Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 288

Search results for: Anna B. Ohlsson

288 DNA Methylation Changes Caused by Lawsone

Authors: Zuzana Poborilova, Anna B. Ohlsson, Torkel Berglund, Anna Vildova, Petr Babula

Abstract:

Lawsone is a pigment that occurs naturally in plants. It has been used as a skin and hair dye for a long time. Moreover, its different biological activities have been reported. The present study focused on the effect of lawsone on a plant cell model represented by tobacco BY-2 cell suspension culture, which is used as a model comparable with the HeLa cells. It has been shown that lawsone inhibits the cell growth in the concentration-dependent manner. In addition, changes in DNA methylation level have been determined. We observed decreasing level of DNA methylation in the presence of increasing concentrations of lawsone. These results were accompanied with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since epigenetic modifications can be caused by different stress factors, there could be a connection between the changes in the level of DNA methylation and ROS production caused by lawsone.

Keywords: DNA methylation, lawsone, naphthoquinone, reactive oxygen species

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
287 Lexical Bundles in the Alexiad of Anna Comnena: Computational and Discourse Analysis Approach

Authors: Georgios Alexandropoulos

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine the historical text of Alexiad by Anna Comnena using computational tools for the extraction of lexical bundles containing the name of her father, Alexius Comnenus. For this reason, in this research we apply corpus linguistics techniques for the automatic extraction of lexical bundles and through them we will draw conclusions about how these lexical bundles serve her support provided to her father.

Keywords: lexical bundles, computational literature, critical discourse analysis, Alexiad

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
286 The Imminent Other in Anna Deavere Smith’s Performance

Authors: Joy Shihyi Huang

Abstract:

This paper discusses the concept of community in Anna Deavere Smith’s performance, one that challenges and explores existing notions of justice and the other. In contrast to unwavering assumptions of essentialism that have helped to propel a discourse on moral agency within the black community, Smith employs postmodern ideas in which the theatrical attributes of doubling and repetition are conceptualized as part of what Marvin Carlson coined as a ‘memory machine.’ Her dismissal of the need for linear time, such as that regulated by Aristotle’s The Poetics and its concomitant ethics, values, and emotions as a primary ontological and epistemological construct produced by the existing African American historiography, demonstrates an urgency to produce an alternative communal self to override metanarratives in which the African Americans’ lives are contained and sublated by specific historical confines. Drawing on Emmanuel Levinas’ theories in ethics, specifically his notion of ‘proximity’ and ‘the third,’ the paper argues that Smith enacts a new model of ethics by launching an acting method that eliminates the boundary of self and other. Defying psychological realism, Smith conceptualizes an approach to acting that surpasses the mere mimetic value of invoking a ‘likeness’ of an actor to a character, which as such, resembles the mere attribution of various racial or sexual attributes in identity politics. Such acting, she contends, reduces the other to a representation of, at best, an ultimate rendering of me/my experience. She instead appreciates ‘unlikeness,’ recognizes the unavoidable actor/character gap as a power that humbles the self, whose irreversible journey to the other carves out its own image.

Keywords: Anna Deavere Smith, Emmanuel Levinas, other, performance

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285 The Impact of Health Tourism on Companies’ Performance: A Cross Country Analysis

Authors: Anna Paola Micheli, Carmelo Intrisano, Anna Maria Calce

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This research focused on the capability of health tourism to improve the economic and financial performance of healthcare companies. It is assumed that health tourism companies have better profitability and financial efficiency because they can also count on cross-border demand differently from no health tourism companies. A three-level gap analysis was conducted: the first concerns health tourism companies located in Italy and in the other EU28 states; in the second Italian and EU28, no health tourism companies were compared; the third level is about the Italian system with a comparison between health tourism and no health tourism companies. Findings highlighted that Italian healthcare companies have better profitability performance if compared to European ones, but they present weaknesses in the financial position given the illiquidity and excessive leverage. Furthermore, studying the Italian system, we found that health tourism companies are more profitable than no health tourism companies.

Keywords: financial performance, gap analysis, health tourism, profitability performance, value creation

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
284 Sonochemically Prepared Non-Noble Metal Oxide Catalysts for Methane Catalytic Combustion

Authors: Przemyslaw J. Jodlowski, Roman J. Jedrzejczyk, Damian K. Chlebda, Anna Dziedzicka, Lukasz Kuterasinski, Anna Gancarczyk, Maciej Sitarz

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The aim of this study was to obtain highly active catalysts based on non-noble metal oxides supported on zirconia prepared via a sonochemical method. In this study, the influence of the stabilizers addition during the preparation step was checked. The final catalysts were characterized by using such characterization methods as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and µRaman. The proposed preparation method allowed to obtain uniformly dispersed metal-oxide nanoparticles at the support’s surface. The catalytic activity of prepared catalyst samples was measured in a methane combustion reaction. The activity of the catalysts prepared by the sonochemical method was considerably higher than their counterparts prepared by the incipient wetness method.

Keywords: methane catalytic combustion, nanoparticles, non-noble metals, sonochemistry

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283 Investigating the Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Concrete Containing Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

Authors: Shima Pilehvar, Vinh Duy Cao, Anna M. Szczotok, Anna-Lena Kjøniksen

Abstract:

Micro encapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) may be utilized to increase the energy efficiency of buildings by the addition of MPCM to concrete structures. However, addition of MPCM to Portland cement concrete is known to reduce the compressive strength of the concrete. Accordingly, it is interesting to also examine the effect of adding MPCM to geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer binder is synthesized by mixing aluminosilicate materials in amorphous form with a strong alkali activator, and have a much lower CO2 footprint than Portland cement concrete. In this study, the mechanical properties of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete with different types and contents of MPCM were investigated at different curing temperatures. The aim was to find the optimum amount of MPCM which still maintain the workability and compressive strength at an acceptable level. The results revealed that both workability and compressive strength of geopolymer concrete decrease after adding MPCM. Also, the percentage of strength reduction can be variable by different types of MPCM.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, curing, geopolymer, micro-encapsulated PCM

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
282 The Influence of Microcapsulated Phase Change Materials on Thermal Performance of Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Vinh Duy Cao, Shima Pilehvar, Anna M. Szczotok, Anna-Lena Kjøniksen

Abstract:

The total energy consumption is dramatically increasing on over the world, especially for building energy consumption where a significant proportion of energy is used for heating and cooling purposes. One of the solutions to reduce the energy consumption for the building is to improve construction techniques and enhance material technology. Recently, microcapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) with high energy storage capacity within the phase transition temperature of the materials is a potential method to conserve and save energy. A new composite materials with high energy storage capacity by mixing MPCM into concrete for passive building technology is the promising candidate to reduce the energy consumption. One of the most untilized building materials for mixing with MPCM is Portland cement concrete. However, the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to producing cement which plays the important role in the global warming is the main drawback of PCC. Accordingly, an environmentally friendly building material, geopolymer, which is synthesized by the reaction between the industrial waste material (aluminosilicate) and a strong alkali activator, is a potential materials to mixing with MPCM. Especially, the effect of MPCM on the thermal and mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete (GPC) is very limited. In this study, high thermal energy storage capacity materials were fabricated by mixing MPCM into geopolymer concrete. This article would investigate the effect of MPCM concentration on thermal and mechanical properties of GPC. The target is to balance the effect of MPCM on improving the thermal performance and maintaining the compressive strength of the geopolymer concrete at an acceptable level for building application.

Keywords: microencapsulated phase change materials, geopolymer concrete, energy storage capacity, thermal performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
281 Assessment of the Impact of the Application of Kinesiology Taping on Joint Position Sense in Knee Joint

Authors: Anna Słupik, Patryk Wąsowski, Anna Mosiołek, Dariusz Białoszewski

Abstract:

Introduction: Kinesiology Taping is one of the most popular techniques used for treatment and supporting physiological processes in sports medicine and physiotherapy. Often it is used to sensorimotor skills of lower limbs by athletes. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the application of muscle Kinesiology Taping to feel the position setting in motion the joint active. Material and methods: The study involved 50 healthy people between 18 and 30 years of age, 30 men and 20 women (mean age 23.24 years). The participants were divided into two groups. The study group was qualified for Kinesiology Taping application (muscle application, type Y, for quadriceps femoris muscle), while the remaining people used the application made of plaster (placebo group). Testing was performed prior to applying taping, with the applied application (after 30 minutes), then 24 hours after wearing, and after removing the tape. Each evaluated joint position sense - Error of Active Reproduction of Joint Position. Results: The survey revealed no significant differences in measurement between the study group and the placebo group (p> 0.05). No significant differences in time taking into account all four measurements in the group with the applied CT application, which was supported by pairs (p> 0.05). Also in the placebo group showed no significant differences over time (p> 0.05). There was no significant difference between the errors committed in the direction of flexion and extension. Conclusions: 1. Application muscle Kinesiology Taping had no significant effect on the knee joint proprioception. Its use in order to improve sensorimotor seems therefore unjustified. 2. There are no differences between applications Kinesiology Taping and placebo indicates that the clinical effect of stretch tape is minimal or absent. 3. The results are the basis for the continuation of prospective, randomized trials of numerous and study group.

Keywords: joint position sense, kinesiology taping, knee joint, proprioception

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280 Designing of Almond Drink with Phytonutrients Assigned for Pro-Health Oriented Consumers

Authors: Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Skrety Joanna, Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Kmiecik Dominik, Korczak Jozef, Anna Zywica

Abstract:

Background: Recent research presented many evidences confirming that food besides its basic nutritional function, possess significant therapeutic and prophylactic potential. Conscious consumer is aware of diet habits and well being lifestyle influencing a proper functioning that is why there is a need of new pro-health products. Objective: Proposition of the technology of unsweetened almond drinks enriched with plant extracts for pro-health oriented individuals. Research investigated the influence of selected plant extracts addition on antioxidative activity and consumer’s acceptance of drinks as all day diet product representatives. Methods: The analysis of the basic composition and antioxidant properties of the almond drink was conducted. Research included analysis of basic composition (protein, lipids and fiber content) and antioxidant capacity of drink (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC value, and FRAP). Proposed drink was also characterized with sensory analysis, including color, aroma, taste, consistency, and overall acceptance. Results: Results showed that addition of plant extracts into an almond drink allowed to improve its antioxidant capacity and sensory value of the drinks. Profitable composition and pro-health properties of designed drink permits offering healthy product for all day consumption. Conclusion: Designed almond drink would be a significant supplement for pro-healthy life style of the consumers. Results showed that plant extracts enriched almond drink would be a good source of antioxidants and accepted by the consumers.

Keywords: phytonutrients, pro-health, almond, wellbeing, antioxidant potential, sensory value

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
279 Formal Models of Sanitary Inspections Teams Activities

Authors: Tadeusz Nowicki, Radosław Pytlak, Robert Waszkowski, Jerzy Bertrandt, Anna Kłos

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This paper presents methods for formal modeling of activities in the area of sanitary inspectors outbreak of food-borne diseases. The models allow you to measure the characteristics of the activities of sanitary inspection and as a result allow improving the performance of sanitary services and thus food security.

Keywords: food-borne disease, epidemic, sanitary inspection, mathematical models

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
278 Designing of Oat Drink with Phytonutrients Assigned for Pro-Health Oriented Consumers

Authors: Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Skrety Joanna, Anna Zywica, Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Kmiecik Dominik, Korczak Jozef

Abstract:

Background: Modern consumer highly appreciates the positive influence of consumed products on well-being and overall health. High acceptance of new food is a result of intensified research showing many proofs confirming that food offers significant prophylactic and therapeutic potential, next to its basic nutritional function. Objective: Proposition of the technology of unsweetened oat drinks enriched with plant extracts for pro-health oriented individuals. We investigated the effects of selected plant extracts addition on antioxidative capacity and consumer’s acceptance of drinks as representative of all day diet product. Methods: The analysis of the basic composition and antioxidant properties of the drinking product was conducted. Basic composition included protein, lipids and fiber content. Antioxidant capacity of drink was evaluated with use radical scavenging methods (DPPH, ABTS), ORAC value and FRAP. Proposed drink as new product was also characterized with sensory analysis, which included color, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptance. Results: Results showed that addition of plant extracts into a oat drink allowed to enhance its antioxidant potential and influenced significantly its sensory values. The preferred composition and properties of designed beverage permit claim that it can have a positive impact on the health of the consumers. Conclusion: Designed oat drink would be an answer for pro-healthy life style of the consumers. Results showed that product with plant extracts addition would be accepted by the consumers and because of its antioxidative potential could be an important factor in prevention of free radicals influence on human organism.

Keywords: phytonutrients, pro-health, well-being, antioxidant potential, sensory value

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
277 The Value of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in a Globalised World: A Case Study from the Peruvian Amazon

Authors: Anna Juliet Stephens

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This research emphasises the importance of incorporating traditional ecological knowledge into Peru’s development plans, as a way to manage some of the more adverse impacts of globalisation which continue to impinge on one of the world’s most biodiverse regions. In doing so, it argues for a development strategy to be implemented in the Peruvian Amazon which prioritises local and indigenous rights, needs and perspectives.

Keywords: traditional ecological knowledge, peruvian amazon, globalisation, indigenous, development

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
276 Rheological Properties and Thermal Performance of Suspensions of Microcapsules Containing Phase Change Materials

Authors: Vinh Duy Cao, Carlos Salas-Bringas, Anna M. Szczotok, Marianne Hiorth, Anna-Lena Kjøniksen

Abstract:

The increasing cost of energy supply for the purposes of heating and cooling creates a demand for more energy efficient buildings. Improved construction techniques and enhanced material technology can greatly reduce the energy consumption needed for the buildings. Microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) suspensions utilized as heat transfer fluids for energy storage and heat transfer applications provide promising potential solutions. A full understanding of the flow and thermal characteristics of microcapsule suspensions is needed to optimize the design of energy storage systems, in order to reduce the capital cost, system size, and energy consumption. The MPCM suspensions exhibited pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour, and significantly improved the thermal performance of the suspensions. Three different models were used to characterize the thixotropic behaviour of the MPCM suspensions: the second-order structural, kinetic model was found to give a better fit to the experimental data than the Weltman and Figoni-Shoemaker models. For all samples, the initial shear stress increased, and the breakdown rate accelerated significantly with increasing concentration. The thermal performance and rheological properties, especially the selection of rheological models, will be useful for developing the applications of microcapsules as heat transfer fluids in thermal energy storage system such as calculation of an optimum MPCM concentration, pumping power requirement, and specific power consumption. The effect of temperature on the shear thinning properties of the samples suggests that some of the phase change material is located outside the capsules, and contributes to agglomeration of the samples.

Keywords: latent heat, microencapsulated phase change materials, pseudoplastic, suspension, thixotropic behaviour

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275 The Microflora Assessment of the Urethra Area of Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes

Authors: Ewa Rusak, Sebastian Seget, Aleksandra Mroskowiak, Mirosław Partyka, Ewa Samulska, Julia Strózik, Anna Wilk, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot

Abstract:

Introduction: Children suffering from Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) are more prone to various infections. Results: There were 42 microbial species isolated in the collected materials. 2 patients were cultured negatively (3.2%). There were statistical correlations between the type of colonisation and patients’ sex and HbA1C value. Conclusions: It is extremely important to examine the urethral area at the time of diagnosis of T1D in order to detect inflammation and to undertake appropriate and effective intervention.

Keywords: diabetology, skin disorders, microbiology, microflora

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274 Investigating the Efficiency of Granular Sludge for Recovery of Phosphate from Wastewater

Authors: Sara Salehi, Ka Yu Cheng, Anna Heitz, Maneesha Ginige

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This study investigated the efficiency of granular sludge for phosphorous (P) recovery from wastewater. A laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated under alternating aerobic/anaerobic conditions to enrich a P accumulating granular biomass. This study showed that an overall 45-fold increase in P concentration could be achieved by reducing the volume of the P capturing liquor by 5-fold in the anaerobic P release phase. Moreover, different fractions of the granular biomass have different individual contributions towards generating a concentrated stream of P.

Keywords: granular sludge, PAOs, P recovery, SBR

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
273 Military Leadership: Emotion Culture and Emotion Coping in Morally Stressful Situations

Authors: Sofia Nilsson, Alicia Ohlsson, Linda-Marie Lundqvist, Aida Alvinius, Peder Hyllengren, Gerry Larsson

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In irregular warfare contexts, military personnel are often presented with morally ambiguous situations where they are aware of the morally correct choice but may feel prevented to follow through with it due to organizational demands. Moral stress and/or injury can be the outcome of the individual’s experienced dissonance. These types of challenges put a large demand on the individual to manage their own emotions and the emotions of others, particularly in the case of a leader. Both the ability and inability for emotional regulation can result in different combinations of short and long term reactions after morally stressful events, which can be either positive or negative. Our study analyzed the combination of these reactions based upon the types of morally challenging events that were described by the subjects. 1)What institutionalized norms concerning emotion regulation are favorable in short-and long-term perspectives after a morally stressful event? 2)What individual emotion-focused coping strategies are favorable in short-and long-perspectives after a morally stressful? To address these questions, we conducted a quantitative study in military contexts in Sweden and Norway on upcoming or current military officers (n=331). We tested a theoretical model built upon a recently developed qualitative study. The data was analyzed using factor analysis, multiple regression analysis and subgroup analyses. The results indicated that an individual’s restriction of emotion in order to achieve an organizational goal, which results in emotional dissonance, can be an effective short term strategy for both the individual and the organization; however, it appears to be unfavorable in a long-term perspective which can result in negative reactions. Our results are intriguing because they showed an increased percentage of reported negative long term reactions (13%), which indicated PTSD-related symptoms in comparison to previous Swedish studies which indicated lower PTSD symptomology.

Keywords: emotion culture, emotion coping, emotion management, military

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272 The Story of a Spoiled Identity: Blogging on Disability and Feminity

Authors: Anna Ślebioda

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The paper discusses intersections between disability and femininity. Their imbrication may impede negotiation of identity. The analysis of a blog of a women with disability aims to prove this hypothesis. It involves 724 entries written in the span of six years. The conceptual framework for the considerations constitute the concepts of stigma and spoiled identity, and overlapping elements of femininity and disability. The empirical part comprises content analysis. It allows to locate the narrative on femininity and disability within the dimensions of imbricated categories described in the theoretical part. The results demonstrate aspects to consider in further research on identity in women with disabilities.

Keywords: disability, femininity, spoiled identity, stigma

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271 Numerical Modeling of the Depth-Averaged Flow over a Hill

Authors: Anna Avramenko, Heikki Haario

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This paper reports the development and application of a 2D depth-averaged model. The main goal of this contribution is to apply the depth averaged equations to a wind park model in which the treatment of the geometry, introduced on the mathematical model by the mass and momentum source terms. The depth-averaged model will be used in future to find the optimal position of wind turbines in the wind park. K-E and 2D LES turbulence models were consider in this article. 2D CFD simulations for one hill was done to check the depth-averaged model in practise.

Keywords: depth-averaged equations, numerical modeling, CFD, wind park model

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
270 Great Art for Little Children - Games in School Education as Integration of Polish-Language, Eurhythmics, Artistic and Mathematical Subject Matter

Authors: Małgorzata Anna Karczmarzyk

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Who is the contemporary child? What are his/her distinctive features making him/her different from earlier generations? And how to teach in the dissimilar social reality? These questions will constitute the key to my reflections on contemporary early school education. For, to my mind, games have become highly significant for the modern model of education. There arise publications and research employing games to increase competence both in business, tutoring, or coaching, as well as in academic education . Thanks to games students and subordinates can be taught such abilities as problem thinking, creativity, consistent fulfillment of goals, resourcefulness and skills of communication.

Keywords: games, art, children, school education, integration

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269 Preliminary Report on the Assessment of the Impact of the Kinesiology Taping Application versus Placebo Taping on the Knee Joint Position Sense

Authors: Anna Hadamus, Patryk Wasowski, Anna Mosiolek, Zbigniew Wronski, Sebastian Wojtowicz, Dariusz Bialoszewski

Abstract:

Introduction: Kinesiology Taping is a very popular physiotherapy method, often used for healthy people, especially athletes, in order to stimulate the muscles and improve their performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the muscle application of Kinesiology Taping on the joint position sense in active motion. Material and Methods: The study involved 50 healthy people - 30 men and 20 women, mean age was 23.2 years (range 18-30 years). The exclusion criteria were injuries and operations of the knee, which could affect the test results. The participants were divided randomly into two equal groups. The first group consisted of individuals with the applied Kinesiology Taping muscle application (KT group), whereas in the rest of the individuals placebo application from red adhesive tape was used (placebo group). Both applications were to enhance the effects of quadriceps muscle activity. Joint position sense (JPS) was evaluated in this study. Error of Active Reproduction of the Joint Position (EARJP) of the knee was measured in 45° flexion. The test was performed prior to applying the patch, with the applied application, then 24 hours after wearing, and after removing the tape. The interval between trials was not less than 30 minutes. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 12.0. We calculated distribution characteristics, Wilcoxon test, Friedman‘s ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test. Results. In the KT group and the placebo group average test score of JPS before applying application KT were 3.48° and 5.16° respectively, after its application it was 4.84° and 4.88°, then after 24 hours of experiment JPS was 5.12° and 4.96°, and after application removal we measured 3.84° and 5.12° respectively. Differences over time in any of the groups were not statistically significant. There were also no significant differences between the groups. Conclusions: 1. Applying Kinesiology Taping to quadriceps muscle had no significant effect on the knee joint proprioception. Its use in order to improve sensorimitor skills seems therefore to be unreasonable. 2. No differences between applications of KT and placebo indicates that the clinical effect of stretch tape is minimal or absent. 3. The results are the basis for the continuation of prospective, randomized trials of numerous study groups.

Keywords: joint position sense, kinesiology taping, kinesiotaping, knee

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268 Fire Effects on Soil Properties of Meshchera Plain, Russia

Authors: Anna Tsibart, Timur Koshovskii

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The properties of soils affected by the wildfires of 2002, 2010, and 2012 in Meshchera plain (Moscow region, Russia) were considered in a current research. The formation of ash horizons instead of organic peat horizons was detected both in histosols and histic podzols. The increase of pH and magnetic susceptibility was observed in soil profiles. Significant burning out of organic matter was observed, but already two years after the fire the new stage of organic matter accumulation started.

Keywords: wildfires, peat soils, organic matter, Meshchera plain

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267 Structure-Phase States of Al-Si Alloy After Electron-Beam Treatment and Multicycle Fatigue

Authors: Krestina V. Alsaraeva, Victor E. Gromov, Sergey V. Konovalov, Anna A. Atroshkina

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Processing of Al-19.4Si alloy by high intensive electron beam has been carried out and multiple increase in fatigue life of the material has been revealed. Investigations of structure and surface modified layer destruction of Al-19.4Si alloy subjected to multicycle fatigue tests to fracture have been carried out by methods of scanning electron microscopy. The factors responsible for the increase of fatigue life of Al-19.4Si alloy have been revealed and analyzed.

Keywords: Al-19.4Si alloy, high intensive electron beam, multicycle fatigue, structure

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266 Metabolic Profiling of Populus trichocarpa Family 1 UDP-Glycosyltransferases

Authors: Patricia M. B. Saint-Vincent, Anna Furches, Stephanie Galanie, Erica Teixeira Prates, Piet Jones, Nancy Engle, David Kainer, Wellington Muchero, Daniel Jacobson, Timothy J. Tschaplinski

Abstract:

Uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are enzymes that catalyze sugar transfer to a variety of plant metabolites. UGT substrates, which include plant secondary metabolites involved in lignification, demonstrate new activities and incorporation when glycosylated. Knowledge of UGT function, substrate specificity, and enzyme products is important for plant engineering efforts, especially related to increasing plant biomass through lignification. UGTs in Populus trichocarpa, a biofuel feedstock, and model woody plant, were selected from a pool of gene candidates using rapid prioritization strategies. A functional genomics workflow, consisting of a metabolite genome-wide association study (mGWAS), expression of synthetic codon-optimized genes, and high-throughput biochemical assays with mass spectrometry-based analysis, was developed for determining the substrates and products of previously-uncharacterized enzymes. A total of 40 UGTs from P. trichocarpa were profiled, and the biochemical assay results were compared to predicted mGWAS connections. Assay results confirmed seven of 11 leaf mGWAS associations and demonstrated varying levels of substrate specificity among candidate UGTs. P. trichocarpa UGT substrate processing confirms the role of these newly-characterized enzymes in lignan, flavonoid, and phytohormone metabolism, with potential implications for cell wall biosynthesis, nitrogen uptake, and biotic and abiotic stress responses.

Keywords: Populus, metabolite-gene associations, GWAS, bio feedstocks, glycosyltransferase

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265 Assessment of Influence of Short-Lasting Whole-Body Vibration on the Proprioception of Lower Limbs

Authors: Sebastian Wójtowicz, Anna Mosiołek, Anna Słupik, Zbigniew Wroński, Dariusz Białoszewski

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Introduction: In whole-body vibration (WBV) high-frequency mechanical stimuli is generated by a vibration plate and is transferred through bone, muscle and connective tissues to the whole body. The research has shown that the implementation of a vibration plate training over a long period of time leads to improvement of neuromuscular facilitation, especially in afferent neural pathways, which are responsible for the conduction of vibration and proprioceptive stimuli, muscle function, balance, and proprioception. The vibration stimulus is suggested to briefly inhibit the conduction of afferent signals from proprioceptors and may hinder the maintenance of body balance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the result of a single set of exercises connected with whole-body vibration on the proprioception. Material and Methods: The study enrolled 60 people aged 19-24 years. These individuals were divided into a test group (group A) and a control group (group B). Both groups consisted of 30 persons and performed the same set of exercises on a vibration plate. The following vibration parameters: frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 3mm, were used in the group A. The vibration plate was turned off while the control group did their exercises. All participants performed six dynamic 30-seconds-long exercises with a 60-second resting period between them. Large muscle groups of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limbs were involved while taking the exercises. The results were measured before and immediately after the exercises. The proprioception of lower limbs was measured in a closed kinematic chain using a Humac 360®. Participants were instructed to perform three squats with biofeedback in a defined range of motion. Then they did three squats without biofeedback which were measured. The final result was the average of three measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0 PL software. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups, both before and after the exercise (p > 0.05). The proprioception did not change in both the group A and the group B. Conclusions: 1. Deterioration in proprioception was not observed immediately after the vibration stimulus. This suggests that vibration-induced blockage of proprioceptive stimuli conduction can only have a short-lasting effect occurring only in the presence of the vibration stimulus. 2. Short-term use of vibration seems to be safe for patients with proprioceptive impairment due to the fact that the treatment does not decrease proprioception. 3. There is a need for supplementing the results with evaluation of proprioception while vibration stimuli are being applied. Moreover, the effects of vibration parameters used in the exercises should be evaluated.

Keywords: joint position sense, proprioception, squat, whole body vibration

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264 Evaluation of External Costs of Traffic Accident in Slovak Republic

Authors: Anna Dolinayova, Jozef Danis, Juraj Camaj

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The report deals with comparison of traffic accidents in Slovak republic in road and rail transport since year 2009 until 2014, with evaluation of external costs and consequently with the possibilities of their internalization. The results of road traffic accidents analysis are realized in line with after-effects they have caused; in line with main cause, place of origin (within or out of town) and in accordance to age of people they were killed or hard, eventually easy injured in traffic accidents. Evaluation of individual after-effects is carried in terms of probability of traffic accidents occurrence.

Keywords: external costs, traffic accident, rail transport, road transport

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263 The Use of Methods and Techniques of Drama Education with Kindergarten Teachers

Authors: Vladimira Hornackova, Jana Kottasova, Zuzana Vanova, Anna Jungrova

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Present study deals with drama education in preschool education. The research made in this field brings a qualitative comparative survey with the aim to find out the use of methods and techniques of drama education in preschool education at university or secondary school graduate preschool teachers. The research uses a content analysis and an unstandardized questionnaire for preschool teachers and obtained data are processed with the help of descriptive methods and correlations. The results allow a comparison of aspects applied through drama in preschool education. The research brings impulses for education improvement in kindergartens and inspiration for university study programs of drama education in the professional training of preschool teachers.

Keywords: drama education, preschool education, preschool teacher, research

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262 Dance Skirts As Strategy For Gender Equality Work In Swedish Preschools Dance Education

Authors: Martha Pastorek Gripson, Anna Lindqvist

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The research project points at, and discusses, strategies, problems and possibilities when preschool teachers describe their work with dance in two Swedish preschools. The use of dance itself is a strategy for a more inclusive preschool practice and the use of so-called “dance skirts” is regarded as central for facilitating both dance qualities and to promote gender equality. The research is carried out in an action research project, involving two preschools with specific focus on gender equality work. The result problematizes the use of so-called “dance skirts”, as those can be both a tool for appreciation of aesthetics associated with femininity but at the same time create dance mainly as ballet related activity.

Keywords: dance, body, education, preschool, gender

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261 Students with Severe Learning Disabilities in Mainstream Classes: A Study of Comprehensions amongst School Staff and Parents Built on Observations and Interviews in a Phenomenological Framework

Authors: Inger Eriksson, Lisbeth Ohlsson, Jeremias Rosenqvist

Abstract:

Ingress: Focus in the study is directed towards phenomena and concepts of segregation, integration, and inclusion of students attending a special school form in Sweden, namely compulsory school for pupils with learning disabilities (in Swedish 'särskola') as an alternative to mainstream compulsory school. Aim: The aim of the study is to examine the school situation for students attending särskola from a historical perspective focussing the 1980s, 1990s and the 21st century, from an integration perspective, and from a perspective of power. Procedure: Five sub-studies are reported, where integration and inclusion are looked into by observation studies and interviews with school leaders, teachers, special and remedial teachers, psychologists, coordinators, and parents in the special schools/särskola. In brief, the study about special school students attending mainstream classes from 1998 takes its point of departure in the idea that all knowledge development takes place in a social context. A special interest is taken in the school’s role for integration generally, and the role of special education particularly and on whose conditions the integration is taking place – the special school students' or the other students,' or may be equally, in the class. Pedagogical and social conditions for so called individually integrated special school students in elementary school classes were studied in eleven classes. Results: The findings are interpreted in a power perspective supported by Foucault and relationally by Vygotsky. The main part of the data consists of extensive descriptions of the eleven cases, here called integration situations. Conclusions: In summary, this study suggests that the possibilities for a special school student to get into the class community and fellowship and thereby be integrated with the class are to a high degree dependant on to what extent the student can take part in the pedagogical processes. The pedagogical situation for the special school student is affected not only by the class teacher and the support and measures undertaken but also by the other students in the class as they, in turn, are affected by how the special school student is acting. This mutual impact, which constitutes the integration process in itself, might result in a true integration if the special school student attains the status of being accepted on his/her own terms not only being cared for or cherished by some classmates. A special school student who is not accepted even on the terms of the class will often experience severe problems in the contacts with classmates and the school situation might thus be a mere placement.

Keywords: integration/inclusion, mainstream school, power, special school students

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260 The Deprivation of Human Rights Experienced by African Children with Disabilities

Authors: Anna Wiltshire, Rebecca Markham

Abstract:

Over the last decade, a growing body of evidence has indicated that children with disabilities are often amongst the most excluded and vulnerable in society. The World Bank estimates that 20% of those living in poverty in developing countries are disabled which means that those with the least bear the greatest burden. Furthermore, children with disabilities in Africa have to face a multitude of difficulties ranging from the physical to the psychological. Misconceptions and cultural beliefs are used to justify violence against, or complete shunning of these individuals and their families. In addition, discrimination can prevent access to both education and health services, further compromising these individuals. All children, irrespective of their disability should be able to enjoy human rights without discrimination, but this is often not the case. This poster explores how and why children with disabilities in Africa are subject to violations of their human rights, and suggests ways of addressing these problems.

Keywords: Africa, children, disability, discrimination, human rights

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259 Analysis of Magnesium Alloy Wheel Forming Technologies for Light Vehicles

Authors: Anna Dziubinska

Abstract:

The applications of magnesium alloys in transport include all kinds of vehicle wheels for cars, motorcycles, bicycles, trolleys, etc. Modern technologies of manufacturing products from these materials have been noticeably improved recently, creating new possibilities for their application. Continuously developed technologies for forming Mg alloys must not be overlooked, which make it possible to manufacture products with better properties compared to those obtained by casting only. The article reviews the specialized literature on magnesium wheel forming and presents a concept of technology for forging magnesium wheels for light vehicles from cast preforms. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Norway Grants 2014-2021 via the National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: forming, forging, magnesium alloy, wheels, vehicles

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