Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Aravind Dasari

19 Extending Smart City Infrastructure to Cover Natural Disasters

Authors: Nina Dasari, Satvik Dasari

Abstract:

Smart city solutions are being developed across the globe to transform urban areas. However, the infrastructure enablement for alerting natural disasters such as floods and wildfires is deficient. This paper discusses an innovative device that could be used as part of the smart city initiative to detect and provide alerts in case of floods at road crossings and wildfires. An Internet of Things (IoT) smart city node was designed, tested, and deployed with collaboration from the City of Austin. The end to end solution includes a 3G enabled IoT device, flood and fire sensors, cloud, a mobile app, and IoT analytics. The real-time data was collected and analyzed using IoT analytics to refine the solution for the past year. The results demonstrate that the proposed solution is reliable and provides accurate results. This low-cost solution is viable, and it can replace the current solution which costs tens of thousands of dollars.

Keywords: analytics, internet of things, natural disasters, smart city

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18 Investigation on the Fire Resistance of Ultra-High Performance Concrete with Natural Fibers

Authors: Dong Zhang, Kang Hai Tan, Aravind Dasari

Abstract:

Increasing concern on environmental sustainability and waste management has driven the construction and building sector towards renewable materials. In this work, we have explored the usage of natural fibers as an alternative to synthetic fibers like polypropylene (PP) in ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). PP fibers are incorporated into concrete to resist explosive thermal spalling of UHPC during a fire exposure scenario. Experimental studies on the effect of natural fiber on the mechanical properties and spalling resistance of UHCP were conducted. The residual mechanical properties of UHPC with natural fibers were tested after heating to different temperatures. Spalling behavior of UHPC with natural fibers is also assessed by heating the samples according to ISO 834 fire curve. A range of analytical, physical and microscopic characterization techniques was also used on the concrete samples before and after being subjected to elevated temperature to investigate the phase and microstructural change of the sample. The findings show that natural fibers are able to improve fire resistance of UHPC. Adding natural fibers can prevent UHPC from spalling at high temperature. This study provides an alternative, which is at low cost and environmentally friendly, to prevent spalling of UHPC.

Keywords: high temperature, natural fiber, spalling, ultra-high performance concrete

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17 Data Stream Association Rule Mining with Cloud Computing

Authors: B. Suraj Aravind, M. H. M. Krishna Prasad

Abstract:

There exist emerging applications of data streams that require association rule mining, such as network traffic monitoring, web click streams analysis, sensor data, data from satellites etc. Data streams typically arrive continuously in high speed with huge amount and changing data distribution. This raises new issues that need to be considered when developing association rule mining techniques for stream data. This paper proposes to introduce an improved data stream association rule mining algorithm by eliminating the limitation of resources. For this, the concept of cloud computing is used. Inclusion of this may lead to additional unknown problems which needs further research.

Keywords: data stream, association rule mining, cloud computing, frequent itemsets

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16 Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Derris scandens

Authors: Devarakonda Ramadevi, Dasari Rambabu, K. Suresh Babu, Battu Ganga Rao, Lakshmi Sirisha Kotikalapudi

Abstract:

The phytochemical and biological evaluation of the whole plant of Derris scandens is belonging to the family fabaceae. The dried plant of D.scandens was procured from the tirumala. The completely dried powder of the whole plant was taken and ground to a coarse powder which was then subjected to Soxhlet extraction with hexane and chloroform successively for 36 hrs. Chloroform extract was filtered and concentrated by using rotary evaporator an about 100g extract was obtained. The chloroform extract was subjected to column chromatographed over silicagel. From the column chromatography seven compounds were isolated named as osajin, scandinone, scandenone, 4,5,7-tri hydroxy biprenyl isoflavone, derris isoflavone-A, scandenin and isoscandinone. D.scandens resulting in the isolation of seven compounds in the plant was confirmed by spectral data (1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI-MS and FTIR). The isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity, α-glucosidase (inhibitory activity) and anti-bacterial activity. The isolated seven compounds were tested for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity. All the seven compounds showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Derris scandens, phytochemical, antioxident, antidiabetic, antibacterial activity

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15 Entrepreneurship and the Discovery and Exploitation of Business Opportunities: Empirical Evidence from the Malawian Tourism Sector

Authors: Aravind Mohan Krishnan

Abstract:

This paper identifies a research gap in the literature on tourism entrepreneurship in Malawi, Africa, and investigates how entrepreneurs from the Malawian tourism sector discover and exploit business opportunities. In particular, the importance of prior experience and business networks in the opportunity development process is debated. Another area of empirical research examined here is the opportunity recognition-venture creation sequence. While Malawi presents fruitful business opportunities, exploiting these opportunities into fully realized business ideas is a real challenge due to the country’s difficult business environment and poor promotional and marketing efforts. The study concludes by calling for further research in Sub-Saharan Africa in order to develop our understanding of entrepreneurship in this (African) context.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, Malawi, opportunities, tourism

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14 Enhanced Performance of an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Employing Graphene Modified Carbon Paper Electrodes

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Dan Nir, Vladimir Yufit, P. V. Aravind, Nigel Brandon

Abstract:

Fuel cell grade gas-diffusion layer carbon paper (CP) electrodes are subjected to electrophoresis in N,N’-dimethylformamide (DMF) consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO modified electrodes are compared with CP in a single asymmetric all-vanadium redox battery system (employing a double serpentine flow channel for each half-cell). Peak power densities improved by 4% when the rGO deposits were facing the ion-exchange membrane (cell performance was poorer when the rGO was facing the flow field). Cycling of the cells showed least degradation of the CP electrodes that were coated with rGO in comparison to pristine samples.

Keywords: all-vanadium redox flow batteries, carbon paper electrodes, electrophoretic deposition, reduced graphene oxide

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13 Insight on Passive Design for Energy Efficiency in Commercial Building for Hot and Humid Climate

Authors: Aravind J.

Abstract:

Passive design can be referred to a way of designing buildings that takes advantage of the prevailing climate and natural energy resources. Which will be a key to reduce the increasing energy usage in commercial buildings. Most of the small scale commercial buildings made are merely a thermal mass inbuilt with active systems to bring lively conditions. By bringing the passive design strategies for energy efficiency in commercial buildings will reduce the usage of active systems. Thus the energy usage can be controlled through analysis of daylighting and improved living conditions in the indoor spaces by using passive techniques. And comparative study on different passive design systems and conventional methods will be approached for commercial buildings in hot and humid region. Possible effects of existing risks implied with solution for those problems is also a part of the paper. The result will be carried on with the design programme to prove the workability of the strategies.

Keywords: passive design, energy efficiency, commercial buildings, hot and humid climate

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12 Comparison of Radiated Emissions in Offshore and Onshore Wind Turbine Towers

Authors: Sajeesh Sulaiman, Gomathisankar A., Aravind Devaraj, Aswin R., Vijay Kumar G., Rachana Raj

Abstract:

Wind turbines are the next big answer to the emerging and ever-growing demand for electricity, and this need is increasing day by day. These high mast structures, whether on land or on the sea, has also become one of the big sources of electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the not so distant past. With the emergence of the AC-AC converter and drawing of large power cables through the wind turbine towers has made this clean and efficient source of renewable energy to become one of the culprits in creating electromagnetic interference. This paper will present the sources of such EMIs, a comparison of radiated emissions (both electric and magnetic field) patterns in wind turbine towers for both onshore and offshore wind turbines and close look into the IEC 61400-40 (new standard for EMC design on wind turbine). At present, offshore wind turbines are tested in onshore facilities. This paper will present the anomaly in results for offshore wind turbines when tested in onshore, which the existing standards and the upcoming standards have failed to address.

Keywords: emissions, electric field, magnetic field, wind turbine, tower, standards and regulations

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11 Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sexual Dysfunction in Primary Obesity through an Observational Study

Authors: Aravind Bagade Shankaranarayana, Parampalli Geetha, Pallavi Gupta

Abstract:

Objective: This study intends to evaluate sexual dysfunction qualitatively and quantitatively in males suffering from primary obesity through a single centered, observational study. Design and Methods: Sexual function of 33 obese males from the outpatient department of the hospital was assessed using IIEF questionnaire and semen analysis and the results were assessed for statistical significance. Results: A varying degree of sexual dysfunction was observed in four out of five areas of sexual functioning viz. erectile function (p<0.02), orgasmic function (p<0.02), sexual desire (p<0.08) and overall satisfaction (p<0.000) in obese individuals. Statistically significant dysfunction was not observed in intercourse satisfaction. Semen analysis was normal in 19 individuals (63.3%) and abnormal in 11 individuals (36.7%), with statistically insignificant p value 0.144, suggesting mild to moderate variation in semen parameters. Conclusions: Varying degree of sexual dysfunction is present in obese males, suggesting that obesity has a possible role in reducing the quality of sexual functioning in males as indicated in the classical Ayurvedic literature.

Keywords: erectile dysfunction, krucchra vyavaya, obesity, sthoulya

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10 Literary Imagination and Leadership: Lessons From the Classroom

Authors: Naor Cohen

Abstract:

In recent years, business schools made teaching ethical leadership a higher priority. Greater attention to moral and ethical concepts and reasoning processes may prove beneficial to future business leaders. But with a shift in focus, there is a need for a shift in pedagogy. This paper explores an imaginative literature-based pedagogy in the teaching of ethical leadership. An imaginative literature-based pedagogy uses works of fiction to help students build moral analysis and moral judgment capabilities through a rigorous assessment of the moral soundness of actions, motivations, rationales, and consequences portrayed in works of fiction. Business students enrolled in 4 leadership senior-level courses were assigned the White Tiger: A Novel by Aravind Adiga as their main course reading. Students' engagement was measured as a three-factor construct exploring cognitive engagement, behavioural engagement and emotional engagement. In addition, students' final papers were analyzed using thematic content analysis. This paper will present the results of this analysis and argue that incorporating fiction into the leadership curriculum allows students to explore the dire consequences of avoiding countervailing interests, engaging in dishonesty and engaging in moral puffery-based leadership.

Keywords: ethical leadership, empathetic imagination, business education, pedagogy, fiction

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9 Aerodynamic Design Optimization of High-Speed Hatchback Cars for Lucrative Commercial Applications

Authors: A. Aravind, M. Vetrivel, P. Abhimanyu, C. A. Akaash Emmanuel Raj, K. Sundararaj, V. R. S. Kumar

Abstract:

The choice of high-speed, low budget hatchback car with diversified options is increasing for meeting the new generation buyers trend. This paper is aimed to augment the current speed of the hatchback cars through the aerodynamic drag reduction technique. The inverted airfoils are facilitated at the bottom of the car for generating the downward force for negating the lift while increasing the current speed range for achieving a better road performance. The numerical simulations have been carried out using a 2D steady pressure-based    k-ɛ realizable model with enhanced wall treatment. In our numerical studies, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model and its code of solution are used. The code is calibrated and validated using the exact solution of the 2D boundary layer displacement thickness at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows. We observed through the parametric analytical studies that the inverted airfoil integrated with the bottom surface at various predesigned locations of Hatchback cars can improve its overall aerodynamic efficiency through drag reduction, which obviously decreases the fuel consumption significantly and ensure an optimum road performance lucratively with maximum permissible speed within the framework of the manufactures constraints.

Keywords: aerodynamics of commercial cars, downward force, hatchback car, inverted airfoil

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8 Reverse Supply Chain Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Considering Economic and Environmental Aspects

Authors: Aravind G., Arshinder Kaur, Pushpavanam S.

Abstract:

There is a strong emphasis on shifting to electric vehicles (EVs) throughout the globe for reducing the impact on global warming following the Paris climate accord. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are predominantly used in EVs, and these can be a significant threat to the environment if not disposed of safely. Lithium is also a valuable resource not widely available. There are several research groups working on developing an efficient recycling process for LIBs. Two routes - pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes have been proposed for recycling LIBs. In this paper, we focus on life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool to quantify the environmental impact of these recycling processes. We have defined the boundary of the LCA to include only the recycling phase of the end-of-life (EoL) of the battery life cycle. The analysis is done assuming ideal conditions for the hydrometallurgical and a combined hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical process in the inventory analysis. CML-IA method is used for quantifying the impact assessment across eleven indicators. Our results show that cathode, anode, and foil contribute significantly to the impact. The environmental impacts of both hydrometallurgical and combined recycling processes are similar across all the indicators. Further, the results of LCA are used in developing a multi-objective optimization model for the design of lithium-ion battery recycling network. Greenhouse gas emissions and cost are the two parameters minimized for the optimization study.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, lithium-ion battery recycling, multi-objective optimization, network design, reverse supply chain

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7 Surface Deformation Studies in South of Johor Using the Integration of InSAR and Resistivity Methods

Authors: Sirajo Abubakar, Ismail Ahmad Abir, Muhammad Sabiu Bala, Muhammad Mustapha Adejo, Aravind Shanmugaveloo

Abstract:

Over the years, land subsidence has been a serious threat mostly to urban areas. Land subsidence is the sudden sinking or gradual downward settling of the ground’s surface with little or no horizontal motion. In most areas, land subsidence is a slow process that covers a large area; therefore, it is sometimes left unnoticed. South of Johor is the area of interest for this project because it is going through rapid urbanization. The objective of this research is to evaluate and identify potential deformations in the south of Johor using integrated remote sensing and 2D resistivity methods. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) which is a remote sensing technique has the potential to map coherent displacements at centimeter to millimeter resolutions. Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) stacking technique was applied to Sentinel-1 data to detect the earth deformation in the study area. A dipole-dipole configuration resistivity profiling was conducted in three areas to determine the subsurface features in that area. This subsurface features interpreted were then correlated with the remote sensing technique to predict the possible causes of subsidence and uplifts in the south of Johor. Based on the results obtained, West Johor Bahru (0.63mm/year) and Ulu Tiram (1.61mm/year) are going through uplift due to possible geological uplift. On the other end, East Johor Bahru (-0.26mm/year) and Senai (-1.16mm/year) undergo subsidence due to possible fracture and granitic boulders loading. Land subsidence must be taken seriously as it can cause serious damages to infrastructures and human life. Monitoring land subsidence and taking preventive actions must be done to prevent any disasters.

Keywords: interferometric synthetic aperture radar, persistent scatter, minimum spanning tree, resistivity, subsidence

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6 An Advanced Approach to Detect and Enumerate Soil-Transmitted Helminth Ova from Wastewater

Authors: Vivek B. Ravindran, Aravind Surapaneni, Rebecca Traub, Sarvesh K. Soni, Andrew S. Ball

Abstract:

Parasitic diseases have a devastating, long-term impact on human health and welfare. More than two billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), including the roundworms (Ascaris), hookworms (Necator and Ancylostoma) and whipworm (Trichuris) with majority occurring in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Despite its low prevalence in developed countries, the removal of STHs from wastewater remains crucial to allow the safe use of sludge or recycled water in agriculture. Conventional methods such as incubation and optical microscopy are cumbersome; consequently, the results drastically vary from person-to-person observing the ova (eggs) under microscope. Although PCR-based methods are an alternative to conventional techniques, it lacks the ability to distinguish between viable and non-viable helminth ova. As a result, wastewater treatment industries are in major need for radically new and innovative tools to detect and quantify STHs eggs with precision, accuracy and being cost-effective. In our study, we focus on the following novel and innovative techniques: -Recombinase polymerase amplification and Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (RPA-SERS) based detection of helminth ova. -Use of metal nanoparticles and their relative nanozyme activity. -Colorimetric detection, differentiation and enumeration of genera of helminth ova using hydrolytic enzymes (chitinase and lipase). -Propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR to detect viable helminth ova. -Modified assay to recover and enumerate helminth eggs from fresh raw sewage. -Transcriptome analysis of ascaris ova in fresh raw sewage. The aforementioned techniques have the potential to replace current conventional and molecular methods thereby producing a standard protocol for the determination and enumeration of helminth ova in sewage sludge.

Keywords: colorimetry, helminth, PMA-QPCR, nanoparticles, RPA, viable

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5 Ethno-Botanical Diversity and Conservation Status of Medicinal Flora at High Terrains of Garhwal (Uttarakhand) Himalaya, India: A Case Study in Context to Multifarious Tourism Growth and Peri-Urban Encroachments

Authors: Aravind Kumar

Abstract:

The high terrains of Garhwal (Uttarakhand) Himalaya are the niches of a number of rare and endemic plant species of great therapeutic importance. However, the wild flora of the area is still under a constant threat due to rapid upsurge in human interferences, especially through multifarious tourism growth and peri-urban encroachments. After getting the status of a ‘Special State’ of the country since its inception in the year 2000, this newly borne State led to very rapid infrastructural growth and development. Consequently, its townships started expanding in an unmanaged way grabbing nearby agricultural lands and forest areas into peri-urban landscapes. Simultaneously, a boom in tourism and pilgrimage in the state and the infrastructural facilities raised by the government for tourists/pilgrims are destroying its biodiversity. Field survey revealed 242 plant species of therapeutic significance naturally growing in the area and being utilized by local inhabitants as traditional medicines. On conservation scale, 6 species (2.2%) were identified as critically endangered, 19 species (7.1%) as the endangered ones, 8 species (3.0%) under rare category, 17 species (6.4%) as threatened and 14 species (5.2%) as vulnerable. The Government of India has brought mega-biodiversity hot spots of the state under Biosphere Reserve, National Parks, etc. restricting all kinds of human interferences; however, the two most sacred shrines of Hindus and Sikhs viz. Shri Badrinath and Shri Hemkunt Sahib, and two great touristic attractions viz. Valley of Flowers and Auli-Joshimath Skiing Track oblige the government to maintain equilibrium between entries of visitors vis-à-vis biodiversity conservation in high terrains of Uttarakhand Himalaya.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, ethno-botany, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) Himalaya, peri-urban encroachment, pilgrimage and tourism

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4 Liquid Unloading of Wells with Scaled Perforation via Batch Foamers

Authors: Erwin Chan, Aravind Subramaniyan, Siti Abdullah Fatehah, Steve Lian Kuling

Abstract:

Foam assisted lift technology is proven across the industry to provide efficient deliquification in gas wells. Such deliquification is typically achieved by delivering the foamer chemical downhole via capillary strings. In highly liquid loaded wells where capillary strings are not readily available, foamer can be delivered via batch injection or bull-heading. The latter techniques differ from the former in that cap strings allow for liquid to be unloaded continuously, whereas foamer batches require that periodic batching be conducted for the liquid to be unloaded. Although batch injection allows for liquid to be unloaded in wells with suitable water to gas (WGR) ratio and condensate to gas (CGR) ratio without well intervention for capillary string installation, this technique comes with its own set of challenges - for foamer to de-liquify liquids, the chemical needs to reach perforation locations where gas bubbling is observed. In highly scaled perforation zones in certain wells, foamer delivered in batches is unable to reach the gas bubbling zone, thus achieving poor lift efficiency. This paper aims to discuss the techniques and challenges for unloading liquid via batch injection in scaled perforation wells X and Y, whose WGR is 6bbl/MMscf, whose scale build-up is observed at the bottom of perforation interval, whose water column is 400 feet, and whose ‘bubbling zone’ is less than 100 feet. Variables such as foamer Z dosage, batching technique, and well flow control valve opening times are manipulated during the duration of the trial to achieve maximum liquid unloading and gas rates. During the field trial, the team has found optimal values between the three aforementioned parameters for best unloading results, in which each cycle’s gas and liquid rates are compared with baselines with similar flowing tubing head pressures (FTHP). It is discovered that amongst other factors, a good agitation technique is a primary determinant for efficient liquid unloading. An average increment of 2MMscf/d against an average production of 4MMscf/d at stable FTHP is recorded during the trial.

Keywords: foam, foamer, gas lift, liquid unloading, scale, batch injection

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3 Wind Energy Harvester Based on Triboelectricity: Large-Scale Energy Nanogenerator

Authors: Aravind Ravichandran, Marc Ramuz, Sylvain Blayac

Abstract:

With the rapid development of wearable electronics and sensor networks, batteries cannot meet the sustainable energy requirement due to their limited lifetime, size and degradation. Ambient energies such as wind have been considered as an attractive energy source due to its copious, ubiquity, and feasibility in nature. With miniaturization leading to high-power and robustness, triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) have been conceived as a promising technology by harvesting mechanical energy for powering small electronics. TENG integration in large-scale applications is still unexplored considering its attractive properties. In this work, a state of the art design TENG based on wind venturi system is demonstrated for use in any complex environment. When wind introduces into the air gap of the homemade TENG venturi system, a thin flexible polymer repeatedly contacts with and separates from electrodes. This device structure makes the TENG suitable for large scale harvesting without massive volume. Multiple stacking not only amplifies the output power but also enables multi-directional wind utilization. The system converts ambient mechanical energy to electricity with 400V peak voltage by charging of a 1000mF super capacitor super rapidly. Its future implementation in an array of applications aids in environment friendly clean energy production in large scale medium and the proposed design performs with an exhaustive material testing. The relation between the interfacial micro-and nano structures and the electrical performance enhancement is comparatively studied. Nanostructures are more beneficial for the effective contact area, but they are not suitable for the anti-adhesion property due to the smaller restoring force. Considering these issues, the nano-patterning is proposed for further enhancement of the effective contact area. By considering these merits of simple fabrication, outstanding performance, robust characteristic and low-cost technology, we believe that TENG can open up great opportunities not only for powering small electronics, but can contribute to large-scale energy harvesting through engineering design being complementary to solar energy in remote areas.

Keywords: triboelectric nanogenerator, wind energy, vortex design, large scale energy

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2 Social Enterprises in India: Conceptualization and Challenges

Authors: Prajakta Khare

Abstract:

There is a huge number of social enterprises operating in India, across all enterprise sizes and forms addressing diverse social issues. Some cases such as such as Aravind eye care, Narayana Hridalaya, SEWA have been studied extensively in management literature and are known cases in social entrepreneurship. But there are several smaller social enterprises in India that are not called so per se due to the lack of understanding of the concept. There is a lack of academic research on social entrepreneurship in India and the term ‘social entrepreneurship’ is not yet widely known in the country, even by people working in this field as was found by this study. The present study aims to identify the most prominent form of social enterprises in India, the profile of the entrepreneurs, challenges faced, the lessons (theory and practices) emerging from their functioning and finally the factors contributing to the enterprises’ success. This is a preliminary exploratory study using primary data from 30 social enterprises in India. The study used snow ball sampling and a qualitative analysis. Data was collected from founders of social enterprises through written structured questionnaires, open-ended interviews and field visits to enterprises. The sample covered enterprises across sectors such as environment, affordable education, children’s rights, rain water harvesting, women empowerment etc. The interview questions focused on founder’s background and motivation, qualifications, funding, challenges, founder’s understanding and perspectives on social entrepreneurship, government support, linkages with other organizations etc. apart from several others. The interviews were conducted across 3 languages - Hindi, Marathi, English and were then translated and transcribed. 50% of founders were women and 65% of the total founders were highly qualified with a MBA, PhD or MBBS. The most important challenge faced by these entrepreneurs is recruiting skilled people. When asked about their understanding of the term, founders had diverse perspectives. Also, their understandings about the term social enterprise and social entrepreneur were extremely varied. Some founders identified the terms with doing something good for the society, some thought that every business can be called a social enterprise. 35% of the founders were not aware of the term social entrepreneur/ social entrepreneurship. They said that they could identify themselves as social entrepreneurs after discussions with the researcher. The general perception in India is that ‘NGOs are corrupt’- fighting against this perception to secure funds is also another problem as pointed out by some founders. There are unique challenges that social entrepreneurs in India face, as the political, social, economic environment around them is rapidly changing; and getting adequate support from the government is a problem. The research in its subsequent stages aims to clarify existing, missing and new definitions of the term to provide deeper insights in the terminology and issues relating to Social Entrepreneurship in India.

Keywords: challenges, India, social entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurs

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1 Preparation, Solid State Characterization of Etraverine Co-Crystals with Improved Solubility for the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Authors: B. S. Muddukrishna, Karthik Aithal, Aravind Pai

Abstract:

Introduction: Preparation of binary cocrystals of Etraverine (ETR) by using Tartaric Acid (TAR) as a conformer was the main focus of this study. Etravirine is a Class IV drug, as per the BCS classification system. Methods: Cocrystals were prepared by slow evaporation technique. A mixture of total 500mg of ETR: TAR was weighed in molar ratios of 1:1 (371.72mg of ETR and 128.27mg of TAR). Saturated solution of Etravirine was prepared in Acetone: Methanol (50:50) mixture in which tartaric acid is dissolved by sonication and then this solution was stirred using a magnetic stirrer until the solvent got evaporated. Shimadzu FTIR – 8300 system was used to acquire the FTIR spectra of the cocrystals prepared. Shimadzu thermal analyzer was used to achieve DSC measurements. X-ray diffractometer was used to obtain the X-ray powder diffraction pattern. Shake flask method was used to determine the equilibrium dynamic solubility of pure, physical mixture and cocrystals of ETR. USP buffer (pH 6.8) containing 1% of Tween 80 was used as the medium. The pure, physical mixture and the optimized cocrystal of ETR were accurately weighed sufficient to maintain the sink condition and were filled in hard gelatine capsules (size 4). Electrolab-Tablet Dissolution tester using basket apparatus at a rotational speed of 50 rpm and USP phosphate buffer (900 mL, pH = 6.8, 37 ˚C) + 1% Tween80 as a media, was used to carry out dissolution. Shimadzu LC-10 series chromatographic system was used to perform the analysis with PDA detector. An Hypersil BDS C18 (150mm ×4.6 mm ×5 µm) column was used for separation with mobile phase comprising of a mixture of ace¬tonitrile and phosphate buffer 20mM, pH 3.2 in the ratio 60:40 v/v. The flow rate was 1.0mL/min and column temperature was set to 30°C. The detection was carried out at 304 nm for ETR. Results and discussions: The cocrystals were subjected to various solid state characterization and the results confirmed the formation of cocrystals. The C=O stretching vibration (1741cm-1) in tartaric acid was disappeared in the cocrystal and the peak broadening of primary amine indicates hydrogen bond formation. The difference in the melting point of cocrystals when compared to pure Etravirine (265 °C) indicates interaction between the drug and the coformer which proves that first ordered transformation i.e. melting endotherm has disappeared. The difference in 2θ values of pure drug and cocrystals indicates the interaction between the drug and the coformer. Dynamic solubility and dissolution studies were also conducted by shake flask method and USP apparatus one respectively and 3.6 fold increase in the dynamic solubility were observed and in-vitro dissolution study shows four fold increase in the solubility for the ETR: TAR (1:1) cocrystals. The ETR: TAR (1:1) cocrystals shows improved solubility and dissolution as compared to the pure drug which was clearly showed by solid state characterization and dissolution studies.

Keywords: dynamic solubility, Etraverine, in vitro dissolution, slurry method

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