Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 638

Search results for: Aman Ullah Khan

518 Nanoparticles in Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer, and Medical Imaging Techniques Using Nano-Technology

Authors: Rao Muhammad Afzal Khan

Abstract:

Nano technology is emerging as a useful technology in nearly all areas of Science and Technology. Its role in medical imaging is attracting the researchers towards existing and new imaging modalities and techniques. This presentation gives an overview of the development of the work done throughout the world. Furthermore, it lays an idea into the scope of the future use of this technology for diagnosing different diseases. A comparative analysis has also been discussed with an emphasis to detect diseases, in general, and cancer, in particular.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Diagnosis, Medical Imaging, cancer detection, nano-imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
517 Type of Sun Trackers and Its Controlling Techniques for MPPT

Authors: Talha Ali Khan

Abstract:

Discovering different energy resources to full fill the world growing demand is now one of the society’s bigger challenge for the next half-century. The main task is to convert the sun radiation into electricity via photovoltaic solar cells which is suddenly decreasing $/watt of delivered solar electricity. Therefore, in this context, the sun trackers are those devices that can be used to ameliorate efficiency. In this paper, a variety of the sun tracking systems are evaluated and their merits and demerits are highlighted. The most adept and proficient sun-tracking devices are polar axis and azimuth-elevation types.

Keywords: MPPT, dual axis, fixed axis, sun tracker

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
516 Enhanced Production of Endo-β-1,4-Xylanase from a Newly Isolated Thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29 for Prospective Industrial Applications

Authors: Shah Ali Ul Qader, Zainab Bibi, Afsheen Aman

Abstract:

Endo-β-1,4-xylanases [EC 3.2.1.8] are one of the major groups of enzymes that are involved in degradation process of xylan and have several applications in food, textile and paper processing industries. Due to broad utility of endo-β-1,4-xylanase, researchers are focusing to increase the productivity of this hydrolase from various microbial species. Harsh industrial condition, faster reaction rate and efficient hydrolysis of xylan with low risk of contamination are critical requirements of industry that can be fulfilled by synthesizing the enzyme with efficient properties. In the current study, a newly isolated thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29 was used in order to attain the maximum production of endo-1,4-β-xylanase. Bacterial culture was isolated from soil, collected around the blast furnace site of a steel processing mill, Karachi. Optimization of various nutritional and physical factors resulted the maximum synthesis of endo-1,4-β-xylanase from a thermophile. High production yield was achieved at 60°C and pH-6.0 after 24 hours of incubation period. Various nitrogen sources viz. peptone, yeast extract and meat extract improved the enzyme synthesis with 0.5%, 0.2% and 0.1% optimum concentrations. Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (0.25%), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.05%), ammonium sulfate (0.05%) and calcium chloride (0.01%) were noticed as valuable salts to improve the production of enzyme. The thermophilic nature of isolate, with its broad pH stability profile and reduced fermentation time indicates its importance for effective xylan saccharification and for large scale production of endo-1,4-β-xylanase.

Keywords: Optimization, Production, xylanase, geobacillus

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
515 Extrapulmonary Gastrointestinal Small Cell Carcinoma: A Single Institute Experience of 14 Patients from a Low Middle Income Country

Authors: Awais Naeem, Osama Shakeel, Faizan Ullah, Abdul Wahid Anwer

Abstract:

Introduction: To study the clinic-pathological factors, diagnostic factors and survival of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma. Methodology: From 1995 to 2017 all patients with a diagnosis of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma were included in the study. Demographic variables and clinic-pathological factors were collected. Management of disease was recorded. Short and long term oncological outcomes were recorded. All data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 14 patients were included in the study. Median age was 53.42 +/- 16.1 years. There were 5 male and 9 female patients. Most common presentation was dysphagia in 16 patient among esophageal small cell carcinoma and while other patient had pain in abdomen. Mean duration of symptoms was 4.23+/-2.91 months .Most common site is esophagus (n=6) followed by gall bladder(n=3). Almost all of the patients received chemo-radiotherapy. Majority of the patient presented with extensive disease. Five patients (35.7%) died during the follow up period, two (14.3%) were alive and rest of the patients were lost to follow up. Mean follow up period was 22.92 months and median follow up was 15 months. Conclusion: Extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma is rare and needs to be managed aggressively. All patients should be treated with both systemic and local therapies.

Keywords: small cell carcinoma of esophagus, extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma of gall bladder, small cell carcinoma of rectum, small cell carcinoma of stomach

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514 A Survey on the Sun Tracking Systems and Its Principle for Getting Maximum Sun Radiation

Authors: Talha Ali Khan

Abstract:

Discovering different energy resources to fulfill the world's growing demand is now one of the society’s bigger challenges for the next half-century. The main task is to convert the sun radiation into electricity via photovoltaic solar cells which is suddenly decreasing $/watt of delivered solar electricity. Therefore, in this context the sun trackers are those devices that can be used to ameliorate efficiency. In this paper, a variety of the sun tracking systems are evaluated and their merits and demerits are highlighted. The most adept and proficient sun-tracking devices are polar axis and azimuth-elevation types.

Keywords: dual axis, fixed axis, sun tracker, sun radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
513 Mobile Schooling for the Most Vulnerable Children on the Street: An Innovation

Authors: Md. Shakhawat Ullah Chowdhury

Abstract:

Mobile school is an innovative methodology in non-formal education to increase access to education for children during conflict through theatre for education for appropriate basic education to children during conflict. The continuous exposure to harsh environments and the nature of the lifestyles of children in conflict make them vulnerable. However, the mobile school initiative takes into consideration the mobile lifestyle of children in conflict. Schools are provided considering the pocket area of the street children with portable chalkboards, tin of books and materials as communities move. Teaching is multi-grade to ensure all children in the community benefit. The established mobile schools, while focused on basic literacy and numeracy skills according to traditions of the communities. The school teachers are selected by the community and trained by a theatre activist. These teachers continue to live and move with the community and provide continuous education for children in conflict. The model proposed a holistic team work to deliver education focused services to the street children’s pocket area where the team is mobile. The team consists of three members –an educator (theatre worker), a psychological counsellor and paramedics. The mobile team is responsible to educate street children and also play dramas which specially produce on the basis of national curriculum and awareness issues for street children. Children enjoy play and learn about life skills and basic literacy and numeracy skills which may be a pillar of humanitarian aid during conflict.

Keywords: vulnerable, children in conflict, mobile schooling, child-friendly

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
512 Synthesis of Amine Functionalized MOF-74 for Carbon Dioxide Capture

Authors: Ghulam Murshid, Samil Ullah

Abstract:

Scientific studies suggested that the incremented greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, particularly of carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major factors in global warming. The concentration of CO2 in our climate has crossed the milestone level of 400 parts per million (ppm) hence breaking the record of human history. A report by 49 researchers from 10 countries said, 'Global CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels will rise to a record 36 billion metric tons (39.683 billion tons) this year.' Main contributors of CO2 in to the atmosphere are usage of fossil fuel, transportation sector and power generation plants. Among all available technologies, which include; absorption via chemicals, membrane separation, cryogenic and adsorption are in practice around the globe. Adsorption of CO2 using metal organic frameworks (MOF) is getting interest of researcher around the globe. In the current work, MOF-74 as well as modified MOF-74 with a sterically hindered amine (AMP) was synthesized and characterized. The modification was carried out using a sterically hindered amine in order to study the effect on its adsorption capacity. Resulting samples were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analyser (TGA) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The FTIR results clearly confirmed the formation of MOF-74 structure and the presence of AMP. FESEM and TEM revealed the topography and morphology of the both MOF-74 and amine modified MOF. BET isotherm result shows that due to the addition of AMP in to the structure, significant enhancement of CO2 adsorption was observed.

Keywords: Global Warming, CO2, adsorbents, amine

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
511 Financial Ethics: A Review of 2010 Flash Crash

Authors: Sadaf Khalid, Omer Farooq, Salman Ahmed Khan

Abstract:

Modern day stock markets have almost entirely became automated. Even though it means increased profits for the investors by algorithms acting upon the slightest price change in order of microseconds, it also has given birth to many ethical dilemmas in the sense that slightest mistake can cause people to lose all of their livelihoods. This paper reviews one such event that happened on May 06, 2010 in which $1 trillion dollars disappeared from the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We are going to discuss its various aspects and the ethical dilemmas that have arisen due to it.

Keywords: stock market, flash crash, market crash, stock market crash

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
510 Laser Additive Manufacturing: A Literature Review

Authors: C. Mallika Parveen, Mihika Shivkumar, Pranav Mohan Parki, Tahseen Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the several manufacturing processes in use today. AM comprises of techniques such as ‘Selective Laser Sintering’ and ‘Selective Laser Melting’ etc. along with other equipment and materials has been developed way back in 1980s, although major use of these methods has risen during the last decade. AM seems to be the most efficient way when compared to the traditional machining procedures. Still many problems continue to hinder its progress to becoming the most widely used of all. This paper contributes to the better understanding of AM and also aims at providing viable solutions to these problems, which may further help in enabling AM to become the most flaw free production method.

Keywords: prototype, additive manufacturing (AM), laser sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
509 Livestock Depredation by Large Predators: Patterns, Perceptions and Implications for Conservation and Livelihoods in Karakoram Mountain Ranges

Authors: Babar Khan, Muhammad Zafar Khan, Muhammad Saeed Awan, Farida Begum

Abstract:

Livestock depredation has greater significance in pastoral societies like Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindu Kush mountain ranges. The dynamics of depredation by large predators (snow leopard and wolf) and its implications for conservation and livelihoods of local people was investigated by household surveys in Hushey valley of Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. We found that, during five years (2008-12) 90% of the households in the valley had lost their livestock to snow leopard and wolf, accounting for 4.3% of the total livestock holding per year. On average each household had to bear a loss of 0.8 livestock head per year, equivalent to Pak Rupees 9,853 (US$ 101), or 10% of the average annual cash income. Majority of the predation incidences occurred during late summer in alpine pastures, mostly at night when animals were not penned properly. The prey animals in most of the cases were females or young ones. Of the total predation incidences, 60% were attributed to snow leopard, 37% to wolf, while in 3% the predator was unknown. The fear of snow leopard is greater than that of wolf. As immediate response on predation, majority of the local people (64%, n=99) preferred to report the case to their village conservation committee, 32% had no response while only 1% tended to kill the predator. The perceived causes of predation were: poor guarding practices (77%); reduction in wild prey (13%) and livestock being the favourite food of predators (10%). The most preferred strategies for predator management, according to the respondents were improved and enhanced guarding of livestock (72%), followed by increasing wild prey (18%) and lethal control (10%). To strike a balance between predator populations and pastoral livelihoods, better animal husbandry practices should be promoted including: improved guarding through collective hiring of skilled shepherds; corral improvement and use of guard dogs.

Keywords: Predation, Panthera unica, Canis lupus, Karakoram, human-carnivore conflict

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
508 Analysis of Possible Causes of Fukushima Disaster

Authors: Abid Hossain Khan, Syam Hasan, M. A. R. Sarkar

Abstract:

Fukushima disaster is one of the most publicly exposed accidents in a nuclear facility which has changed the outlook of people towards nuclear power. Some have used it as an example to establish nuclear energy as an unsafe source, while others have tried to find the real reasons behind this accident. Many papers have tried to shed light on the possible causes, some of which are purely based on assumptions while others rely on rigorous data analysis. To our best knowledge, none of the works can say with absolute certainty that there is a single prominent reason that has paved the way to this unexpected incident. This paper attempts to compile all the apparent reasons behind Fukushima disaster and tries to analyze and identify the most likely one.

Keywords: Tsunami, Nuclear Facility, fuel meltdown, Fukushima disaster, Manmade calamity

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
507 Extending ACOSOG Z0011 to Encompass Mastectomy Patients: A Retrospective Review

Authors: Amina Khan, Ruqayya Naheed Khan, Awais Amjad Malik, Awais Naeem, Asad Parvaiz

Abstract:

Introduction: Axillary nodal status in breast cancer patients is a paramount prognosticator, next to primary tumor size and grade. It has been well established that patients with negative sentinel lymph node biopsy can safely avoid axillary lymph node dissection. A positive sentinel lymph node has traditionally required subsequent axillary dissection. According to ACOSOG Z11 trial, patients who underwent axillary dissection with 3 or more positive sentinel nodes or opted for observation in case of negative sentinel lymph node, did not find any difference in Overall Survival (OS) and Disease Free Survival (DFS). The Z11 trial included patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and excluded patients with mastectomies. The purpose of this study is to determine whether Z0011 can be applied to mastectomy patients as well in 1-3 positive sentinel lymph nodes and avoid unnecessary ALND. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted at Shaukat Khanam Memorial Cancer Hospital Pakistan from Jan 2015 to Dec 2017 including patients who were treated for invasive breast cancer and required upfront mastectomy. They were clinically node negative, so sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. Patients underwent ALND with positive sentinel lymph node. A total of 156 breast cancer patients with mastectomies were reviewed. Results: 95% of the patients were female while 3% were male. Average age was 44 years. There was no difference in race, comorbidities, histology, T stage, N stage, and overall stage, use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. 64 patients underwent ALND for positive lymph node while 92 patients were spared of axillary dissection due to negative sentinel lymph node biopsy. Out of 64 patients, 38 patients (59%) had only 1 lymph node positive which was the sentinel node. 18 patients (28%) had 2 lymph nodes positive including the sentinel node while only 8 patients (13%) had 3 or more positive nodes. Conclusion: Keeping in mind the complications related to ALND, above results clearly show that ALND could have been avoided in 87% of patients in the setting of adjuvant radiation, possibly avoiding the morbidity associated with axillary lymphadenectomy although a prospective randomized trial needs to confirm these results.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, mastectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, axillary lymph node dissection

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506 Effect of Varying Diets on Growth, Development and Survival of Queen Bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Captivity

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Zaighum Abbas, Mubasshir Sohail, Muhammad Abubakar, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Sami Ullah

Abstract:

Keeping in view the increasing demand, queen of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was reared artificially in this experiment at varying diets including royal jelly. Larval duration, pupal duration, weight, and size of pupae were evaluated at different diets including royal jelly. Queen larvae were raised by Doo Little grafting method. Four different diets were mixed with royal jelly and applied to larvae. Fructose, sugar, yeast, and honey were provided to rearing queen larvae along with same amount of royal jelly. Larval and pupal duration were longest (6.15 and 7.5 days, respectively) at yeast and shortest on honey (5.05 and 7.02 days, respectively). Heavier and bigger pupae were recorded on yeast (168.14 mg and 1.76 cm, respectively) followed by diets having sugar and honey. Due to production of heavier and bigger pupae, yeast was considered as best artificial diet for the growing queen larvae. So, in the second part of experiment, different amounts of yeast were provided to growing larvae along with fixed amount (0.5 g) of royal jelly. Survival rates of the larvae and queen bee were 70% and 40% in the 4-g food, 86.7% and 53.3% in the 6-g food, and 76.7% and 50% in the 8-g food. Weight of adult queen bee (1.459±0.191 g) and the number of ovarioles (41.7±21.3) were highest at 8 g of food. Results of this study are helpful for bee-keepers in producing fitter queen bees.

Keywords: apis melifera l, dietary effect, survival and development, honey bee queen

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
505 Encoding the Design of the Memorial Park and the Family Network as the Icon of 9/11 in Amy Waldman's the Submission

Authors: Masami Usui

Abstract:

After 9/11, the American literary scene was confronted with new perspectives that enabled both writers and readers to recognize the hidden aspects of their political, economic, legal, social, and cultural phenomena. There appeared an argument over new and challenging multicultural aspects after 9/11 and this argument is presented by a tension of space related to 9/11. In Amy Waldman’s the Submission (2011), designing both the memorial park and the family network has a significant meaning in establishing the progress of understanding from multiple perspectives. The most intriguing and controversial topic of racism is reflected in the Submission, where one young architect’s blind entry to the competition for the memorial of Ground Zero is nominated, yet he is confronted with strong objections and hostility as soon as he turns out to be a Muslim named Mohammad Khan. This ‘Khan’ issue, immediately enlarged into a social controversial issue on American soil, causes repeated acts of hostility to Muslim women by ignorant citizens all over America. His idea of the park is to design a new concept of tracing the cultural background of the open space. Against his will, his name is identified as the ‘ingredient’ of the networking of the resistant community with his supporters: on the other hand, the post 9/11 hysteria and victimization is presented in such family associations as the Angry Family Members and Grieving Family Members. These rapidly expanding networks, whether political or not, constructed by the internet, embody the contemporary societal connection and representation. The contemporary quest for the significance of human relationships is recognized as a quest for global peace. Designing both the memorial park and the communication networks strengthens a process of facing the shared conflicts and healing the survivors’ trauma. The tension between the idea and networking of the Garden for the memorial site and the collapse of Ground Zero signifies the double mission of the site: to establish the space to ease the wounded and to remember the catastrophe. Reading the design of these icons of 9/11 in the Submission means that decoding the myth of globalization and its representations in this century.

Keywords: Cultural Studies, Globalization, American literature, literature of catastrophe

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
504 On Optimum Stratification

Authors: M. G. M. Khan, V. D. Prasad, D. K. Rao

Abstract:

In this manuscript, we discuss the problem of determining the optimum stratification of a study (or main) variable based on the auxiliary variable that follows a uniform distribution. If the stratification of survey variable is made using the auxiliary variable it may lead to substantial gains in precision of the estimates. This problem is formulated as a Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLPP), which turn out to multistage decision problem and is solved using dynamic programming technique.

Keywords: dynamic programming technique, auxiliary variable, nonlinear programming problem, optimum stratification, uniform distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
503 Reliable Multicast Communication in Next Generation Networks

Authors: Muazzam Ali Khan Khattak

Abstract:

Next Generation Network is combination of different networks having different technologies. Due to mobile nature of nodes the movement of nodes occurs from one network to another network. Multicasting in such networks is still a hot issue of research because the user in today's world wants reliable communication wherever it lies. Due to heterogeneity of NGN it is very difficult to handle reliable multicast communication. In this paper we proposed an improved scheme for reliable multicast communication in next generation networks. Because multicast communication is very important to deliver same data packets to multiple receivers and minimize the network traffic. This new scheme will make the multicast communication in NGN more reliable and efficient.

Keywords: next generation networks, route request, IPT, NACK, ARQ, DTN

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
502 Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Carrier for Etoposide

Authors: Akhtar Aman, Abida Raza, Shumaila Bashir, Javaid Irfan, Andreas G. Schätzlein, Ijeoma F Uchegbeu

Abstract:

Development of efficient delivery system for hydrophobic drugs remains a major concern in chemotherapy. The objective of the current study was to develop polymeric drug-delivery system for etoposide from amphiphilic derivatives of glycol chitosan, capable to improve the pharmacokinetics and to reduce the adverse effects of etoposide due to various organic solvents used in commercial formulations for solubilisation of etoposide. As a promising carrier, amphiphilic derivatives of glycol chitosan were synthesized by chemical grafting of palmitic acid N-hydroxy succinimide and quaternisation to glycol chitosan backbone. To this end a 7.9 kDa glycol chitosan was modified by palmitoylation and quaternisation into 13 kDa. Nano sized micelles prepared from this amphiphilic polymer had the capability to encapsulate up to 3 mg/ml etoposide. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that GCPQ based etoposide formulation transformed the biodistribution pattern. AUC 0.5-24 hr showed statistically significant difference in ETP-GCPQ vs. commercial preparation in liver (25 vs 70, p<0.001), spleen (27 vs. 36, P<0.05), lungs (42 vs. 136, p<0.001), kidneys (25 vs. 30, p<0.05) and brain (19 vs. 9,p<0.001). Using the hydrophobic fluorescent dye Nile red, we showed that micelles efficiently delivered their payload to MCF7 and A2780 cancer cells in-vitro and to A431 xenograft tumor in-vivo, suggesting these systems could deliver hydrophobic anti- cancer drugs such as etoposide to tumors. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the GCPQ micelles transformed the biodistribution pattern and increased etoposide concentration in the brain significantly compared to free drug after intravenous administration. GCPQ based formulations not only reduced side effects associated with current available formulations but also increased their transport through the biological barriers, thus making it a good delivery system.

Keywords: Micelles, glycol chitosan, Nile red, etoposide, A431 xenografts

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
501 Duality in Multiobjective Nonlinear Programming under Generalized Second Order (F, b, φ, ρ, θ)− Univex Functions

Authors: Meraj Ali Khan, Falleh R. Al-Solamy

Abstract:

In the present paper, second order duality for multiobjective nonlinear programming are investigated under the second order generalized (F, b, φ, ρ, θ)− univex functions. The weak, strong and converse duality theorems are proved. Further, we also illustrated an example of (F, b, φ, ρ, θ)− univex functions. Results obtained in this paper extend some previously known results of multiobjective nonlinear programming in the literature.

Keywords: Duality, multiobjective programming, univex functions, univex

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
500 Most Important Educational Planning Issues in the Developing Countries

Authors: Naeem Khan

Abstract:

In 1971 Williams in his essay titled "What Educational Planning is About in Higher Education" defined educational planning as "planning in education, as in anything else consist essentially of deciding, in advance, what you want, to do and how you are going to do in". In the “World Year book of Education”. While Anderson and Bowman in 1976 in their joint article titled "Theoretical Considerations in Educational Planning" defined it as "the process of preparing a set of decisions for future action pertaining in education". There are so many other definitions which are related to educational planning in which every one stress on the importance of educational planning. But developing countries face a lot of problems related to the educational planning and this paper is to discuss few of them.

Keywords: Educational Planning, developing countries, Problems, education system

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
499 BER Estimate of WCDMA Systems with MATLAB Simulation Model

Authors: Suyeb Ahmed Khan, Mahmood Mian

Abstract:

Simulation plays an important role during all phases of the design and engineering of communications systems, from early stages of conceptual design through the various stages of implementation, testing, and fielding of the system. In the present paper, a simulation model has been constructed for the WCDMA system in order to evaluate the performance. This model describes multiusers effects and calculation of BER (Bit Error Rate) in 3G mobile systems using Simulink MATLAB 7.1. Gaussian Approximation defines the multi-user effect on system performance. BER has been analyzed with comparison between transmitting data and receiving data.

Keywords: Simulations, MATLAB, BER, WCDMA

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
498 Reliability of Dissimilar Metal Soldered Joint in Fabrication of Electromagnetic Interference Shielded Door Frame

Authors: Rehan Waheed, Hasan Aftab Saeed, Wasim Tarar, Khalid Mahmood, Sajid Ullah Butt

Abstract:

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielded doors made from brass extruded channels need to be welded with shielded enclosures to attain optimum shielding performance. Control of welding induced distortion is a problem in welding dissimilar metals like steel and brass. In this research, soldering of the steel-brass joint has been proposed to avoid weld distortion. The material used for brass channel is UNS C36000. The thickness of brass is defined by the manufacturing process, i.e. extrusion. The thickness of shielded enclosure material (ASTM A36) can be varied to produce joint between the dissimilar metals. Steel sections of different gauges are soldered using (91% tin, 9% zinc) solder to the brass, and strength of joint is measured by standard test procedures. It is observed that thin steel sheets produce a stronger bond with brass. The steel sections further require to be welded with shielded enclosure steel sheets through TIG welding process. Stresses and deformation in the vicinity of soldered portion is calculated through FE simulation. Crack formation in soldered area is also studied through experimental work. It has been found that in thin sheets deformation produced due to applied force is localized and has no effect on soldered joint area whereas in thick sheets profound cracks have been observed in soldered joint. The shielding effectiveness of EMI shielded door is compromised due to these cracks. The shielding effectiveness of the specimens is tested and results are compared.

Keywords: Soldering, EMI shielding, dissimilar metal, joint strength

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497 Isolate-Specific Variations among Clinical Isolates of Brucella Identified by Whole-Genome Sequencing, Bioinformatics and Comparative Genomics

Authors: Abu S. Mustafa, Mohammad W. Khan, Faraz Shaheed Khan, Nazima Habibi

Abstract:

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide prevalence. There are at least four species and several strains of Brucella that cause human disease. Brucella genomes have very limited variation across strains, which hinder strain identification using classical molecular techniques, including PCR and 16 S rDNA sequencing. The aim of this study was to perform whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates of Brucella and perform bioinformatics and comparative genomics analyses to determine the existence of genetic differences across the isolates of a single Brucella species and strain. The draft sequence data were generated from 15 clinical isolates of Brucella melitensis (biovar 2 strain 63/9) using MiSeq next generation sequencing platform. The generated reads were used for further assembly and analysis. All the analysis was performed using Bioinformatics work station (8 core i7 processor, 8GB RAM with Bio-Linux operating system). FastQC was used to determine the quality of reads and low quality reads were trimmed or eliminated using Fastx_trimmer. Assembly was done by using Velvet and ABySS softwares. The ordering of assembled contigs was performed by Mauve. An online server RAST was employed to annotate the contigs assembly. Annotated genomes were compared using Mauve and ACT tools. The QC score for DNA sequence data, generated by MiSeq, was higher than 30 for 80% of reads with more than 100x coverage, which suggested that data could be utilized for further analysis. However when analyzed by FastQC, quality of four reads was not good enough for creating a complete genome draft so remaining 11 samples were used for further analysis. The comparative genome analyses showed that despite sharing same gene sets, single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions existed across different genomes, which provided a variable extent of diversity to these bacteria. In conclusion, the next generation sequencing, bioinformatics, and comparative genome analysis can be utilized to find variations (point mutations, insertions and deletions) across different genomes of Brucella within a single strain. This information could be useful in surveillance and epidemiological studies supported by Kuwait University Research Sector grants MI04/15 and SRUL02/13.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Comparative Genomics, brucella, whole genome sequencing

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496 Greening the Blue: Enzymatic Degradation of Commercially Important Biopolymer Dextran Using Dextranase from Bacillus Licheniformis KIBGE-IB25

Authors: Shah Ali Ul Qader, Rashida Rahmat Zohra, Afsheen Aman

Abstract:

Commercially important biopolymer, dextran, is enzymatically degraded into lower molecular weight fractions of vast industrial potential. Various organisms are associated with dextranase production, among which fungal, yeast and bacterial origins are used for commercial production. Dextranases are used to remove contaminating dextran in sugar processing industry and also used in oral care products for efficient removal of dental plaque. Among the hydrolytic products of dextran, isomaltooligosaccharides have prebiotic effect in humans and reduces the cariogenic effect of sucrose in oral cavity. Dextran derivatives produced by hydrolysis of high molecular polymer are also conjugated with other chemical and metallic compounds for usage in pharmaceutical, fine chemical industry, cosmetics, and food industry. Owing to the vast application of dextran and dextranases, current study focused on purification and analysis of kinetic parameters of dextranase from a newly isolated strain of Bacillus licheniformis KIBGE-IB25. Dextranase was purified up to 35.75 folds with specific activity of 1405 U/mg and molecular weight of 158 kDa. Analysis of kinetic parameters revealed that dextranase performs optimum cleavage of low molecular weight dextran (5000 Da, 0.5%) at 35ºC in 15 min at pH 4.5 with a Km and Vmax of 0.3738 mg/ml and 182.0 µmol/min, respectively. Thermal stability profiling of dextranase showed that it retained 80% activity up to 6 hours at 30-35ºC and remains 90% active at pH 4.5. In short, the dextranase reported here performs rapid cleavage of substrate at mild operational conditions which makes it an ideal candidate for dextran removal in sugar processing industry and for commercial production of low molecular weight oligosaccharides.

Keywords: Enzyme purification, enzyme kinetics, Bacillus licheniformis, dextranase, gel permeation chromatograpy

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
495 In Silico Analysis of Salivary miRNAs to Identify the Diagnostic Biomarkers for Oral Cancer

Authors: Andleeb Zahra, Itrat Rubab, Sumaira Malik, Amina Khan, Muhammad Jawad Khan, M. Qaiser Fatmi

Abstract:

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the role of miRNA in disease pathology, indicating its potential use in an early diagnostic tool. miRNAs are small, double stranded, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by deregulating mRNAs. miRNAs play important roles in modifying various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune response. Dis-regulated expression of miRNAs is known to affect the cell growth, and this may function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in various cancers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study were to characterize the extracellular miRNAs involved in oral cancer (OC) to assist early detection of cancer as well as to propose a list of genes that can potentially be used as biomarkers of OC. We used gene expression data by microarrays already available in literature. Materials and Methods: In the first step, a total of 318 miRNAs involved in oral carcinoma were shortlisted followed by the prediction of their target genes. Simultaneously, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of oral carcinoma from all experiments were identified. The common genes between lists of DEGs of OC based on experimentally proven data and target genes of each miRNA were identified. These common genes are the targets of specific miRNA, which is involved in OC. Finally, a list of genes was generated which may be used as biomarker of OC. Results and Conclusion: In results, we included some of pathways in cancer to show the change in gene expression under the control of specific miRNA. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) provided a list of major biomarkers like CDH2, CDK7 and functional enrichment analysis identified the role of miRNA in major pathways like cell adhesion molecules pathway affected by cancer. We observed that at least 25 genes are regulated by maximum number of miRNAs, and thereby, they can be used as biomarkers of OC. To better understand the role of miRNA with respect to their target genes further experiments are required, and our study provides a platform to better understand the miRNA-OC relationship at genomics level.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Gene expression, miRNA, oral carcinoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
494 Automated Localization of Palpebral Conjunctiva and Hemoglobin Determination Using Smart Phone Camera

Authors: Faraz Tahir, M. Usman Akram, Albab Ahmad Khan, Mujahid Abbass, Ahmad Tariq, Nuzhat Qaiser

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the Degree of anemia by taking the picture of the palpebral conjunctiva using Smartphone Camera. We have first localized the region of interest from the image and then extracted certain features from that Region of interest and trained SVM classifier on those features and then, as a result, our system classifies the image in real-time on their level of hemoglobin. The proposed system has given an accuracy of 70%. We have trained our classifier on a locally gathered dataset of 30 patients.

Keywords: Anemia, SVM, smartphone, palpebral conjunctiva

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
493 Cross-Linked Amyloglucosidase Aggregates: A New Carrier Free Immobilization Strategy for Continuous Saccharification of Starch

Authors: Shah Ali Ul Qader, Sidra Pervez, Afsheen Aman

Abstract:

The importance of attaining an optimum performance of an enzyme is often a question of devising an effective method for its immobilization. Cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEAs) is a new approach for immobilization of enzymes using carrier free strategy. This method is exquisitely simple (involving precipitation of the enzyme from aqueous buffer followed by cross-linking of the resulting physical aggregates of enzyme molecules) and amenable to rapid optimization. Among many industrial enzymes, amyloglucosidase is an important amylolytic enzyme that hydrolyzes alpha (1→4) and alpha (1→6) glycosidic bonds in starch molecule and produce glucose as a sole end product. Glucose liberated by amyloglucosidase can be used for the production of ethanol and glucose syrups. Besides this amyloglucosidase can be widely used in various food and pharmaceuticals industries. For production of amyloglucosidase on commercial scale, filamentous fungi of genera Aspergillus are mostly used because they secrete large amount of enzymes extracellularly. The current investigation was based on isolation and identification of filamentous fungi from genus Aspergillus for the production of amyloglucosidase in submerged fermentation and optimization of cultivation parameters for starch saccharification. Natural isolates were identified as Aspergillus niger KIBGE-IB36, Aspergillus fumigatus KIBGE-IB33, Aspergillus flavus KIBGE-IB34 and Aspergillus terreus KIBGE-IB35 on taxonomical basis and 18S rDNA analysis and their sequence were submitted to GenBank. Among them, Aspergillus fumigatus KIBGE-IB33 was selected on the basis of maximum enzyme production. After optimization of fermentation conditions enzyme was immobilized on CLEA. Different parameters were optimized for maximum immobilization of amyloglucosidase. Data of enzyme stability (thermal and Storage) and reusability suggested the applicability of immobilized amyloglucosidase for continuous saccharification of starch in industrial processes.

Keywords: Industrial Processes, immobilization, aspergillus, starch saccharification

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
492 Burnout and Personality Characteristics of University Students

Authors: Tazvin Ijaz, Rabia Khan

Abstract:

The current study was conducted to identify the predictors of burnout among university students. The sample for the study was collected through simple random sampling. The tools to measure burnout and personality characteristics included Indigenous burnout scale and Eysenck personality inventory respectively. Results indicated that neurotic personality traits significantly predicts burnout among university students while extraversion does not lead to burnout. Results also indicated female students experience more burnout than male students. It was also found that family size and birth order did not affected the level of burnout. Results of the study are discussed to explain association between etiological factors and burnout with in Pakistani cultural context.

Keywords: Burnout, students, neuroticism, extraversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
491 A Framework for Supply Chain Efficiency Evaluation of Mass Customized Automobiles

Authors: Arshia Khan, Hans-Dietrich Haasis

Abstract:

Different tools of the supply chain should be managed very efficiently in mass customization. In the automobile industry, there are different strategies to manage these tools. We need to investigate which strategies among the different ones are successful and which are not. There is lack in literature regarding such analysis. Keeping this in view, the purpose of this paper is to construct a framework and model which can help to analyze the supply chain of mass customized automobiles quantitatively for future studies. Furthermore, we will also consider that which type of data can be used for the suggested model and where it can be taken from. Such framework can help to bring insight for future analysis.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Distribution, Inventory, mass customization, automobile industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
490 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

Keywords: Fixed Point, contractive-like operator, strong convergence, iterative algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
489 Stagnation Point Flow Over a Stretching Cylinder with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Slip Conditions

Authors: M. Y. Malik, Farzana Khan

Abstract:

In this article, we discuss the behavior of viscous fluid near stagnation point over a stretching cylinder with variable thermal conductivity. The effects of slip conditions are also encountered. Thermal conductivity is considered as a linear function of temperature. By using homotopy analysis method and Fehlberg method we compare the graphical results for both momentum and energy equations. The effect of different parameters on velocity and temperature fields are shown graphically.

Keywords: slip conditions, stretching cylinder, heat generation/absorption, stagnation point flow, variable thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 285