Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 459

Search results for: Asian Americans

459 Cultural Boundaries and Mental Health Stigma: A Systemic Review of Interventions to Reduce Opposition of Mental Health Services in Asian American Families

Authors: Tanya L. Patimeteeporn, Murali D. Nair


There is a wide range of literature that suggests the factors that prevent Asian American families from utilizing mental health services. These factors arise from a combination of cultural perceptions of mental illness, and methods of treating them without the use of a mental health professional. Due to the increased awareness of Asian Americans’ stigmatization to mental health, there has been an effort to create culturally competent interventions for Asian American families that would reduce opposition to mental health services. Assessment of the effectiveness of these interventions reveals practices that integrate traditional healing methods with psychoeducation are more likely to promote receptiveness of mental health services by Asian American families. The documentary in this review, demonstrates these traditional healing methods from various ethnic enclaves in Los Angeles. In addition, mental health professionals who provide these interventions to Asian American families need to consider culture-bound syndromes and the various Asian health philosophies and belief systems in order to provide a culturally sensitive holistic treatment for their clients. However, because the literature on these interventions is limited, there is a need for a larger body of evidence to accurately assess the effectiveness of these culturally competent psychoeducation interventions.

Keywords: Asian American, cultural boundaries, intervention, mental health stigma, psychoeducation, traditional healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
458 The Quest for Identity among African Americans: Life History of Imahkus Nzinga

Authors: Felicia Masenu


Identity formation remains central to diaspora populations as they are known to have multiple attachments to places, including the 'ancestral homeland.' This paper emphasizes the potency of the ancestral homeland in the imagination of diaspora populations and a 'yearning' for an eventual return. This has led to the repatriation and visits of many Diasporan Africans to Africa. What have also been highlighted are the motivations, experiences, and challenges associated with the return of African Americans to Africa, as well as some of the idealistic expectations that Diasporan Africans have regarding the ancestral homeland. When Diasporan Africans visit Africa, they are faced with different kinds of situations that are challenging. Yet, the number of visits to Africa by Diasporan Africans, particularly, African Americans, keep increasing. This paper draws on the life history of Imahkus Nzinga, an African American who repatriated to Ghana in the 1990s, as a case study of African Americans’ relentless quest to pursue the ancestral homeland, despite the challenges involved. The paper argues that the quest for identity construction remains the overriding motivation for African Americans in their decision to repatriate to Africa, and discusses how in this case, Imahkus Nzinga attempts to reconcile what is called in this paper 'identity struggle.'

Keywords: African Americans, Diaspora, identity formation, identity struggle, repatriation

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457 Comparing Media-Based Strategies of Identity Formation in Chicanos and Cuban-Americans

Authors: Kwang Yeon Kim


This paper will explore the directly proportional relationship between the influence of Hispanophone media in U.S. markets and Hispanic population growth. Though this growth has origins across south and central America, in U.S. media markets Mexican and Cuban immigrants, have traditionally been considered the most influential. Having endured significant historical discrimination, disparagement, and ethnic framing from conventional Anglophone media, such groups have sought to form their own identities as media consuming and producing Americans of Latin American origin. Although immigrants to the U.S. have traditionally faced obstacles in access to education, children of Mexican-Americans (Chicanos) and Cuban-Americans have made significant progress in overcoming these obstacles, partly explaining their media dominance. This is particularly true in the case of Cuban-Americans, for whom such media presence is not predicted by share of population. By conducting comparative studies of Chicano media and Cuban-Americans media, common ground was found in strategies of reliance on media-driven identity formation. In contrast to the mainstream media portrayal of Latino/as with limiting, negative stereotypes, Spanish-language media’s goal is to form the identity of being Latino for those living in the United States. Providing both news from countries of origin and local news within the United States, Chicano and Cuban-American media performs rituals of recollection while rooting such populations in more proximate media paradigms.

Keywords: Chicano identity, Cuban-Americans, Hispanophone media, Latino/a community

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
456 Diagnosis and Management of Obesity Among South Asians: A Paradigm

Authors: Deepa Vasudevan, Thomas Northrup, Angela Stotts, Michelle Klawans


To date, we have conducted three studies on this subject. The research done to date is through three studies. The initial study was to document that modified criteria independently identified higher numbers of overweight/obese South Asian Indians. The second study was to document physician knowledge of appropriate diagnosis of obesity among South Asian Indians. The final study was an intervention to evaluate the efficacy of a training module on improving physician diagnosis and counseling of overweight/obese Asian patients.

Keywords: South Asian Indians, obesity, physicians, BMI and waist circumference

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
455 The Impact of Government Expenditure on Economic Growth: A Study of Asian Countries

Authors: K. P. K. S. Lahirushan, W. G. V. Gunasekara


Main purpose of this study is to identifying the impact of government expenditure on economic growth in Asian Countries. Consequently, Fist, objective is to analyze whether government expenditure causes economic growth in Asian countries vice versa and then scrutinizing long-run equilibrium relationship exists between them. The study completely based on secondary data. The methodology being quantitative that includes econometrical techniques of cointegration, panel fixed effects model and granger causality in the context of panel data of Asian countries; Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, South Korea, Japan, China, Sri Lanka, India and Bhutan with 44 observations in each country, totaling to 396 observations from 1970 to 2013. The model used is the random effects panel OLS model. As with the above methodology, the study found the fascinating outcome. At first, empirical findings exhibit a momentous positive impact of government expenditure on Gross Domestic Production in Asian region. Secondly, government expenditure and economic growth indicate a long-run relationship in Asian countries. In conclusion, there is a unidirectional causality from economic growth to government expenditure and government expenditure to economic growth in Asian countries. Hence the study is validated that it is in line with the Keynesian theory and Wagner’s law as well. Consequently, it can be concluded that role of government would play a vital role in economic growth of Asian Countries .However; if government expenditure did not figure out with the economy’s needs it might be considerably inspiration the economy in a negative way so that society bears the costs.

Keywords: Asian countries, government expenditure, Keynesian theory, Wagner’s theory, random effects panel ols model

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
454 Trajectories of PTSD from 2-3 Years to 5-6 Years among Asian Americans after the World Trade Center Attack

Authors: Winnie Kung, Xinhua Liu, Debbie Huang, Patricia Kim, Keon Kim, Xiaoran Wang, Lawrence Yang


Considerable Asian Americans were exposed to the World Trade Center attack due to the proximity of the site to Chinatown and a sizeable number of South Asians working in the collapsed and damaged buildings nearby. Few studies focused on Asians in examining the disaster’s mental health impact, and even less longitudinal studies were reported beyond the first couple of years after the event. Based on the World Trade Center Health Registry, this study examined the trajectory of PTSD of individuals directly exposed to the attack from 2-3 to 5-6 years after the attack, comparing Asians against the non-Hispanic White group. Participants included 2,431 Asians and 31,455 Whites. Trajectories were delineated into the resilient, chronic, delayed-onset and remitted groups using PTSD checklist cut-off score at 44 at the 2 waves. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare the poorer trajectories against the resilient as a reference group, using predictors of baseline sociodemographic, exposure to the disaster, lower respiratory symptoms and previous depression/anxiety disorder diagnosis, and recruitment source as the control variable. Asians had significant lower socioeconomic status in terms of income, education and employment status compared to Whites. Over 3/4 of participants from both races were resilient, though slightly less for Asians than Whites (76.5% vs 79.8%). Asians had a higher proportion with chronic PTSD (8.6% vs 7.4%) and remission (5.9% vs 3.4%) than Whites. A considerable proportion of participants had delayed-onset in both races (9.1% Asians vs 9.4% Whites). The distribution of trajectories differed significantly by race (p<0.0001) with Asians faring poorer. For Asians, in the chronic vs resilient group, significant protective factors included age >65, annual household income >$50,000, and never married vs married/cohabiting; risk factors were direct disaster exposure, job loss due to 9/11, lost someone, and tangible loss; lower respiratory symptoms and previous mental disorder diagnoses. Similar protective and risk factors were noted for the delayed-onset group, except education being protective; and being an immigrant a risk. Between the 2 comparisons, the chronic group was more vulnerable than the delayed-onset as expected. It should also be noted that in both comparisons, Asians’ current employment status had no significant impact on their PTSD trajectory. Comparing between Asians against Whites, the direction of the relationships between the predictors and the PTSD trajectories were mostly the same, although more factors were significant for Whites than for Asians. A few factors showed significant racial difference: Higher risk for lower respiratory symptoms for Whites than Asians, higher risk for pre-9/11 mental disorder diagnosis for Asians than Whites, and immigrant a risk factor for the remitted vs resilient groups for Whites but not for Asians. Over 17% Asians still suffered from PTSD 5-6 years after the WTC attack signified its persistent impact which incurred substantial human, social and economic costs. The more disadvantaged socioeconomic status of Asians rendered them more vulnerable in their mental health trajectories relative to Whites. Together with their well-documented low tendency to seek mental health help, outreach effort to this population is needed to ensure follow-up treatment and prevention.

Keywords: PTSD, Asian Americans, World Trade Center Attack, racial differences

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453 On the Path of Radicalization: Policing of Muslim Americans Post 9/11

Authors: Hagar Elsayed


This case study examines the framing of the diverse populations of Arab, Muslim and South Asian immigrants and their descendants in local communities by both federal and local law enforcement agencies. It explores how urban spaces and policing are constructed as necessary components of national security in the context of the war on terror by focusing on practices employed in local spaces such as Dearborn, Michigan and training methods adopted on a national level. The proliferation of American Arabs as ‘terrorist’ works to legitimize not only increasing state surveillance, but also military strategies which infringe on ‘inside’ spaces. Sustaining these progressively militarized civil policing operations, which demand intense mobilization of state power, requires that whole neighborhoods and districts are reimagined to portray these geographies in a certain light. This case study is central in understanding how Arab, South Asian, and Muslim civilians’ transformation into a “national security” issue have created militarized police enforcement agencies that employ military tactics to map the terrain of Otherness. This study looks at how race factors into key recent incidents, and asks whether this militarization builds from past forms of racist policing, and whether these specific incidents are reflective of larger patterns or whether they are just isolated incidents.

Keywords: American-Muslims, Arabs, militarization, policing

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
452 A Study on Children's Literature for Multiracial Asian American Children

Authors: Kaori Mori Want


American society is a racially diverse society and there are children books that tell the importance of respecting racial differences. Through reading books, children understand the world around them little by little along with their direct interaction with the world in reality. They find role models in books, strive to be like role models, and grow confidence in who they are. Books thus nurture the mind of children. On the other hand, because of their small presence, children books for multiracial Asian American children are scarce. Multiracial Asian American population is increasing but they are still minority in number. The lack of children’s books for these children may deprive the opportunities of them to embrace their multiraciality positively because they cannot find someone like them in any books. Children books for multiracial Asian American are still not that many, but a few have been being published recently. This paper introduces children books for multiracial Asian American children, and examines how they address issues pertaining to these children, and how they could nurture their self-esteem. Many states of the US used to ban interracial marriages and interracial families and their children once were discriminated against in American society. There was even a theory called the hybrid degeneracy theory which claimed that mixed race children were inferior mentally and physically. In this negative social environment, some multiracial Asian American people report that they had trouble embracing their multiracial identity positively. Yet, children books for these children are full of positive messages. This paper will argue the importance of children books for the mental growth of multiracial Asian American children, and how these books can contribute to the development of multiculturalism in the US in general.

Keywords: critical mixed race studies in the US, hapa children literature, interracial marriage, multiraciality

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
451 Examination of Predictive Factors of Depression among Asian American Adolescents: A Narrative Review

Authors: Annisa Siu, Ping Zou


Background: Existent literature addressing Asian American children and adolescents reveals that this population is experiencing rates of depression comparable to those of European American and other ethnic minority youths. Within the last decade, increased attention has been given to Asian American adolescent mental health. Methods: 44 articles were extracted from Pubmed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Proquest CINAHL. Data were subject to thematic analyses and categorized into factors under individual, familial, and community levels. Results: Of all the individual factors, age and gender were the most supported in their relationship with depressive symptoms. Likewise, living situations, parent-child relations, peer relations, and broader environmental factors were strongly evidenced. The remaining psychosocial factors faced contrary evidence or were insubstantially addressed in the empirical literature. Discussion: The identified psychosocial factors within this study offer a starting point for future research to examine what factors should be included in formal or informal methods of screening/consultations. Clinicians should aim to understand the cultural influences specific to Asian American adolescents, particularly the central role that family relations may have on their depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Low awareness of culturally linked expressions of psychological distress can lead to misdiagnosis or under-diagnosis of depression in Asian American youth. Further evidence is needed to clarify the relationship of psychosocial factors linked to Asian American adolescent depressive symptoms.

Keywords: adolescent, Asian American, depression, psychosocial factors

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450 The Meaning in Life and the Content of Mental Images of Temporal Mental Simulations in Poles and Americans

Authors: Katarzyna Pasternak


Experiencing the meaning of life is widely recognised as a vital element of well-being and central human motivation. Studies have shown that a higher meaning of life is associated, among other things, with a higher quality of life, higher levels of happiness and better declared health. The subject of the study is the meaning in life measured with The Meaning in Life Questionnaire and the presence of such emotions as nostalgia, awe and hope, and the content of imaginations measured after temporal mental simulations in Americans and Poles. The respondents had to imagine themselves in future, in 40 years and describe two events that would take place at that time. Next, participants assessed the importance of the events described by them, recognised whether during their journey through time they felt awe, hope and nostalgia, and answered the questionnaire examining the meaning in life. 204 (102 from Poland 102 from the USA ) people aged 21 to 60 participated in the study. The study checked whether there were differences in the content of the imaginations of the respondents from Poland and USA, and whether there were statistically significant difference between the declared sense of meaning in life among participants from both countries. The result of the study hane shown that there were no differences in the overall result obtained by the participants in The Meaning in Life Questionnaire , while there were statistically significant differences among the subscales of the questionnaire. It turned out that Americans have a higher presence of meaning in life than Poles, but they obtained lower results in searching of meaning in life. Studies have also shown that there was a statistically significant difference between Poles and Americans in feeling awe after a mental simulation. Poles felt higher level of awe. Images about the future differed between Poles and Americans. Poles judged that the events they described were very important to them. Interestingly, the content of American participants’ imaginations was dominated by topics related to the future of the world, ecology and world peace. There were also ideas about nice moments spent with friends and family. Among Poles, ideas related to professional career and development as well as family events dominated. Research shows that despite the lack of differences in the general meaning in life, Poles are more focused on searching for meaning in life than Americans. The study shows interesting differences between the two cultures.

Keywords: meaning in life, mental simulations, imaginations, temporal mental simulations, future, cultural differences

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449 Differences in Vitamin D Status in Caucasian and Asian Women Following Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) Exposure

Authors: O. Hakim, K. Hart, P. McCabe, J. Berry, L. E. Rhodes, N. Spyrou, A. Alfuraih, S. Lanham-New


It is known that skin pigmentation reduces the penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and thus photosynthesis of 25(OH)D. However, the ethnic differences in 25(OH)D production remain to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the differences in vitamin D production between Asian and Caucasian postmenopausal women, in response to a defined, controlled UVB exposure. Seventeen women; nine white Caucasian (skin phototype II and III), eight South Asian women (skin phototype IV and V) participated in the study, acting as their controls. Three blood samples were taken for measurement of 25(OH)D during the run-in period (nine days, no sunbed exposure) after which all subjects underwent an identical UVR exposure protocol irrespective of skin colour (nine days, three sunbed sessions: 6, 8 and 8 minutes respectively with approximately 80% of body surface exposed). Skin tone was measured four times during the study. Both groups showed a gradual increase in 25(OH)D with final levels significantly higher than baseline (p<0.01). 25(OH)D concentration mean from a baseline of 43.58±19.65 to 57.80±17.11 nmol/l among Caucasian and from 27.03±23.92 to 44.73±17.74 nmol/l among Asian women. The baseline status of vitamin D was classified as deficient among the Asian women and insufficient among the Caucasian women. The percentage increase in vitamin D3 among Caucasians was 39.86% (21.02) and 207.78% (286.02) in Asian subjects respectively. This greater response to UVR exposure reflects the lower baseline levels of the Asian subjects. The mixed linear model analysis identified a significant effect of duration of UVR exposure on the production of 25(OH)D. However, the model shows no significant effect of ethnicity and skin tone on the production of 25(OH)D. These novel findings indicate that people of Asian ethnicity have the full capability to produce a similar amount of vitamin D compared to the Caucasian group; initial vitamin D concentration influences the amount of UVB needed to reach equal serum concentrations.

Keywords: ethnicity, Caucasian, South Asian, vitamin D, ultraviolet radiation, UVR

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448 Soy Candle vs Paraffin Candle

Authors: Otana A. Jakpor


Air pollution is without a doubt one of the gravest environmental threats the world is facing today in terms of its sheer toll on human lives. Each year an estimated 70,000 Americans lose their lives to air pollution -- a number equal to deaths from both breast and prostate cancer combined. Since Americans spend nearly 90% of their time indoors, more research is needed on indoor air pollution and common exposures such as candles. Paraffin wax is a by-product of petroleum, and similarities have been observed between fine particulate emissions from paraffin candles and diesel exhaust. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not paraffin candles are a major potential source of indoor air pollution. Furthermore, this study aims to determine whether or not soy candles are a safer, cleaner alternative to paraffin candles.

Keywords: soy candle, soy, paraffin candle, paraffin

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
447 Analyzing the Impact of Global Financial Crisis on Interconnectedness of Asian Stock Markets Using Network Science

Authors: Jitendra Aswani


In the first section of this study, impact of Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on the synchronization of fourteen Asian Stock Markets (ASM’s) of countries like Hong Kong, India, Thailand, Singapore, Taiwan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, South Korea, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, China, Philippines and Sri Lanka, has been analysed using the network science and its metrics like degree of node, clustering coefficient and network density. Then in the second section of this study by introducing the US stock market in existing network and developing a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) spread of crisis from the US stock market to Asian Stock Markets (ASM) has been explained. Data used for this study is adjusted the closing price of these indices from 6th January, 2000 to 15th September, 2013 which further divided into three sub-periods: Pre, during and post-crisis. Using network analysis, it is found that Asian stock markets become more interdependent during the crisis than pre and post crisis, and also Hong Kong, India, South Korea and Japan are systemic important stock markets in the Asian region. Therefore, failure or shock to any of these systemic important stock markets can cause contagion to another stock market of this region. This study is useful for global investors’ in portfolio management especially during the crisis period and also for policy makers in formulating the financial regulation norms by knowing the connections between the stock markets and how the system of these stock markets changes in crisis period and after that.

Keywords: global financial crisis, Asian stock markets, network science, Kruskal algorithm

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446 Decomposing the Socio-Economic Inequalities in Utilization of Antenatal Care in South Asian Countries: Insight from Demographic and Health Survey

Authors: Jeetendra Yadav, Geetha Menon, Anita Pal, Rajkumar Verma


Even after encouraging maternal and child wellness programs at worldwide level, lower-middle income nations are not reached the goal set by the UN yet. This study quantified the contribution of socioeconomic determinants of inequality to the utilization of Antenatal Care in South Asian Countries. This study used data from Demographic Health Survey (DHS) of the selected countries were used, and Oaxaca decomposing were applied for socioeconomic inequalities in utilization of antenatal care. Finding from the multivariate analysis shows that mother’s age at the time of birth, birth order and interval, mother’s education, mass media exposure and economic status were significant determinants of the utilization of antenatal care services in South Asian countries. Considering, concentration index curve, the line of equity was greatest in Pakistan which followed by India and Nepal.

Keywords: antenatal care, decomposition, inequalities, South Asian countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
445 Economic Integration vs. Conflicts in Northeast Asia

Authors: Heeho Kim, Byeong-Hae Sohn


This study has examined the culture commonality of Northeast Asian countries based on Confucian values, and their relations to institutional economic integration. This study demonstrates that Confucian values inherent in the Northeast Asian countries have served as the cultural ethos for the rapid economic growth of this region since the 1960s and will be able to form the foundation of Northeast Asian values in the future. This paper re-appreciates these cultural values as a necessary condition for regional integration to catalyze the stagnated discussions about economic integration and extends its inter-weaving connection role for intra-regional transaction among China, Japan and Korea.

Keywords: Confucianism, Northeast Asia, economic integration, economic growth, regional conflicts

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444 A Comparative Study of Dividend Policy and Share Price across the South Asian Countries

Authors: Anwar Hussain, Ahmed Imran, Farida Faisal, Fatima Sultana


The present research evaluates a comparative assessment of dividend policy and share price across the South Asian countries including Pakistan, India and Sri-Lanka over the period of 2010 to 2014. Academic writers found that dividend policy and share price relationship is not same in south Asian market due to different reasons. Moreover, Panel Models used = for the evaluation of current study. In addition, Redundant fixed effect Likelihood and Hausman test used for determine of Common, Fixed and Random effect model. Therefore Indian market dividend policies play a fundamental role and significant impact on Market Share Prices. Although, present research found that different as compared to previous study that dividend policy have no impact on share price in Sri-Lanka and Pakistan.

Keywords: dividend policy, share price, South Asian countries, panel data analysis, theories and parameters of dividend

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443 Social Influences on Americans' Mask-Wearing Behavior during COVID-19

Authors: Ruoya Huang, Ruoxian Huang, Edgar Huang


Based on a convenience sample of 2,092 participants from across all 50 states of the United States, a survey was conducted to explore Americans’ mask-wearing behaviors during COVID-19 according to their political convictions, religious beliefs, and ethnic cultures from late July to early September, 2020. The purpose of the study is to provide evidential support for government policymaking so as to drive up more effective public policies by taking into consideration the variance in these social factors. It was found that the respondents’ party affiliation or preference, religious belief, and ethnicity, in addition to their health condition, gender, level of concern of contracting COVID-19, all affected their mask-wearing habits both in March, the initial coronavirus outbreak stage, and in August, when mask-wearing had been made mandatory by state governments. The study concludes that pandemic awareness campaigns must be run among all citizens, especially among African Americans, Muslims, and Republicans, who have the lowest rates of wearing masks, in order to protect themselves and others. It is recommended that complementary cognitive bias awareness programs should be implemented in non-Black and non-Muslim communities to eliminate social concerns that deter them from wearing masks.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, ethnicity, mask-wearing, policymaking implications, political affiliations, religious beliefs, United States

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
442 Positioning Analysis of Atlantic Canadian Provinces as Travel Destinations by Americans

Authors: Dongkoo Yun, Melissa James-MacEachern


This study analyzes Americans’ views of four Atlantic Canadian provinces as travel destinations regarding specific destination attributes for a pleasure trip, awareness (heard) of the destinations, past visit to the destinations during the prior two years, and intention to visit in the next two years. Results indicate that American travellers perceived the four Atlantic Canadian provinces as separate and distinct when rating best-fit destination attributes to each destination. The results suggest that travel destinations, specifically the four selected destinations, must be prepared to differentiate their destination’s image and the range of experiences and services to appeal and attract more American travellers.

Keywords: American perceptions, Atlantic Canadian provinces, competitiveness, positioning analysis

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441 Variations in Breast Aesthetic Reconstruction Rates between Asian and Caucasian Patients Post Mastectomy in a UK Tertiary Breast Referral Centre: A Five-Year Institutional Review

Authors: Wisam Ismail, Chole Wright, Elizabeth Baker, Cathy Tait, Mohamed Salhab, Richard Linforth


Background: Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction is an important treatment option for women with breast cancer with psychosocial, emotional and quality of life benefits. Despite this, Asian patients are one-fifth as likely as Caucasian patients to undergo reconstruction after mastectomy. Aim: This study aimed to assess the difference in breast reconstruction rates between Asian and Caucasian patients treated at Bradford Teaching Hospitals between May 2011 – December 2015.The long-term goal is to equip healthcare professionals to improve breast cancer treatment outcome by increasing breast reconstruction rates in this sub-population. Methods: All patients undergoing mastectomy were identified using a prospectively collected departmental database. Further data was obtained via retrospective electronic case note review. Bradford city population is about 530.000 by the end of 2015, with 67.44% of the city's population was White ethnic groups and 26.83% Asian Ethnic Groups (UK population consensus). The majority of Asian population speaks Urdu, hence an Urdu speaking breast care nurse was appointed to facilitate communications and deliver a better understanding of the reconstruction options and pathways. Statistical analysis was undertaken using the SAS program. Patients were stratified by age, self-reported ethnicity, axillary surgery and reconstruction. Relative odds were calculated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with adjustment for known confounders. An Urdu speaking breast care nurse was employed throughout this period to facilitate communication and patient decision making. Results: 506 patients underwent Mastectomy over 5 years. 72 (14%) Asian v. 434 (85%) Caucasian. Overall median age is 64 years (SD1.1). Asian median age is 62 (SD0.9), versus Caucasian 65 (SD1.2). Total axillary clearance rate was 30% (42% Asian v.30% Caucasian). Overall reconstruction rate was 126 patients (28.9%).Only 6 of 72 Asian patients (<1%) underwent breast reconstruction versus 121of 434 Caucasian (28%) (p < 0.04), Odds ratio 0.68, (95% confidence interval 0.57-0.79). Conclusions: There is a significant difference in post-mastectomy reconstruction rates between Asian and Caucasian patients. This difference is likely to be multi-factorial. Higher rates of axillary clearance in Asian patients might suggest later disease presentation and/or higher rates of subsequent adjuvant therapy, both of which, can impact on the suitability of breast reconstruction. Strategies aimed at reducing racial disparities in breast reconstruction should include symptom awareness to enable earlier presentation and facilitated communication to ensure informed decision-making.

Keywords: aesthetic, Asian, breast, reconstruction

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440 Support for Privilege Based on Nationality in Switched-At-Birth Scenario

Authors: Anne Lehner, Mostafa Salari Rad, Jeremy Ginges


Many of life’s privileges (and burdens) are thrust on us at birth. Someone born white or male in the United States is also born with a set of advantages over someone born non-white or female. One aspect of privileges conferred by birth is that they are so entrenched in social institutions and social norms that until they are robustly challenged, they can be seen as a moral good. While American society increasingly confronts privileges based on gender and race, other types of privileges, like one's nationality, see less attention. The nationality one is born into can have enormous effects on one’s personal life, work opportunities, and health outcomes. Yet, we predicted that although most Americans would regard it as absurd to think that white people have a right to protect their privileges and 'way of life', they would regard it as obvious that Americans have a right to protect the American way of life and associated privileges. In a preregistered study we presented 300 Americans randomly with one out of three 'privilege scales' in order to assess their agreement with certain statements. The domains for the privilege scales were nationality, race, and gender. Next, all participants completed the switched-at-birth task assessing ones tendency to essentialize nationality. We found that Americans are more approving of privilege based on nationality than of privilege based on gender and race. In addition, we found an interaction of condition with ideology, showing that conservatives are in general more approving of the privilege of any kind than liberals are, and they especially approve of privilege based on nationality. For the switched-at-birth task, we found that both, liberals as well as conservatives are equally willing to grant the child 100% American nationality. Whether or not one chose 100% is unrelated to the expressed approval of privilege based on nationality. One might hesitate to fully grant the child 100% American nationality in the task, yet disapprove of privilege based on nationality. This shows that as much as we see beholders of privilege being oblivious to their statuses within other social categories, like gender or race, we seem to detect the same blindness for the privilege based on nationality. Liberals showing relatively fewer support for privilege based on nationality compared to conservatives still refused to acknowledge the child as having become 100% American and thereby denying the privileges it potentially bestows upon them.

Keywords: thought experiment, anti-immigrant attitudes, privilege of nationality, immigration, moral circles, psychology

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439 Diverse Survey Sampling of US Population Reveals Race/Ethnicity Differences in Perceptions of Dog Breed Personalities

Authors: J. A. Villarreal, D. S. Ha., A. Smith, J. C. Ha


Numerous dogs are living in shelters seeking homes. Perceptions of dog personality based on breed type have been shown to influence adoptability. Past research has focused primarily on Caucasian female samples. This study provides a more diverse sample within the US. Of the respondents, 558 identified as White/Caucasian, 395 identified as Black/African American, 123 identified as Hispanic/Latinx, and 46 identified as Asian/Asian American. 29.6% of respondents identified as male and 70.4% identified as female. Initial analyses indicate significant differences in race/ethnicity in the association of the personality terms of “Dangerous”, “Calm”, and “Energetic” with dog breeds. Black/African-American respondents were more likely to associate the term “Dangerous” with almost all breeds assessed in this survey, followed by Hispanic/Latinx, and lastly by White/Caucasian and Asian/Asian American. Higher annual income respondents were less likely to associate the term “Calm” with most breeds and lower-income respondents were less likely to ascribe the term “Dangerous” to Pit Bull Terriers. Further analyses are underway. These findings can help dog adoption programs promote more diversity in potential adopters.

Keywords: breed, diversity, dog, ethnicity, personality

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438 Finite Element Modeling of a Lower Limb Based on the East Asian Body Characteristics for Pedestrian Protection

Authors: Xianping Du, Runlu Miao, Guanjun Zhang, Libo Cao, Feng Zhu


Current vehicle safety standards and human body injury criteria were established based on the biomechanical response of Euro-American human body, without considering the difference in the body anthropometry and injury characteristics among different races, particularly the East Asian people with smaller body size. Absence of such race specific design considerations will negatively influence the protective performance of safety products for these populations, and weaken the accuracy of injury thresholds derived. To resolve these issues, in this study, we aim to develop a race specific finite element model to simulate the impact response of the lower extremity of a 50th percentile East Asian (Chinese) male. The model was built based on medical images for the leg of an average size Chinese male and slightly adjusted based on the statistical data. The model includes detailed anatomic features and is able to simulate the muscle active force. Thirteen biomechanical tests available in the literature were used to validate its biofidelity. Using the validated model, a pedestrian-car impact accident taking place in China was re-constructed computationally. The results show that the newly developed lower leg model has a good performance in predicting dynamic response and tibia fracture pattern. An additional comparison on the fracture tolerance of the East Asian and Euro-American lower limb suggests that the current injury criterion underestimates the degree of injury of East Asian human body.

Keywords: lower limb, East Asian body characteristics, traffic accident reconstruction, finite element analysis, injury tolerance

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437 Vietnamese Trade Ceramics from the 14th Century to the 17th Century through Materials

Authors: Ngo the Bach


Vietnam is one of not many Asian countries that have a long-standing and famous tradition of pottery production. Vietnam is also one of three countries including China, Vietnam, and Japan developed strongly the export of ceramics to other countries. In recent decades, the studies of Vietnamese and foreign scholars on Vietnamese trade ceramics as well as Vietnamese foreign trade was initially recorded. The aim of this article is to introduce an overview of the findings situation and research results; the development of Vietnam ceramics and the Vietnamese history of maritime trade with Asian ceramics from the 14th century to the 17th century. Given that, the author systematized materials; carried out the synthetic and analysis for research results of Vietnamese and foreign researchers until now on Vietnamese export ceramics on the basis of the historical sources, archaeological findings discovered from relics in the tombs, relics of residence, relics of trading port inland, and the ancient shipwreck sank in the Asian countries.

Keywords: Vietnamese ceramics, trading, maritime, international

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
436 The Divine Elephant: Asian Elephants in Religions and Religious Practices

Authors: Ashna Sinha, Surendra Varma


The Asian elephant is predominantly found in South Asian and Southeast Asian countries. They are intrinsically associated with the religions, religious and cultural practices and festivals of these regions. Amazingly, these magnificent animals are also mentioned in the texts and are found sculpted on the walls of places of religious significance even in the Middle Eastern countries, and evidently, they have been mentioned in all the major religions. The elephants are intrigued and associated with the cultural and religious practices of Asians for thousands of years. While some of the practices and festivals in certain geographical regions are going on for years; some regions and religions have gone through a cultural shift and cultural adaptation, and have incorporated the participation of these divine beings. The symbolism of elephants is used for preaching and giving philosophical lessons through stories and painted art, across different religions through varying literary and visual artworks. The animals carved on the ancient and present day temples can easily be found in South and South East Asian countries, signifying the importance of the animal in a given religion which the temples are associated with. Though not sculpted but captive elephants are easily found on the premises of the places of worship to give a blessing to the people or to give a tour to show their own connotation with the religion. They are also used for carrying out processions in varying religious and cultural activities, and are considered to be of immense value as they add an extra glamour and publicize the wealth and weightiness of that distinct religion or culture. Our critical review of elephant’s association with religions and their practices show, although they give a higher degree of value and respects to this animal, the practices do not match with their biological design, but profoundly compromise their welfare and conservation. It is time to follow the values the animal enjoy and use the same for their conservation and welfare.

Keywords: conservation, elephant, religion, welfare

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435 Innovation and Economic Growth Model of East Asian Countries: The Adaptability of the Model in Ethiopia

Authors: Khalid Yousuf Ahmed


At the beginning of growth period, East Asian countries achieved impressive economic growth for the decades. They transformed from agricultural economy toward industrialization and contributed to dynamic structural transformation. The achievements were driven by government-led development policies that implemented effective innovation policy to boost technological capability of local firms. Recently, most Sub-Saharan African have been showing sustainable growth. Exceptionally, Ethiopia has been recording double-digit growth for a decade. Hence, Ethiopia has claimed to follow the footstep of East Asia development model. The study is going to examine whether Ethiopia can replicate innovation and economic growth model of East Asia by using Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and China as a case to illustrate their model of growth. This research will be based on empirical data gathering and extended theory of national innovation system and economic growth theory. Moreover, the methodology is based on Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM) and also employing cross-countries regression analysis. The results explained that there is a significant relationship between innovation indicators and economic growth in East Asian countries while the relationship is non-existing for Ethiopia except implementing similar policies and achieving similar growth trend. Therefore, Ethiopia needs to introduce inclusive policies that give priority to improving human capital and invest on the knowledge-based economy to replicate East Asian Model.

Keywords: economic growth, FDI, endogenous growth theory, East Asia model

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434 Cultural Aspects of Tax Compliance of Medium Size Enterprises in South Africa

Authors: Oludele A. Akinboade


The paper discusses cultural aspects of tax compliance of medium size companies (MEs) in South Africa to enhance tax compliance. A survey of 641 companies in eight provinces was made. Racial identities of ME owners are not significant in explaining differences in tax registration compliance. Black ownership of MEs is negatively and highly significantly correlated with pay as you earn compliance. The opposite is found in favour of Asian ME owners. White ownership of MEs is negative and weakly (10%) significantly correlated with company income tax compliance while the opposite is found in favour of Asian ownership. Race is negative and highly significant in explaining White owned MEs value added tax compliance behaviour. The opposite is found in favour of Asian ME owners. Black ownership of MEs is negatively and weakly significantly(10%) associated with timely submission of tax returns.

Keywords: tax compliance, cultural diversity, medium size companies, South Africa

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433 Fiscal Size and Composition Effects on Growth: Empirical Evidence from Asian Economies

Authors: Jeeban Amgain


This paper investigates the impact of the size and composition of government expenditure and tax on GDP per capita growth in 36 Asian economies over the period of 1991-2012. The research employs the technique of panel regression; Fixed Effects and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) as well as other statistical and descriptive approaches. The finding concludes that the size of government expenditure and tax revenue are generally low in this region. GDP per capita growth is strongly negative in response to Government expenditure, however, no significant relationship can be measured in case of size of taxation although it is positively correlated with economic growth. Panel regression of decomposed fiscal components also shows that the pattern of allocation of expenditure and taxation really matters on growth. Taxes on international trade and property have a significant positive impact on growth. In contrast, a major portion of expenditure, i.e. expenditure on general public services, health and education are found to have significant negative impact on growth, implying that government expenditures are not being productive in the Asian region for some reasons. Comparatively smaller and efficient government size would enhance the growth.

Keywords: government expenditure, tax, GDP per capita growth, composition

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432 Simulation of Natural Ventilation Strategies as a Comparison Method for Two Different Climates

Authors: Fulya Ozbey, Ecehan Ozmehmet


Health and living in a healthy environment are important for all the living creatures. Healthy buildings are the part of the healthy environment and the ones that people and sometimes the animals spend most of their times in it. Therefore, healthy buildings are important subject for everybody. There are many elements of the healthy buildings from material choice to the thermal comfort including indoor air quality. The aim of this study is, to simulate two natural ventilation strategies which are used as a cooling method in Mediterranean climate, by applying to a residential building and compare the results for Asian climate. Fulltime natural and night-time ventilation strategies are simulated for three days during the summertime in Mediterranean climate. The results show that one of the chosen passive cooling strategies worked on both climates good enough without using additional shading element and cooling device, however, the other ventilation strategy did not provide comfortable indoor temperature enough. Finally, both of the ventilation strategies worked better on the Asian climate than the Mediterranean in terms of the total overheating hours during the chosen period of year.

Keywords: Asian climate, indoor air quality, Mediterranean climate, natural ventilation simulation, thermal comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
431 A Futuristic Look at American Indian Nationhood: Zits in Sherman Alexie’s Flight

Authors: Shaimaa Alobaidi


The presentation examines how urbanization opens possibilities for American Indian characters like Zits in Alexie’s Flightto explore new definitionsoftheirtribal self-identification. Zits travels in time and views the world from different bodies, ages, and races; his journeys end with different perspectives on the idea of nationhood as an American Indian. He is an example of Vine Deloria’s statementthat “urban Indians have become the cutting edge of the new Indian nationalism” (248). Flight is chosen because the momentZits leaves the real world for time-traveling adventures is very critical; it is a moment of rage that ends in the mass murder of many Anglo-Americans. The paper focus on the turning point when he returns into his body with new opportunities towards his existence among the majority of anglo-Americans who cannot help but see him American Indian minority in need of help and assistance. Characters, such as Zits, attempt to outlive alienation, and Alexie gives new definitionsof their ethnic nationhood. Futuristicdoes not mean the very far unpredictable future; it is rather a nearpotential future for teenagers of American Indians, like Zits, Arnold, andCoyoteSprings- the band in ReservationBlues; all revolutionary personalitiesin Alexie’s works. They will be analyzed as Gerald Vizenor’s “postindianwarriors” who have the ability to identify Indigenous nationalism in a post-colonial context.

Keywords: alienation, self-identification, nationhood, urbanization, postindian

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430 Prevalence of Depression among Post Stroke Survivors in South Asian Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Roseminu Varghese, Laveena Anitha Barboza, Jyothi Chakrabarty, Ravishankar


Depression among post-stroke survivors is prevalent, but it is unidentified. The purpose of this review was to determine the pooled prevalence of depression among post-stroke survivors in the South Asian region from all published health sciences research articles. The review also aimed to analyze the disparities in the prevalence of depression among the post-stroke survivors from different study locations. Data search to identify the relevant research articles published from 2005 to 2016 was done by using mesh terms and keywords in Web of Science, PubMed Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, J gate, IndMED databases. The final analysis comprised of 9 studies, including a population of 1,520 men and women. Meta-analysis was performed in STATA version 13.0. The overall pooled post-stroke depression prevalence was 0.46, 95% (CI), (0.3- 0.62). The prevalence rate in this systematic review is evident of depression among post-stroke survivors in the South Asian Region. Identifying the prevalence of post-stroke depression at an early stage is important to improve outcomes of the rehabilitative process of stroke survivors and for its early intervention.

Keywords: depression, post stroke survivors, prevalence, systematic review

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