules in the body. This study was conducted on ten patients in an effort to conduct patient-related experimental studies. Dosage monitoring for the bladder, which was the organ that received the highest dose during PET applications, was conducted for 24 hours. Assessment based on measuring urination activities after injecting patients was also a part of this study. The MIRD method was used to conduct dosage calculations for results obtained from experimental studies. Results obtained experimentally and theoretically were assessed comparatively.

Keywords: PET/CT, TLD, MIRD, dose measurement, patient doses

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17 The Relationship between Democracy, Freedom and Economic Development

Authors: Ugur Karakaya, Hasan Bulent Kantarcı


In this study, firstly democratic thoughts which directly or indirectly affect economic development and/or the interaction between authoritarian regimes and the economic development and the direction and channels of this interaction were studied and then the study tried to determine how democracy affects economic development. It was concluded that the positive contributions of democracy to economic development were more determinant than the effects that were either negative or restrictive in terms of development. When compared to autocracy, since democracy is more successful in managing social conflicts, ensuring political stability and preventing social disasters such as famine, it contributes more to economic development. Democracy also facilitates delegation of authority, provides a stable investment environment and accelerates mobilization of resources in accordance with economic growth/development. Democracy leads to an increase in human capital accumulation and increases the growth rate through reducing income inequality. It can be said that democratic regimes are the most appropriate ones in terms of increasing economic performance and supporting economic development through their strong institutional structures and the assurance they will ensure in property rights.

Keywords: democracy, economic growth, economic freedom, autocratic regime

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16 Flow Visualization around a Rotationally Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Cemre Polat, Mustafa Soyler, Bulent Yaniktepe, Coskun Ozalp


In this study, it was aimed to control the flow actively by giving an oscillating rotational motion to a vertically placed cylinder, and flow characteristics were determined. In the study, firstly, the flow structure around the flat cylinder was investigated with dye experiments, and then the cylinders with different oscillation angles (θ = 60°, θ = 120°, and θ = 180°) and different rotation speeds (15 rpm and 30 rpm) the flow structure around it was examined. Thus, the effectiveness of oscillation and rotation speed in flow control has been investigated. In the dye experiments, the dye/water mixture obtained by mixing Rhodamine 6G in powder form with water, which shines under laser light and allows detailed observation of the flow structure, was used. During the experiments, the dye was injected into the flow with the help of a thin needle at a distance that would not affect the flow from the front of the cylinder. In dye experiments, 100 frames per second were taken with a Canon brand EOS M50 (24MP) digital mirrorless camera at a resolution of 1280 * 720 pixels. Then, the images taken were analyzed, and the pictures representing the flow structure for each experiment were obtained. As a result of the study, it was observed that no separation points were formed at 180° swing angle at 15 rpm speed, 120° and 180° swing angle at 30 rpm, and the flow was controlled according to the fixed cylinder.

Keywords: active flow control, cylinder, flow visualization rotationally oscillating

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15 Experimental Investigation on Effect of the Zirconium + Magnesium Coating of the Piston and Valve of the Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine to the Engine Performance and Emission

Authors: Erdinç Vural, Bülent Özdalyan, Serkan Özel


The four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine has been used in this study, the pistons and valves of the engine have been stabilized, the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) in different ratios has been added in the power of zirconium (ZrO2) magnesium oxide (MgO), and has been coated with the plasma spray method. The pistons and valves of the combustion chamber of the engine are coated with 5 different (ZrO2 + MgO), (ZrO2 + MgO + 25% Al2O3), (ZrO2 + MgO + 50% Al2O3), (ZrO2 + MgO + 75% Al2O3), (Al2O3) sample. The material tests have been made for each of the coated engine parts with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) using Cu Kα radiation surface analysis methods. The engine tests have been repeated for each sample in any electric dynamometer in full power 1600 rpm, 2000 rpm, 2400 rpm and 2800 rpm engine speeds. The material analysis and engine tests have shown that the best performance has been performed with (ZrO2 + MgO + 50% Al2O3). Thus, there is no significant change in HC and Smoke emissions, but NOx emission is increased, as the engine improves power, torque, specific fuel consumption and CO emissions in the tests made with sample A3.

Keywords: ceramic coating, material characterization, engine performance, exhaust emissions

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14 Speciation and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Greenhouse Soils

Authors: Bulent Topcuoglu


Repeated amendments of organic matter and intensive use of fertilizers, metal-enriched chemicals and biocides may cause soil and environmental pollution in greenhouses. Specially, the impact of heavy metal pollution of soils on food metal content and underground water quality has become a public concern. Due to potential toxicity of heavy metals to human life and environment, determining the chemical form of heavy metals in greenhouse soils is an important approach of chemical characterization and can provide useful information on its mobility and bioavailability. A sequential extraction procedure was used to estimate the availability of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr) in greenhouse soils of Antalya Aksu. Zn was predominantly associated with Fe-Mn oxide fraction, major portion of Cd associated with carbonate and organic matter fraction, a major portion of (>65 %) Ni and Cr were largely associated with Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions and Pb was largely associated with organic matter and Fe-Mn oxide fractions. Results of the present study suggest that the mobility and bioavailability of metals probably increase in the following order: Cr < Pb < Ni < Cd < Zn. Among the elements studied, Zn and Cd appeared to be the most readily soluble and potentially bioavailable metals and these metals may carry a potential risk for metal transfer in food chain and contamination to ground water.

Keywords: metal speciation, metal mobility, greenhouse soils, biosystems engineering

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13 The Importance and Role of Sukuk Marketing as an Islamic Bond in the Economy

Authors: Ilhan Keskin, Hasan Bulent Kantarci


In this study, one of the tools of Islamic financing known as “Sukuk” a non-interest bearing investment which has started to be implemented in Turkey and the world as a whole is discussed. In order to increase the vitality and efficiency of the economy, by taking lessons from the recent economic crisis new developments in the banking and investment sector are being expanded. The purpose of all investors is to obtain more revenue through the use of capital. The inability of traditional investment tools to meet the expectations of investors and the interest based financial system where one investor benefits at the expense of another there has been the need for a different, reliable and non-interest bearing financial market that is consistent with the Islamic rule. As a result an alternative and more reliable interest free financing tool “Sukuk” rental certificates covering people who are sensitive to Islamic rules, appeal to all segments, hidden remaining capital that contributes to the economy, reduce disparities in income distribution, common risk sharing system of profit and loss sharing has emerged. Today, for the structural countries by examining the state of the world market economy the applicability, enactment and future issues associated with this attractive kind of Islamic finance namely the “Sukuk” market has been explained.

Keywords: Islamic finance, islamic markets, non-interest bearing, rental certificates

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12 Seismic Hazard Analysis for a Multi Layer Fault System: Antalya (SW Turkey) Example

Authors: Nihat Dipova, Bulent Cangir


This article presents the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Antalya (SW Turkey). South west of Turkey is characterized by large earthquakes resulting from the continental collision between the African, Arabian and Eurasian plates and crustal faults. Earthquakes around the study area are grouped into two; crustal earthquakes (D=0-50 km) and subduction zone earthquakes (50-140 km). Maximum observed magnitude of subduction earthquakes is Mw=6.0. Maximum magnitude of crustal earthquakes is Mw=6.6. Sources for crustal earthquakes are faults which are related with Isparta Angle and Cyprus Arc tectonic structures. A new earthquake catalogue for Antalya, with unified moment magnitude scale has been prepared and seismicity of the area around Antalya city has been evaluated by defining ‘a’ and ‘b’ parameters of the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relationship. The Standard Cornell-McGuire method has been used for hazard computation utilizing CRISIS2007 software. Attenuation relationships proposed by Chiou and Youngs (2008) has been used for 0-50 km earthquakes and Youngs et. al (1997) for deep subduction earthquakes. Finally, Seismic hazard map for peak horizontal acceleration on a uniform site condition of firm rock (average shear wave velocity of about 1130 m/s) at a hazard level of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years has been prepared.

Keywords: Antalya, peak ground acceleration, seismic hazard assessment, subduction

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11 The Importance of Zakat in Struggle against Circle of Poverty and Income Redistribution

Authors: Hasan Bulent Kantarci


This paper examine how Zakat provide a fair income redistribution and struggle with poverty. To provide a fair income redistribution and struggle with poverty take place among the fundamental tasks of all countries. Each country seeks a solution for this problem according to their political, economical and administrative styles through applying various economic and financial policies. The same situation gets handled via zakat association in the Islam. Nowadays, we observe different versions of zakat in developed countries. The applications such as negative income tax denote merely a difference from the zakat being applied almost the same way under changed names. But the minimum values to donate the zakat (e.g. 85 gr. gold and 40 animals) get altered and various amounts are put into practice. It might be named as negative income tax instead of zakat, nonetheless, these applications are based on the Holy Koran and the hadith released 1400 years ago. Besides, considering the savage and slavery in the world at those times, we might easily recognize the true value of the zakat applied the first time then in Islamic system. Through zakat is enabled an income transfer by the government so that the poor could reach the minimum level of life standard. To whom the zakat would be donated was not left to people’s heart and encouraged to determine according to objective criteria. Since the zakat is obligatory, the transfer do not get forward by hand but via the government and get distributed, which requires a vast government organization. Through applying the zakat as it must be would achieve to reduce the poverty mostly and ensuring the fair income redistribution.

Keywords: Islamic finance, zakat, income redistribution, circle of poverty, negatif income tax

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10 Sociodemographic Approach to Juveniles Directed to Delinquent Behaviour in Zonguldak

Authors: Riza Yilmaz, Samet Kiyak, Sezin Nur Yilmaz, Yasemin Yilmaz


Child delinquency has been increasing in our country as well as in many countries of the world. Child intelligence, abilities, family's social environment and life conditions are the factors which affect the child delinquency. The reports of 73 cases ages of 12-15 which were sent to the University of Bulent Ecevit, School of Medicine, Forensic Medicine Department between January 2011-September 2015, in order to evaluate medically, children pushed to crime by the judicial authorities are examined in terms of age, gender, educational background, place of residence, reasons for being sent, whether it’s a repeating crime or not, type of intelligence test, results revealed by forensic medicine and department of mental and neurological disorders. When children pushed to crime examined in terms of their crimes, the most common type of crime was identified as theft (n = 24). The crimes with 19 physical attacks and 12 sexual abuse were seen. Following that other 12 crimes were determined as damage to property, hemp crop, insult, incitement to crime, forgery of private documents, illegal excavation, threatening, involuntary manslaughter. The alleged crimes in 6 cases were more than one. The children pushed to crime are one of the major social problems of many countries. In this sense, it is not only the responsibility of government agencies to protect children pushed to crime, also, the civil society organizations should take place in this struggle.

Keywords: delinquent behaviour, forensic medicine, crime, punishment

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9 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Prestress on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Conglomerate Based on 3D-SHPB System

Authors: Wei Jun, Liao Hualin, Wang Huajian, Chen Jingkai, Liang Hongjun, Liu Chuanfu


Kuqa Piedmont is rich in oil and gas resources and has great development potential in Tarim Basin, China. However, there is a huge thick gravel layer developed with high content, wide distribution and variation in size of gravel, leading to the condition of strong heterogeneity. So that, the drill string is in a state of severe vibration and the drill bit is worn seriously while drilling, which greatly reduces the rock-breaking efficiency, and there is a complex load state of impact and three-dimensional in-situ stress acting on the rock in the bottom hole. The dynamic mechanical properties and the influencing factors of conglomerate, the main component of gravel layer, are the basis of engineering design and efficient rock breaking method and theoretical research. Limited by the previously experimental technique, there are few works published yet about conglomerate, especially rare in dynamic load. Based on this, a kind of 3D SHPB system, three-dimensional prestress, can be applied to simulate the in-situ stress characteristics, is adopted for the dynamic test of the conglomerate. The results show that the dynamic strength is higher than its static strength obviously, and while the three-dimensional prestress is 0 and the loading strain rate is 81.25~228.42 s-1, the true triaxial equivalent strength is 167.17~199.87 MPa, and the strong growth factor of dynamic and static is 1.61~1.92. And the higher the impact velocity, the greater the loading strain rate, the higher the dynamic strength and the greater the failure strain, which all increase linearly. There is a critical prestress in the impact direction and its vertical direction. In the impact direction, while the prestress is less than the critical one, the dynamic strength and the loading strain rate increase linearly; otherwise, the strength decreases slightly and the strain rate decreases rapidly. In the vertical direction of impact load, the strength increases and the strain rate decreases linearly before the critical prestress, after that, oppositely. The dynamic strength of the conglomerate can be reduced properly by reducing the amplitude of impact load so that the service life of rock-breaking tools can be prolonged while drilling in the stratum rich in gravel. The research has important reference significance for the speed-increasing technology and theoretical research while drilling in gravel layer.

Keywords: huge thick gravel layer, conglomerate, 3D SHPB, dynamic strength, the deformation characteristics, prestress

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8 Automatic Staging and Subtype Determination for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using PET Image Texture Analysis

Authors: Seyhan Karaçavuş, Bülent Yılmaz, Ömer Kayaaltı, Semra İçer, Arzu Taşdemir, Oğuzhan Ayyıldız, Kübra Eset, Eser Kaya


In this study, our goal was to perform tumor staging and subtype determination automatically using different texture analysis approaches for a very common cancer type, i.e., non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Especially, we introduced a texture analysis approach, called Law’s texture filter, to be used in this context for the first time. The 18F-FDG PET images of 42 patients with NSCLC were evaluated. The number of patients for each tumor stage, i.e., I-II, III or IV, was 14. The patients had ~45% adenocarcinoma (ADC) and ~55% squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCs). MATLAB technical computing language was employed in the extraction of 51 features by using first order statistics (FOS), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), and Laws’ texture filters. The feature selection method employed was the sequential forward selection (SFS). Selected textural features were used in the automatic classification by k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). In the automatic classification of tumor stage, the accuracy was approximately 59.5% with k-NN classifier (k=3) and 69% with SVM (with one versus one paradigm), using 5 features. In the automatic classification of tumor subtype, the accuracy was around 92.7% with SVM one vs. one. Texture analysis of FDG-PET images might be used, in addition to metabolic parameters as an objective tool to assess tumor histopathological characteristics and in automatic classification of tumor stage and subtype.

Keywords: cancer stage, cancer cell type, non-small cell lung carcinoma, PET, texture analysis

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7 The Morphological and Morphometrical Evaluation of the Bores That Transmit Emissary Veins in Terms of Surgery

Authors: Fikri Turk, Sahika Pinar Akyer, Mevci Ozdemir, Mehmet Bulent Ozdemir, Ilgaz Akdogan


The complications such as bleeding, thrombosis and air embolism depend on injuries emissary veins is often encountered in surgery. Detailed descriptions of the mastoid foramen, occipital foramen, parietal foramen, posterior condylar canal and foramen vesalius are lacking in the literature. For this reason, the purpose of our study was to explore and represent the morphology and morphometry of these emissary foramina in order to prevent complications and to guide for surgeons. The present study was made on 60 dry human skull in the laboratories of Pamukkale University, Faculty of Medicine Department of Anatomy. After taken photograph of emissary foramens by Canon 650D professional camera, the evaluation and measurement’s these foramens made with Matlab program by computer. The overall prevalence of mastoid foramen was 90.52%, occipital foramen was 72.52%, parietal foramen was 42.85%, posterior condylar canal was 91.25% and foramen vesalius was 78.26%. The mean diameter of the mastoid foramen was 1.81±0.76 mm, occipital foramen was 1.20±0.25 mm, parietal foramen was 1.49±0.46 mm, posterior condylar canal was 2.83±1.33 mm and foramen vesalius was 1.74±0.60 mm. Distances between emissary foramina and fixed bony landmarks were measured. Emissary veins are important in clinic practice and surgical procedures because they act a route of spread of exracranial infection to the intracranial structures and these veins may be a significant bleeding during surgery of the skull and they can be source of thrombosis and air embolism. The detailed anatomical knowledge of these veins and foraminas may help to prevent complications and to guide for surgeons.

Keywords: emissary foramina, mastoid foramen, occipital foramen, parietal foramen, posterior condylar canal, foramen vesalius, morphology, morphometry

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6 A Decision Making Tool for Selecting the Most Environmental Friendly Wastewater Treatment Plant for Small-Scale Communities

Authors: Mehmet Bulent Topkaya, Mustafa Yildirim


Wastewater treatment systems are designed and used to minimize adverse impacts of the wastewater on the environment before discharging. Various treatment options for wastewater treatment have been developed, and each of them has different performance characteristics and environmental impacts (e.g. material and land usage, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission, water and soil emission) during construction, operation or maintenance phases. Assessing the environmental impacts during these phases are essential for the overall evaluation of the treatment systems. In this study, wastewater treatment options, such as vegetated land treatment, constructed wetland, rotating biological contactor, conventional activated sludge treatment, membrane bioreactor, extended aeration and stabilization pond are evaluated. The comparison of the environmental impacts is conducted under the assumption that the effluents will be discharged to sensitive and less sensitive areas respectively. The environmental impacts of each alternative are evaluated by life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. For this purpose, data related to energy usage, land requirement, raw material consumption, and released emissions from the life phases were collected with inventory studies based on field studies and literature. The environmental impacts were assessed by using SimaPro 7.1 LCA software. As the scale of the LCA results is global, an MS-Excel based decision support tool that includes the LCA result is developed in order to meet also the local demands. Using this tool, it is possible to assign weight factors on the LCA results according to local conditions by using Analytical Hierarchy Process and finally the most environmentally appropriate treatment option can be selected.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, decision support system, life cycle assessment, wastewater treatment

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5 A Hybrid Watermarking Scheme Using Discrete and Discrete Stationary Wavelet Transformation For Color Images

Authors: Bülent Kantar, Numan Ünaldı


This paper presents a new method which includes robust and invisible digital watermarking on images that is colored. Colored images are used as watermark. Frequency region is used for digital watermarking. Discrete wavelet transform and discrete stationary wavelet transform are used for frequency region transformation. Low, medium and high frequency coefficients are obtained by applying the two-level discrete wavelet transform to the original image. Low frequency coefficients are obtained by applying one level discrete stationary wavelet transform separately to all frequency coefficient of the two-level discrete wavelet transformation of the original image. For every low frequency coefficient obtained from one level discrete stationary wavelet transformation, watermarks are added. Watermarks are added to all frequency coefficients of two-level discrete wavelet transform. Totally, four watermarks are added to original image. In order to get back the watermark, the original and watermarked images are applied with two-level discrete wavelet transform and one level discrete stationary wavelet transform. The watermark is obtained from difference of the discrete stationary wavelet transform of the low frequency coefficients. A total of four watermarks are obtained from all frequency of two-level discrete wavelet transform. Obtained watermark results are compared with real watermark results, and a similarity result is obtained. A watermark is obtained from the highest similarity values. Proposed methods of watermarking are tested against attacks of the geometric and image processing. The results show that proposed watermarking method is robust and invisible. All features of frequencies of two level discrete wavelet transform watermarking are combined to get back the watermark from the watermarked image. Watermarks have been added to the image by converting the binary image. These operations provide us with better results in getting back the watermark from watermarked image by attacking of the geometric and image processing.

Keywords: watermarking, DWT, DSWT, copy right protection, RGB

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4 Stress Concentration and Strength Prediction of Carbon/Epoxy Composites

Authors: Emre Ozaslan, Bulent Acar, Mehmet Ali Guler


Unidirectional composites are very popular structural materials used in aerospace, marine, energy and automotive industries thanks to their superior material properties. However, the mechanical behavior of composite materials is more complicated than isotropic materials because of their anisotropic nature. Also, a stress concentration availability on the structure, like a hole, makes the problem further complicated. Therefore, enormous number of tests require to understand the mechanical behavior and strength of composites which contain stress concentration. Accurate finite element analysis and analytical models enable to understand mechanical behavior and predict the strength of composites without enormous number of tests which cost serious time and money. In this study, unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy composite specimens with central circular hole were investigated in terms of stress concentration factor and strength prediction. The composite specimens which had different specimen wide (W) to hole diameter (D) ratio were tested to investigate the effect of hole size on the stress concentration and strength. Also, specimens which had same specimen wide to hole diameter ratio, but varied sizes were tested to investigate the size effect. Finite element analysis was performed to determine stress concentration factor for all specimen configurations. For quasi-isotropic laminate, it was found that the stress concentration factor increased approximately %15 with decreasing of W/D ratio from 6 to 3. Point stress criteria (PSC), inherent flaw method and progressive failure analysis were compared in terms of predicting the strength of specimens. All methods could predict the strength of specimens with maximum %8 error. PSC was better than other methods for high values of W/D ratio, however, inherent flaw method was successful for low values of W/D. Also, it is seen that increasing by 4 times of the W/D ratio rises the failure strength of composite specimen as %62.4. For constant W/D ratio specimens, all the strength prediction methods were more successful for smaller size specimens than larger ones. Increasing the specimen width and hole diameter together by 2 times reduces the specimen failure strength as %13.2.

Keywords: failure, strength, stress concentration, unidirectional composites

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3 Investigating the Sloshing Characteristics of a Liquid by Using an Image Processing Method

Authors: Ufuk Tosun, Reza Aghazadeh, Mehmet Bülent Özer


This study puts forward a method to analyze the sloshing characteristics of liquid in a tuned sloshing absorber system by using image processing tools. Tuned sloshing vibration absorbers have recently attracted researchers’ attention as a seismic load damper in constructions due to its practical and logistical convenience. The absorber is liquid which sloshes and applies a force in opposite phase to the motion of structure. Experimentally characterization of the sloshing behavior can be utilized as means of verifying the results of numerical analysis. It can also be used to identify the accuracy of assumptions related to the motion of the liquid. There are extensive theoretical and experimental studies in the literature related to the dynamical and structural behavior of tuned sloshing dampers. In most of these works there are efforts to estimate the sloshing behavior of the liquid such as free surface motion and total force applied by liquid to the wall of container. For these purposes the use of sensors such as load cells and ultrasonic sensors are prevalent in experimental works. Load cells are only capable of measuring the force and requires conducting tests both with and without liquid to obtain pure sloshing force. Ultrasonic level sensors give point-wise measurements and hence they are not applicable to measure the whole free surface motion. Furthermore, in the case of liquid splashing it may give incorrect data. In this work a method for evaluating the sloshing wave height by using camera records and image processing techniques is presented. In this method the motion of the liquid and its container, made of a transparent material, is recorded by a high speed camera which is aligned to the free surface of the liquid. The video captured by the camera is processed frame by frame by using MATLAB Image Processing toolbox. The process starts with cropping the desired region. By recognizing the regions containing liquid and eliminating noise and liquid splashing, the final picture depicting the free surface of liquid is achieved. This picture then is used to obtain the height of the liquid through the length of container. This process is verified by ultrasonic sensors that measured fluid height on the surface of liquid.

Keywords: fluid structure interaction, image processing, sloshing, tuned liquid damper

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2 Visitor Management in the National Parks: Recreational Carrying Capacity Assessment of Çıralı Coast, Turkey

Authors: Tendü H. Göktuğ, Gönül T. İçemer, Bülent Deniz


National parks, which are rich in natural and cultural resources values are protected in the context of the idea to develop sustainability, are among the most important recreated areas demanding with each passing day. Increasing recreational use or unplanned use forms negatively affect the resource values and visitor satisfaction. The intent of national parks management is to protect the natural and cultural resource values and to provide the visitors with a quality of recreational experience, as well. In this context, the current studies to improve the appropriate tourism and recreation planning and visitor management, approach have focused on recreational carrying capacity analysis. The aim of this study is to analyze recreational carrying capacity of Çıralı Coast in the Bey Mountains Coastal National Park to compare the analyze results with the current usage format and to develop alternative management strategies. In the first phase of the study, the annual and daily visitations, geographic, bio-physical, and managerial characteristics of the park and the type of recreational usage and the recreational areas were analyzed. In addition to these, ecological observations were carried out in order to determine recreational-based pressures on the ecosystems. On-site questionnaires were administrated to a sample of 284 respondents in the August 2015 - 2016 to collect data concerning the demographics and visit characteristics. The second phase of the study, the coastal area separated into four different usage zones and the methodology proposed by Cifuentes (1992) was used for capacity analyses. This method supplies the calculation of physical, real and effective carrying capacities by using environmental, ecological, climatic and managerial parameters in a formulation. Expected numbers which estimated three levels of carrying capacities were compared to current numbers of national parks’ visitors. In the study, it was determined that the current recreational uses in the north of the beach were caused by ecological pressures, and the current numbers in the south of beach much more than estimated numbers of visitors. Based on these results management strategies were defined and the appropriate management tools were developed in accordance with these strategies. The authors are grateful for the financial support of this project by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (No: 114O344)

Keywords: Çıralı Coast, national parks, recreational carrying capacity, visitor management

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1 Comparison of the Chest X-Ray and Computerized Tomography Scans Requested from the Emergency Department

Authors: Sahabettin Mete, Abdullah C. Hocagil, Hilal Hocagil, Volkan Ulker, Hasan C. Taskin


Objectives and Goals: An emergency department is a place where people can come for a multitude of reasons 24 hours a day. As it is an easy, accessible place, thanks to self-sacrificing people who work in emergency departments. But the workload and overcrowding of emergency departments are increasing day by day. Under these circumstances, it is important to choose a quick, easily accessible and effective test for diagnosis. This results in laboratory and imaging tests being more than 40% of all emergency department costs. Despite all of the technological advances in imaging methods and available computerized tomography (CT), chest X-ray, the older imaging method, has not lost its appeal and effectiveness for nearly all emergency physicians. Progress in imaging methods are very convenient, but physicians should consider the radiation dose, cost, and effectiveness, as well as imaging methods to be carefully selected and used. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of chest X-ray in immediate diagnosis against the advancing technology by comparing chest X-ray and chest CT scan results of the patients in the emergency department. Methods: Patients who applied to Bulent Ecevit University Faculty of Medicine’s emergency department were investigated retrospectively in between 1 September 2014 and 28 February 2015. Data were obtained via MIAMED (Clear Canvas Image Server v6.2, Toronto, Canada), information management system which patients’ files are saved electronically in the clinic, and were retrospectively scanned. The study included 199 patients who were 18 or older, had both chest X-ray and chest CT imaging. Chest X-ray images were evaluated by the emergency medicine senior assistant in the emergency department, and the findings were saved to the study form. CT findings were obtained from already reported data by radiology department in the clinic. Chest X-ray was evaluated with seven questions in terms of technique and dose adequacy. Patients’ age, gender, application complaints, comorbid diseases, vital signs, physical examination findings, diagnosis, chest X-ray findings and chest CT findings were evaluated. Data saved and statistical analyses have made via using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. And the value of p < 0.05 were accepted statistically significant. Results: 199 patients were included in the study. In 38,2% (n=76) of all patients were diagnosed with pneumonia and it was the most common diagnosis. The chest X-ray imaging technique was appropriate in patients with the rate of 31% (n=62) of all patients. There was not any statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between both imaging methods (chest X-ray and chest CT) in terms of determining the rates of displacement of the trachea, pneumothorax, parenchymal consolidation, increased cardiothoracic ratio, lymphadenopathy, diaphragmatic hernia, free air levels in the abdomen (in sections including the image), pleural thickening, parenchymal cyst, parenchymal mass, parenchymal cavity, parenchymal atelectasis and bone fractures. Conclusions: When imaging findings, showing cases that needed to be quickly diagnosed, were investigated, chest X-ray and chest CT findings were matched at a high rate in patients with an appropriate imaging technique. However, chest X-rays, evaluated in the emergency department, were frequently taken with an inappropriate technique.

Keywords: chest x-ray, chest computerized tomography, chest imaging, emergency department

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