Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Asko Ellman

3 An Experimental Investigation on Productivity and Performance of an Improved Design of Basin Type Solar Still

Authors: Mahmoud S. El-Sebaey, Asko Ellman, Ahmed Hegazy, Tarek Ghonim

Abstract:

Due to population growth, the need for drinkable healthy water is highly increased. Consequently, and since the conventional sources of water are limited, researchers devoted their efforts to oceans and seas for obtaining fresh drinkable water by thermal distillation. The current work is dedicated to the design and fabrication of modified solar still model, as well as conventional solar still for the sake of comparison. The modified still is single slope double basin solar still. The still consists of a lower basin with a dimension of 1000 mm x 1000 mm which contains the sea water, as well as the top basin that made with 4 mm acrylic, was temporarily kept on the supporting strips permanently fixed with the side walls. Equally ten spaced vertical glass strips of 50 mm height and 3 mm thickness were provided at the upper basin for the stagnancy of the water. Window glass of 3 mm was used as the transparent cover with 23° inclination at the top of the still. Furthermore, the performance evaluation and comparison of these two models in converting salty seawater into drinkable freshwater are introduced, analyzed and discussed. The experiments were performed during the period from June to July 2018 at seawater depths of 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. Additionally, the solar still models were operated simultaneously in the same climatic conditions to analyze the influence of the modifications on the freshwater output. It can be concluded that the modified design of double basin single slope solar still shows the maximum freshwater output at all water depths tested. The results showed that the daily productivity for modified and conventional solar still was 2.9 and 1.8 dm³/m² day, indicating an increase of 60% in fresh water production.

Keywords: freshwater output, solar still, solar energy, thermal desalination

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2 The Inhibitory Effect of Riceberry Rice Extract on Acetylcholinesterase Activity

Authors: Yaiprae Chatree, Tawan Chaiwon, Rodjana Chunhabundit, Kritsana Piriyawatcharakon, Waralai Ratwiset, Sasiwimol Chaiya

Abstract:

The world is facing a serious situation of aging society. Elderly may have many physical health problems due to degenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Riceberry rice relatively contain high levels of carbohydrate, vitamin E, -oryzanol, and also abundant of bioactive compound of anthocyanin. This study aimed to determine the inhibitory effect of Riceberry rice crude extract on acetylcholinesterase activity. The active compound was extracted by using 70% ethanol (v/v). The inhibitory effect of Riceberry rice on acetylcholinesterase was evaluated by using slightly modified method of Ellman’s method. The 120 seconds time interval of kinetics measurement showed that Riceberry rice extract at concentrations of 2.5-12.5 mg/ml presented the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity at the statistically significant difference at p  0.05 compared to control group over 60 -120 seconds. At the concentrations of 10 and 12.5 mg/ml of Riceberry rice extract expressed the high percentage of inhibitory activity of 50.86 and 71.22%, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Riceberry rice extract; considered to the end point, was found at concentration of 9.34 mg/ml. The physostigmine (positive control); however, showed a higher inhibitory capacity than that of Riceberry rice extract. The inhibitory activity of the positive control group was around at 80.40 – 90.41%. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that Riceberry rice extract possessed the inhibitory capacity of acetylcholinesterase activity. Moreover, at the concentrations of 12.5 mg/ml it showed the identical inhibitory effect with physostigmine group. The Riceberry rice extract might be able to alleviate the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, Alzheimer's disease, riceberry rice

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1 Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of 4-(Phenylsulfonamido)Benzamide Derivatives as Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Authors: Sushil Kumar Singh, Ashok Kumar, Ankit Ganeshpurkar, Ravi Singh, Devendra Kumar

Abstract:

In spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of amyloid β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. It results in cognitive and memory impairment due to loss of cholinergic neurons, which is considered to be one of the contributing factors. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor which also inhibits butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and improves the memory and brain’s cognitive functions, is the most successful and prescribed drug to treat the symptoms of AD. The present work is based on designing of the selective BuChE inhibitors using computational techniques. In this work, machine learning models were trained using classification algorithms followed by screening of diverse chemical library of compounds. The various molecular modelling and simulation techniques were used to obtain the virtual hits. The amide derivatives of 4-(phenylsulfonamido) benzoic acid were synthesized and characterized using 1H & 13C NMR, FTIR and mass spectrometry. The enzyme inhibition assays were performed on equine plasma BuChE and electric eel’s AChE by method developed by Ellman et al. Compounds 31, 34, 37, 42, 49, 52 and 54 were found to be active against equine BuChE. N-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide and N-(2-bromophenyl)-4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide (compounds 34 and 37) displayed IC50 of 61.32 ± 7.21 and 42.64 ± 2.17 nM against equine plasma BuChE. Ortho-substituted derivatives were more active against BuChE. Further, the ortho-halogen and ortho-alkyl substituted derivatives were found to be most active among all with minimal AChE inhibition. The compounds were selective toward BuChE.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, butyrylcholinesterase, machine learning, sulfonamides

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