Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Alexey A. Melnikov

34 Melnikov Analysis for the Chaos of the Nonlocal Nanobeam Resting on Fractional-Order Softening Nonlinear Viscoelastic Foundations

Authors: Guy Joseph Eyebe, Gambo Betchewe, Alidou Mohamadou, Timoleon Crepin Kofane

Abstract:

In the present study, the dynamics of nanobeam resting on fractional order softening nonlinear viscoelastic pasternack foundations is studied. The Hamilton principle is used to derive the nonlinear equation of the motion. Approximate analytical solution is obtained by applying the standard averaging method. The Melnikov method is used to investigate the chaotic behaviors of device, the critical curve separating the chaotic and non-chaotic regions are found. It is shown that appearance of chaos in the system depends strongly on the fractional order parameter.

Keywords: chaos, fractional-order, Melnikov method, nanobeam

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
33 Femtochemistry of Iron(III) Carboxylates in Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Ivan P. Pozdnyakov, Alexey A. Melnikov, Nikolai V. Tkachenko

Abstract:

Photochemical reactions with participation of iron (III) carboxylates are important for environmental photochemistry and have a great potential of application in water purification (Advanced Oxidation Processes, photo-Fenton and Fenton-like processes). In spite of this information about excited states and primary intermediates in photochemistry of Fe(III) complexes with carboxylic acids is scarce. This talk presents and discusses the results of several recent authors' publications in a field of ultra fast spectroscopy of natural Fe(III) carboxylates.

Keywords: carboxylates, iron complexes, photochemistry, radical complexes, ultrafast processes

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32 DIAL Measurements of Vertical Distribution of Ozone at the Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

Authors: Oleg A. Romanovskii, Vladimir D. Burlakov, Sergey I. Dolgii, Olga V. Kharchenko, Alexey A. Nevzorov, Alexey V. Nevzorov

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of DIAL measurements of the vertical ozone distribution. The ozone lidar operate as part of the measurement complex at Siberian Lidar Station (SLS) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, Tomsk (56.5ºN; 85.0ºE) and designed for study of the vertical ozone distribution in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere. Most suitable wavelengths for measurements of ozone profiles are selected. We present an algorithm for retrieval of vertical distribution of ozone with temperature and aerosol correction during DIAL lidar sounding of the atmosphere. The temperature correction of ozone absorption coefficients is introduced in the software to reduce the retrieval errors. Results of lidar measurement at wavelengths of 299 and 341 nm agree with model estimates, which point to acceptable accuracy of ozone sounding in the 6–18 km altitude range.

Keywords: lidar, ozone distribution, atmosphere, DIAL

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31 Selection Standards for National Teams: Theory and Practice

Authors: Alexey Kulik

Abstract:

This article deals with selection standards for national sport teams. The author examines the legal framework for selection criteria and suggests using the most honest criteria.

Keywords: national teams, standards of forming teams, selection standards, sport legislations

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
30 Periodically Forced Oscillator with Noisy Chaotic Dynamics

Authors: Adedayo Oke Adelakun

Abstract:

The chaotic dynamics of periodically forced oscillators with smooth potential has been extensively investigated via theoretical, numerical and experimental simulations. With the advent of the study of chaotic dynamics by means of method of multiple time scale analysis, Melnikov theory, bifurcation diagram, Poincare's map, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents, it has become necessary to seek for a better understanding of nonlinear oscillator with noisy term. In this paper, we examine the influence of noise on complex dynamical behaviour of periodically forced F6 - Duffing oscillator for specific choice of noisy parameters. The inclusion of noisy term improves the dynamical behaviour of the oscillator which may have wider application in secure communication than smooth potential.

Keywords: hierarchical structure, periodically forced oscillator, noisy parameters, dynamical behaviour, F6 - duffing oscillator

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29 Nonlinear Power Measurement Algorithm of the Input Mix Components of the Noise Signal and Pulse Interference

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Valery P. Samarin, Viktor F. Klyuev, Andrey V. Klyuev

Abstract:

A power measurement algorithm of the input mix components of the noise signal and pulse interference is considered. The algorithm efficiency analysis has been carried out for different interference to signal ratio. Algorithm performance features have been explored by numerical experiment results.

Keywords: noise signal, pulse interference, signal power, spectrum width, detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
28 Coexistence of Two Different Types of Intermittency near the Boundary of Phase Synchronization in the Presence of Noise

Authors: Olga I. Moskalenko, Maksim O. Zhuravlev, Alexey A. Koronovskii, Alexander E. Hramov

Abstract:

Intermittent behavior near the boundary of phase synchronization in the presence of noise is studied. In certain range of the coupling parameter and noise intensity the intermittency of eyelet and ring intermittencies is shown to take place. Main results are illustrated using the example of two unidirectionally coupled Rössler systems. Similar behavior is shown to take place in two hydrodynamical models of Pierce diode coupled unidirectionally.

Keywords: chaotic oscillators, phase synchronization, noise, intermittency of intermittencies

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
27 Micropower Composite Nanomaterials Based on Porous Silicon for Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Alexey P. Antropov, Alexander V. Ragutkin, Nicolay A. Yashtulov

Abstract:

The original controlled technology for power active nanocomposite membrane-electrode assembly engineering on the basis of porous silicon is presented. The functional nanocomposites were studied by electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry methods. The application possibility of the obtained nanocomposites as high performance renewable energy sources for micro-power electronic devices is demonstrated.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, electron microscopy, nanotechnology, platinum-palladium nanocomposites, porous silicon, power activity, renewable energy sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
26 Detection Characteristics of the Random and Deterministic Signals in Antenna Arrays

Authors: Olesya Bolkhovskaya, Alexey Davydov, Alexander Maltsev

Abstract:

In this paper approach to incoherent signal detection in multi-element antenna array are researched and modeled. Two types of useful signals with unknown wavefront were considered. First one is deterministic (Barker code), the second one is random (Gaussian distribution). The derivation of the sufficient statistics took into account the linearity of the antenna array. The performance characteristics and detecting curves are modeled and compared for different useful signals parameters and for different number of elements of the antenna array. Results of researches in case of some additional conditions can be applied to a digital communications systems.

Keywords: antenna array, detection curves, performance characteristics, quadrature processing, signal detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
25 Fast Algorithm to Determine Initial Tsunami Wave Shape at Source

Authors: Alexander P. Vazhenin, Mikhail M. Lavrentiev, Alexey A. Romanenko, Pavel V. Tatarintsev

Abstract:

One of the problems obstructing effective tsunami modelling is the lack of information about initial wave shape at source. The existing methods; geological, sea radars, satellite images, contain an important part of uncertainty. Therefore, direct measurement of tsunami waves obtained at the deep water bottom peruse recorders is also used. In this paper we propose a new method to reconstruct the initial sea surface displacement at tsunami source by the measured signal (marigram) approximation with the help of linear combination of synthetic marigrams from the selected set of unit sources, calculated in advance. This method has demonstrated good precision and very high performance. The mathematical model and results of numerical tests are here described.

Keywords: numerical tests, orthogonal decomposition, Tsunami Initial Sea Surface Displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
24 Improvement of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Accuracy by Means of Current Loop Circuit Using Optimal Digital Signal Processing

Authors: Peter A. L’vov, Roman S. Konovalov, Alexey A. L’vov

Abstract:

The paper presents the advanced digital modification of the conventional current loop circuit for pressure piezoelectric transducers. The optimal DSP algorithms of current loop responses by the maximum likelihood method are applied for diminishing of measurement errors. The loop circuit has some additional advantages such as the possibility to operate with any type of resistance or reactance sensors, and a considerable increase in accuracy and quality of measurements to be compared with AC bridges. The results obtained are dedicated to replace high-accuracy and expensive measuring bridges with current loop circuits.

Keywords: current loop, maximum likelihood method, optimal digital signal processing, precise pressure measurement

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23 Comparative Analysis of Two Approaches to Joint Signal Detection, ToA and AoA Estimation in Multi-Element Antenna Arrays

Authors: Olesya Bolkhovskaya, Alexey Davydov, Alexander Maltsev

Abstract:

In this paper two approaches to joint signal detection, time of arrival (ToA) and angle of arrival (AoA) estimation in multi-element antenna array are investigated. Two scenarios were considered: first one, when the waveform of the useful signal is known a priori and, second one, when the waveform of the desired signal is unknown. For first scenario, the antenna array signal processing based on multi-element matched filtering (MF) with the following non-coherent detection scheme and maximum likelihood (ML) parameter estimation blocks is exploited. For second scenario, the signal processing based on the antenna array elements covariance matrix estimation with the following eigenvector analysis and ML parameter estimation blocks is applied. The performance characteristics of both signal processing schemes are thoroughly investigated and compared for different useful signals and noise parameters.

Keywords: antenna array, signal detection, ToA, AoA estimation

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22 Fluctuations of Transfer Factor of the Mixer Based on Schottky Diode

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Arkady V. Yakimov, Mikhail I. Ryzhkin, Andrey V. Klyuev

Abstract:

Fluctuations of Schottky diode parameters in a structure of the mixer are investigated. These fluctuations are manifested in two ways. At the first, they lead to fluctuations in the transfer factor that is lead to the amplitude fluctuations in the signal of intermediate frequency. On the basis of the measurement data of 1/f noise of the diode at forward current, the estimation of a spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer is executed. Current dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer and dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer on the amplitude of the heterodyne signal are investigated. At the second, fluctuations in parameters of the diode lead to the occurrence of 1/f noise in the output signal of the mixer. This noise limits the sensitivity of the mixer to the value of received signal.

Keywords: current-voltage characteristic, fluctuations, mixer, Schottky diode, 1/f noise

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21 Study of Debonding of Composite Material from a Deforming Concrete Beam Using Infrared Thermography

Authors: Igor Shardakov, Anton Bykov, Alexey Shestakov, Irina Glot

Abstract:

This article focuses on the cycle of experimental studies of the formation of cracks and debondings in the concrete reinforced with carbon fiber. This research was carried out in Perm National Research Polytechnic University. A series of CFRP-strengthened RC beams was tested to investigate the influence of preload and crack repairing factors on CFRP debonding. IRT was applied to detect the early stage of IC debonding during the laboratory bending tests. It was found that for the beams strengthened under load after crack injecting, СFRP debonding strain is 4-65% lower than for the preliminary strengthened beams. The beams strengthened under the load had a relative area of debonding of 2 times higher than preliminary strengthened beams. The СFRP debonding strain is weakly dependent on the strength of the concrete substrate. For beams with a transverse wrapping anchorage in support sections FRP debonding is not a failure mode.

Keywords: IC debonding, infrared thermography, non-destructive testing methods, quality control, strengthening

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20 A Study of the Alumina Distribution in the Lab-Scale Cell during Aluminum Electrolysis

Authors: Olga Tkacheva, Pavel Arkhipov, Alexey Rudenko, Yurii Zaikov

Abstract:

The aluminum electrolysis process in the conventional cryolite-alumina electrolyte with cryolite ratio of 2.7 was carried out at an initial temperature of 970 °C and the anode current density of 0.5 A/cm2 in a 15A lab-scale cell in order to study the formation of the side ledge during electrolysis and the alumina distribution between electrolyte and side ledge. The alumina contained 35.97% α-phase and 64.03% γ-phase with the particles size in the range of 10-120 μm. The cryolite ratio and the alumina concentration were determined in molten electrolyte during electrolysis and in frozen bath after electrolysis. The side ledge in the electrolysis cell was formed only by the 13th hour of electrolysis. With a slight temperature decrease a significant increase in the side ledge thickness was observed. The basic components of the side ledge obtained by the XRD phase analysis were Na3AlF6, Na5Al3F14, Al2O3, and NaF.5CaF2.AlF3. As in the industrial cell, the increased alumina concentration in the side ledge formed on the cell walls and at the ledge-electrolyte-aluminum three-phase boundary during aluminum electrolysis in the lab cell was found (FTP No 05.604.21.0239, IN RFMEFI60419X0239).

Keywords: alumina distribution, aluminum electrolyzer, cryolie-alumina electrolyte, side ledge

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19 Genetically Encoded Tool with Time-Resolved Fluorescence Readout for the Calcium Concentration Measurement

Authors: Tatiana R. Simonyan, Elena A. Protasova, Anastasia V. Mamontova, Eugene G. Maksimov, Konstantin A. Lukyanov, Alexey M. Bogdanov

Abstract:

Here, we describe two variants of the calcium indicators based on the GCaMP sensitive core and BrUSLEE fluorescent protein (GCaMP-BrUSLEE and GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145). In contrast to the conventional GCaMP6-family indicators, these fluorophores are characterized by the well-marked responsiveness of their fluorescence decay kinetics to external calcium concentration both in vitro and in cellulo. Specifically, we show that the purified GCaMP-BrUSLEE and GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 exhibit three-component fluorescence decay kinetics, with the amplitude-normalized lifetime component (t3*A3) of GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 changing four-fold (500-2000 a.u.) in response to a Ca²⁺ concentration shift in the range of 0—350 nM. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy of live cells displays the two-fold change of the GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 mean lifetime upon histamine-stimulated calcium release. The aforementioned Ca²⁺-dependence calls considering the GCaMP-BrUSLEE-145 as a prospective Ca²⁺-indicator with the signal read-out in the time domain.

Keywords: calcium imaging, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, fluorescent proteins, genetically encoded indicators

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18 Shape Evolution of CdSe Quantum Dots during the Synthesis in the Presence of Silver Halides

Authors: Pavel Kotin, Sergey Dotofeev, Daniil Kozlov, Alexey Garshev

Abstract:

We propose the investigation of CdSe quantum dots which were synthesized in the presence of silver halides. To understand a process of nanoparticle formation in more detail, we varied the silver halide amount in the synthesis and proposed a sampling during colloidal growth. The attempts were focused on the investigation of shape, structure and optical properties of nanoparticles. We used the colloidal method of synthesis. Cadmium oleate, tri-n-octylphosphine selenide (TOPSe) and AgHal in TOP were precursors of cadmium, selenium and silver halides correspondingly. The molar Ag/Cd ratio in synthesis was varied from 1/16 to 1/1. The sampling was basically realized in 20 sec, 5 min, and 30 min after the beginning of quantum dots nucleation. To investigate nanoparticles we used transmission electron microscopy (including high resolution one), X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy. It was established that silver halides lead to obtaining tetrapods with different leg length and large ellipsoidal nanoparticles possessing an intensive near IR photoluminescence. The change of the amount of silver halide in synthesis and the selection of an optimal growth time allows controlling the shape and the share of tetrapods or ellipsoidal nanoparticles in the product. Our main attempts were focused on a detailed investigation of the quantum dots structure and shape evolution and, finally, on mechanisms of such nanoparticle formation.

Keywords: colloidal quantum dots, shape evolution, silver doping, tetrapods

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17 Investigation of Crack Formation in Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Beams and in Beams Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Sheet: Theory and Experiment

Authors: Anton A. Bykov, Irina O. Glot, Igor N. Shardakov, Alexey P. Shestakov

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the mechanisms of crack formation in reinforced concrete beams subjected to quasi-static bending. The boundary-value problem has been formulated in the framework of brittle fracture mechanics and has been solved by using the finite-element method. Numerical simulation of the vibrations of an uncracked beam and a beam with cracks of different size serves to determine the pattern of changes in the spectrum of eigenfrequencies observed during crack evolution. Experiments were performed on the sequential quasistatic four-point bending of the beam leading to the formation of cracks in concrete. At each loading stage, the beam was subjected to an impulse load to induce vibrations. Two stages of cracking were detected. At the first stage the conservative process of deformation is realized. The second stage is an active cracking, which is marked by a sharp change in eingenfrequencies. The boundary of a transition from one stage to another is well registered. The vibration behavior was examined for the beams strengthened by carbon-fiber sheet before loading and at the intermediate stage of loading after the grouting of initial cracks. The obtained results show that the vibrodiagnostic approach is an effective tool for monitoring of cracking and for assessing the quality of measures aimed at strengthening concrete structures.

Keywords: crack formation, experiment, mathematical modeling, reinforced concrete, vibrodiagnostics

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16 Device for Reversible Hydrogen Isotope Storage with Aluminum Oxide Ceramic Case

Authors: Igor P. Maximkin, Arkady A. Yukhimchuk, Victor V. Baluev, Igor L. Malkov, Rafael K. Musyaev, Damir T. Sitdikov, Alexey V. Buchirin, Vasily V. Tikhonov

Abstract:

Minimization of tritium diffusion leakage when developing devices handling tritium-containing media is key problems whose solution will at least allow essential enhancement of radiation safety and minimization of diffusion losses of expensive tritium. One of the ways to solve this problem is to use Al₂O₃ high-strength non-porous ceramics as a structural material of the bed body. This alumina ceramics offers high strength characteristics, but its main advantages are low hydrogen permeability (as against the used structural material) and high dielectric properties. The latter enables direct induction heating of an hydride-forming metal without essential heating of the pressure and containment vessel. The use of alumina ceramics and induction heating allows: - essential reduction of tritium extraction time; - several orders reduction of tritium diffusion leakage; - more complete extraction of tritium from metal hydrides due to its higher heating up to melting in the event of final disposal of the device. The paper presents computational and experimental results for the tritium bed designed to absorb 6 liters of tritium. Titanium was used as hydrogen isotope sorbent. Results of hydrogen realize kinetic from hydride-forming metal, strength and cyclic service life tests are reported. Recommendations are also provided for the practical use of the given bed type.

Keywords: aluminum oxide ceramic, hydrogen pressure, hydrogen isotope storage, titanium hydride

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15 A Study of Surface of Titanium Targets for Neutron Generators

Authors: Alexey Yu. Postnikov, Nikolay T. Kazakovskiy, Valery V. Mokrushin, Irina A. Tsareva, Andrey A. Potekhin, Valentina N. Golubeva, Yuliya V. Potekhina, Maxim V. Tsarev

Abstract:

The development of tritium and deuterium targets for neutron tubes and generators is a part of the activities in All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF). These items contain a metal substrate (for example, copper) with a titanium film with a few microns thickness deposited on it. Then these metal films are saturated with tritium, deuterium or their mixtures. The significant problem in neutron tubes and neutron generators is the characterization of substrate surface before a deposition of titanium film on it, and analysis of the deposited titanium film’s surface before hydrogenation and after a saturation of the film with hydrogen isotopes. The performance effectiveness of neutron tube and generator also depends on upon the quality parameters of the surface of the initial substrate, deposited metal film and hydrogenated target. The objective of our work is to study the target prototype samples, that have differ by various approaches to the preliminary chemical processing of a copper substrate, and to analyze the integrity of titanium film after its saturation with deuterium. The research results of copper substrate and the surface of deposited titanium film with the use of electron microscopy, X-ray spectral microanalysis and laser-spark methods of analyses are presented. The causes of surface defects appearance have been identified. The distribution of deuterium and some impurities (oxygen and nitrogen) along the surface and across the height of the hydrogenated film in the target has been established. This allows us to evaluate the composition homogeneity of the samples and consequently to estimate the quality of hydrogenated samples. As the result of this work the propositions on the advancement of production technology and characterization of target’s surface have been presented.

Keywords: tritium and deuterium targets, titanium film, laser-spark methods, electron microscopy

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14 Nanoprofiling of GaAs Surface in a Combined Low-Temperature Plasma for Microwave Devices

Authors: Victor S. Klimin, Alexey A. Rezvan, Maxim S. Solodovnik, Oleg A. Ageev

Abstract:

In this paper, the problems of existing methods of profiling and surface modification of nanoscale arsenide-gallium structures are analyzed. The use of a combination of methods of local anodic oxidation and plasma chemical etching to solve this problem is considered. The main features that make this technology one of the promising areas of modification and profiling of near-surface layers of solids are demonstrated. In this paper, we studied the effect of formation stress and etching time on the geometrical parameters of the etched layer and the roughness of the etched surface. Experimental dependences of the thickness of the etched layer on the time and stress of formation were obtained. The surface analysis was carried out using atomic force microscopy methods, the corresponding profilograms were constructed from the obtained images, and the roughness of the etched surface was studied accordingly. It was shown that at high formation voltage, the depth of the etched surface increased, this is due to an increase in the number of active particles (oxygen ions and hydroxyl groups) formed as a result of the decomposition of water molecules in an electric field, during the formation of oxide nanostructures on the surface of gallium arsenide. Oxide layers were used as negative masks for subsequent plasma chemical etching by the STE ICPe68 unit. BCl₃ was chosen as the chlorine-containing gas, which differs from analogs in some parameters for the effect of etching of nanostructures based on gallium arsenide in the low-temperature plasma. The gas mixture of reaction chamber consisted of a buffer gas NAr = 100 cm³/min and a chlorine-containing gas NBCl₃ = 15 cm³/min at a pressure P = 2 Pa. The influence of these methods modes, which are formation voltage and etching time, on the roughness and geometric parameters, and corresponding dependences are demonstrated. Probe nanotechnology was used for surface analysis.

Keywords: nanostructures, GaAs, plasma chemical etching, modification structures

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13 Study and Fine Characterization of the SS 316L Microstructures Obtained by Laser Beam Melting Process

Authors: Sebastien Relave, Christophe Desrayaud, Aurelien Vilani, Alexey Sova

Abstract:

Laser beam melting (LBM) is an additive manufacturing process that enables complex 3D parts to be designed. This process is now commonly employed for various applications such as chemistry or energy, requiring the use of stainless steel grades. LBM can offer comparable and sometimes superior mechanical properties to those of wrought materials. However, we observed an anisotropic microstructure which results from the process, caused by the very high thermal gradients along the building axis. This microstructure can be harmful depending on the application. For this reason, control and prediction of the microstructure are important to ensure the improvement and reproducibility of the mechanical properties. This study is focused on the 316L SS grade and aims at understanding the solidification and transformation mechanisms during process. Experiments to analyse the nucleation and growth of the microstructure obtained by the LBM process according to several conditions. These samples have been designed on different type of support bulk and lattice. Samples are produced on ProX DMP 200 LBM device. For the two conditions the analysis of microstructures, thanks to SEM and EBSD, revealed a single phase Austenite with preferential crystallite growth along the (100) plane. The microstructure was presented a hierarchical structure consisting columnar grains sizes in the range of 20-100 µm and sub grains structure of size 0.5 μm. These sub-grains were found in different shapes (columnar and cellular). This difference can be explained by a variation of the thermal gradient and cooling rate or element segregation while no sign of element segregation was found at the sub-grain boundaries. A high dislocation concentration was observed at sub-grain boundaries. These sub-grains are separated by very low misorientation walls ( < 2°) this causes a lattice of curvature inside large grain. A discussion is proposed on the occurrence of these microstructures formation, in regard of the LBM process conditions.

Keywords: selective laser melting, stainless steel, microstructure

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12 The Clinical Manifestations of Myocardial Bridging in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Alexey Yu. Martynov, Sulejman Bayramov

Abstract:

Introduction: The myocardial bridging is the most common anomaly of the coronary arteries (CA). Depending on the examination method, the frequency of detected myocardial bridges (MB) varies in a rather wide range. The typical clinical manifestations of MB are angina pectoris, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death. Objective: To study the incidence of MB in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). To assess clinical manifestations of MB in patients admitted with CAD. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 19159 case histories of patients admitted at clinical city hospital in Moscow from 01.01.2018 to 31.12 2019 with CAD was performed. 9384 patients’ coronary angiographies (CAG) were examined for MB. The localization of MB, the degree of coronary contraction by MB, the number of MB, isolated MB and combined with CAD were assessed. The clinical manifestations of MB were determined. Results: MB was detected in 52 patients all with one myocardial bridge. 20 patients with MB have intact CA, and 32 patients have MB combined with CAD. Among 20 patients with intact CA: I degree of MB contraction (up to 50%) was detected in 9 patients. Clinical manifestations in five cases were angina pectoris, in 3 myocardial infarction (MI) - 1 patients with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), 2 without ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI), 1 post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS). Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, vasospastic angina (VSA) in 1 patient. II degree of MB contraction (up to 50-70%) was determined in 9 patients: in seven cases angina pectoris was detected, 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, VSA in 3 patients. III degree of MB contraction (> 70%) detected in 2 patients. II FC stable angina in one case, PICS in another. Among 32 patients having MB combined with CAD I degree of MB contraction was observed in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations in 12 cases were angina pectoris in 8 II FC and in 4 III FC, 7 MI 6 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. II degree of MB contraction was detected in 7 patients, 4 of them had angina pectoris, 3 MI 2 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI. Stable angina II FC in 3, VSA in 1 patients. III degree of MB contraction was diagnosed in five patients. In two cases, II FC and III FC stable angina were observed, 2 MI with STEMI and NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Conclusions: MB incidence is one in 368 patients with CAD. The most common involvement (68%) is MB combined with CA atherosclerotic lesions. MB with intact CA are detected in one-third (32%) of patients. The first-degree MB contraction is most frequent condition. MI is more often detected in intact CA with first degree MB than in the second degree. The degree of MB contraction was not correlated with the severity of the clinical manifestations.

Keywords: clinical manifestations, coronary angiography, coronary artery disease, myocardial bridging, myocardial infarction, stable angina

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11 Generation of the Thrombin in COVID-19 Patients with Thrombophilia of Various Genesis Both During Acute Phase and Recovery

Authors: Olga S. Beznoshchenko, Elena A.Gorodnova, Natalia V. Dolgushina, Lybov V. Krechetova, Tatiana Yu. Ivanets, Andrey Yu. Romanov, Irina V. Menzhinskaya, Alexey V. Pyregov

Abstract:

Objective: To study the generation of thrombin in COVID-19 patients with thrombophilia against the background of ongoing therapy and in the recovery period. Materials and methods COVID-19 patients (n=14) with hereditary thrombophilia (FV and/or FII gene) – Group A, Group B (n=31) - with AT deficiency <60%, and/or PC <50%, and/or PS <55% and/or aPL were assessed for: thrombin generation (AUC, %) and concentration (Cmax, %). Results: COVID-19-associated prothrombotic condition associated with the severity of the disease and prognosis for patients. In COVID-19 patients, it is necessary to determine the generation of thrombin as the key protein in the regulation of hemostatic balance since the presence of thrombophilia can result in the resistance to anticoagulant therapy and increase the risk of thrombosis. Study of 45 hospitalized COVID-19 patients both during the acute phase (point 1) and recovery (point 2): Group A (n=14) hereditary thrombophilia (polymorphism of the Factor V (FV)) G1691A (Leiden) and/or FII G20210A gene); Group B (n=31) acquired thrombophilia (antithrombin (AT) deficiency <60%, and/or protein C (PC) <50%, and/or protein S (PS) <55%, and/or persistence of criteria antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Determination of the endogenous potential of thrombin was effected in citrate plasma samples by using a SIEMENS BCS XP coagulometer (Germany, Siemens-Healthcare Diagnostics), with the help of the kit - ETP "INNOVATION" (Siemens, Germany). The Mann-Whitney test aimed at assessing differences in the groups, while the McNemar test was to compare related data in one of the groups. The differences between the statistical values were considered statistically significant at a confidence level of p <0.05. The area under the curve (AUC) with the corresponding sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) was considered appropriate for the adjusted regression model. In Group A, thrombin generation (AUC, 105% (101.1%-110.9%)) was higher than in Group B (AUC, 88% (83%-102%)) during the acute phase (P=0.0412), exceeding the reference interval at both points. Cmax in the groups was identical but increased progressively in patients of Group B – 108% (97.9%-120.6%) in point 2 (P=0.0407). COVID-19 patients with hereditary thrombophilia have higher thrombin levels, both during the acute phase and recovery period, despite ongoing anticoagulant therapy. Conclusions: The thrombin generation test can be used for COVID-19 patients with hereditary thrombophilia to monitor the thrombogenic potential of the hemostasis system and resistance to anticoagulant therapy.

Keywords: COVID-19, thrombin generation, thrombophilia, hemostasis

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10 Human Lens Metabolome: A Combined LC-MS and NMR Study

Authors: Vadim V. Yanshole, Lyudmila V. Yanshole, Alexey S. Kiryutin, Timofey D. Verkhovod, Yuri P. Tsentalovich

Abstract:

Cataract, or clouding of the eye lens, is the leading cause of vision impairment in the world. The lens tissue have very specific structure: It does not have vascular system, the lens proteins – crystallins – do not turnover throughout lifespan. The protection of lens proteins is provided by the metabolites which diffuse inside the lens from the aqueous humor or synthesized in the lens epithelial layer. Therefore, the study of changes in the metabolite composition of a cataractous lens as compared to a normal lens may elucidate the possible mechanisms of the cataract formation. Quantitative metabolomic profiles of normal and cataractous human lenses were obtained with the combined use of high-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass-spectrometric detection (LC-MS) methods. The quantitative content of more than fifty metabolites has been determined in this work for normal aged and cataractous human lenses. The most abundant metabolites in the normal lens are myo-inositol, lactate, creatine, glutathione, glutamate, and glucose. For the majority of metabolites, their levels in the lens cortex and nucleus are similar, with the few exceptions including antioxidants and UV filters: The concentrations of glutathione, ascorbate and NAD in the lens nucleus decrease as compared to the cortex, while the levels of the secondary UV filters formed from primary UV filters in redox processes increase. That confirms that the lens core is metabolically inert, and the metabolic activity in the lens nucleus is mostly restricted by protection from the oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation, UV filter spontaneous decomposition, or other factors. It was found that the metabolomic composition of normal and age-matched cataractous human lenses differ significantly. The content of the most important metabolites – antioxidants, UV filters, and osmolytes – in the cataractous nucleus is at least ten fold lower than in the normal nucleus. One may suppose that the majority of these metabolites are synthesized in the lens epithelial layer, and that age-related cataractogenesis might originate from the dysfunction of the lens epithelial cells. Comprehensive quantitative metabolic profiles of the human eye lens have been acquired for the first time. The obtained data can be used for the analysis of changes in the lens chemical composition occurring with age and with the cataract development.

Keywords: cataract, lens, NMR, LC-MS, metabolome

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9 On Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Secondary Distant Metastases Growth in Patients with Lymph Nodes Metastases

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to mathematical modelling of the progression and stages of breast cancer. We propose Consolidated mathematical growth model of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases (CoM-III) as a new research tool. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoM-III which reflects relations between primary tumor and secondary distant metastases; 3) analyzing the CoM-III scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. Firstly, the CoM-III includes exponential tumor growth model as a system of determinate nonlinear and linear equations. Secondly, mathematical model corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. Thus, the CoM-III model and predictive software: a) detect different growth periods of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases; b) make forecast of the period of the distant metastases appearance in patients with lymph nodes metastases; c) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; d) can improve forecasts on survival of breast cancer and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoM-III: the number of doublings for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of secondary distant metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of secondary distant metastases. The CoM-III enables, for the first time, to predict the whole natural history of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoM-III describes correctly primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth of IA, IIA, IIB, IIIB (T1-4N1-3M0) stages in patients with lymph nodes metastases (N1-3); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and inception of secondary distant metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical model, primary tumor, secondary metastases, survival

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8 On Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Primary Distant Metastases Growth

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

Finding algorithms to predict the growth of tumors has piqued the interest of researchers ever since the early days of cancer research. A number of studies were carried out as an attempt to obtain reliable data on the natural history of breast cancer growth. Mathematical modeling can play a very important role in the prognosis of tumor process of breast cancer. However, mathematical models describe primary tumor growth and metastases growth separately. Consequently, we propose a mathematical growth model for primary tumor and primary metastases which may help to improve predicting accuracy of breast cancer progression using an original mathematical model referred to CoM-IV and corresponding software. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of primary tumor and primary metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoM-IV which reflects relations between PT and MTS; 3) analyzing the CoM-IV scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. The CoM-IV is based on exponential tumor growth model and consists of a system of determinate nonlinear and linear equations; corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of primary tumor and primary metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for primary metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for primary metastases. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. Thus, the CoM-IV model and predictive software: a) detect different growth periods of primary tumor and primary metastases; b) make forecast of the period of primary metastases appearance; c) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; d) can improve forecasts on survival of BC and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoM-IV: the number of doublings for ‘nonvisible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of primary metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘nonvisible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of primary metastases. The CoM-IV enables, for the first time, to predict the whole natural history of primary tumor and primary metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoM-IV describes correctly primary tumor and primary distant metastases growth of IV (T1-4N0-3M1) stage with (N1-3) or without regional metastases in lymph nodes (N0); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and manifestation of primary metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical modelling, primary metastases, primary tumor, survival

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7 An Experimental Investigation of the Cognitive Noise Influence on the Bistable Visual Perception

Authors: Alexander E. Hramov, Vadim V. Grubov, Alexey A. Koronovskii, Maria K. Kurovskaуa, Anastasija E. Runnova

Abstract:

The perception of visual signals in the brain was among the first issues discussed in terms of multistability which has been introduced to provide mechanisms for information processing in biological neural systems. In this work the influence of the cognitive noise on the visual perception of multistable pictures has been investigated. The study includes an experiment with the bistable Necker cube illusion and the theoretical background explaining the obtained experimental results. In our experiments Necker cubes with different wireframe contrast were demonstrated repeatedly to different people and the probability of the choice of one of the cubes projection was calculated for each picture. The Necker cube was placed at the middle of a computer screen as black lines on a white background. The contrast of the three middle lines centered in the left middle corner was used as one of the control parameter. Between two successive demonstrations of Necker cubes another picture was shown to distract attention and to make a perception of next Necker cube more independent from the previous one. Eleven subjects, male and female, of the ages 20 through 45 were studied. The choice of the Necker cube projection was detected with the Electroencephalograph-recorder Encephalan-EEGR-19/26, Medicom MTD. To treat the experimental results we carried out theoretical consideration using the simplest double-well potential model with the presence of noise that led to the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of the stochastic process. At the first time an analytical solution for the probability of the selection of one of the Necker cube projection for different values of wireframe contrast have been obtained. Furthermore, having used the results of the experimental measurements with the help of the method of least squares we have calculated the value of the parameter corresponding to the cognitive noise of the person being studied. The range of cognitive noise parameter values for studied subjects turned to be [0.08; 0.55]. It should be noted, that experimental results have a good reproducibility, the same person being studied repeatedly another day produces very similar data with very close levels of cognitive noise. We found an excellent agreement between analytically deduced probability and the results obtained in the experiment. A good qualitative agreement between theoretical and experimental results indicates that even such a simple model allows simulating brain cognitive dynamics and estimating important cognitive characteristic of the brain, such as brain noise.

Keywords: bistability, brain, noise, perception, stochastic processes

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6 Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Secondary Distant Metastases Growth

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

This study is an attempt to obtain reliable data on the natural history of breast cancer growth. We analyze the opportunities for using classical mathematical models (exponential and logistic tumor growth models, Gompertz and von Bertalanffy tumor growth models) to try to describe growth of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases of human breast cancer. The research aim is to improve predicting accuracy of breast cancer progression using an original mathematical model referred to CoMPaS and corresponding software. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoMPaS which reflects relations between the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases; 3) analyzing the CoMPaS scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. The foundation of the CoMPaS is the exponential tumor growth model, which is described by determinate nonlinear and linear equations. The CoMPaS corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for the primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for the secondary distant metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for the secondary distant metastases. The CoMPaS is validated on clinical data of 10-years and 15-years survival depending on the tumor stage and diameter of the primary tumor. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer growth models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. The CoMPaS model and predictive software: a) fit to clinical trials data; b) detect different growth periods of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases; c) make forecast of the period of the secondary distant metastases appearance; d) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; e) can improve forecasts on survival of breast cancer and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoMPaS: the number of doublings for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of the secondary distant metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of the secondary distant metastases. The CoMPaS enables, for the first time, to predict ‘whole natural history’ of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on the primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoMPaS describes correctly the primary tumor growth of IA, IIA, IIB, IIIB (T1-4N0M0) stages without metastases in lymph nodes (N0); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and inception of the secondary distant metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical model, metastases in lymph nodes, primary tumor, survival

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5 Automatic Differentiation of Ultrasonic Images of Cystic and Solid Breast Lesions

Authors: Dmitry V. Pasynkov, Ivan A. Egoshin, Alexey A. Kolchev, Ivan V. Kliouchkin

Abstract:

In most cases, typical cysts are easily recognized at ultrasonography. The specificity of this method for typical cysts reaches 98%, and it is usually considered as gold standard for typical cyst diagnosis. However, it is necessary to have all the following features to conclude the typical cyst: clear margin, the absence of internal echoes and dorsal acoustic enhancement. At the same time, not every breast cyst is typical. It is especially characteristic for protein-contained cysts that may have significant internal echoes. On the other hand, some solid lesions (predominantly malignant) may have cystic appearance and may be falsely accepted as cysts. Therefore we tried to develop the automatic method of cystic and solid breast lesions differentiation. Materials and methods. The input data were the ultrasonography digital images with the 256-gradations of gray color (Medison SA8000SE, Siemens X150, Esaote MyLab C). Identification of the lesion on these images was performed in two steps. On the first one, the region of interest (or contour of lesion) was searched and selected. Selection of such region is carried out using the sigmoid filter where the threshold is calculated according to the empirical distribution function of the image brightness and, if necessary, it was corrected according to the average brightness of the image points which have the highest gradient of brightness. At the second step, the identification of the selected region to one of lesion groups by its statistical characteristics of brightness distribution was made. The following characteristics were used: entropy, coefficients of the linear and polynomial regression, quantiles of different orders, an average gradient of brightness, etc. For determination of decisive criterion of belonging to one of lesion groups (cystic or solid) the training set of these characteristics of brightness distribution separately for benign and malignant lesions were received. To test our approach we used a set of 217 ultrasonic images of 107 cystic (including 53 atypical, difficult for bare eye differentiation) and 110 solid lesions. All lesions were cytologically and/or histologically confirmed. Visual identification was performed by trained specialist in breast ultrasonography. Results. Our system correctly distinguished all (107, 100%) typical cysts, 107 of 110 (97.3%) solid lesions and 50 of 53 (94.3%) atypical cysts. On the contrary, with the bare eye it was possible to identify correctly all (107, 100%) typical cysts, 96 of 110 (87.3%) solid lesions and 32 of 53 (60.4%) atypical cysts. Conclusion. Automatic approach significantly surpasses the visual assessment performed by trained specialist. The difference is especially large for atypical cysts and hypoechoic solid lesions with the clear margin. This data may have a clinical significance.

Keywords: breast cyst, breast solid lesion, differentiation, ultrasonography

Procedia PDF Downloads 192