Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Akshay S. Dalvi

14 Modified Model-Based Systems Engineering Driven Approach for Defining Complex Energy Systems

Authors: Akshay S. Dalvi, Hazim El-Mounayri

Abstract:

The internal and the external interactions between the complex structural and behavioral characteristics of the complex energy system result in unpredictable emergent behaviors. These emergent behaviors are not well understood, especially when modeled using the traditional top-down systems engineering approach. The intrinsic nature of current complex energy systems has called for an elegant solution that provides an integrated framework in Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). This paper mainly presents a MBSE driven approach to define and handle the complexity that arises due to emergent behaviors. The approach provides guidelines for developing system architecture that leverages in predicting the complexity index of the system at different levels of abstraction. A framework that integrates indefinite and definite modeling aspects is developed to determine the complexity that arises during the development phase of the system. This framework provides a workflow for modeling complex systems using Systems Modeling Language (SysML) that captures the system’s requirements, behavior, structure, and analytical aspects at both problem definition and solution levels. A system architecture for a district cooling plant is presented, which demonstrates the ability to predict the complexity index. The result suggests that complex energy systems like district cooling plant can be defined in an elegant manner using the unconventional modified MBSE driven approach that helps in estimating development time and cost.

Keywords: district cooling plant, energy systems, framework, MBSE

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13 Survey: Topology Hiding in Multipath Routing Protocol in MANET

Authors: Akshay Suhas Phalke, Manohar S. Chaudhari

Abstract:

In this paper, we have discussed the multipath routing with its variants. Our purpose is to discuss the different types of the multipath routing mechanism. Here we also put the taxonomy of the multipath routing. Multipath routing is used for the alternate path routing, reliable transmission of data and for better utilization of network resources. We also discussed the multipath routing for topology hiding such as TOHIP. In multipath routing, different parameters such as energy efficiency, packet delivery ratio, shortest path routing, fault tolerance play an important role. We have discussed a number of multipath routing protocol based on different parameters lastly.

Keywords: multi-path routing, WSN, topology, fault detection, trust

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12 A Concept of Data Mining with XML Document

Authors: Akshay Agrawal, Anand K. Srivastava

Abstract:

The increasing amount of XML datasets available to casual users increases the necessity of investigating techniques to extract knowledge from these data. Data mining is widely applied in the database research area in order to extract frequent correlations of values from both structured and semi-structured datasets. The increasing availability of heterogeneous XML sources has raised a number of issues concerning how to represent and manage these semi structured data. In recent years due to the importance of managing these resources and extracting knowledge from them, lots of methods have been proposed in order to represent and cluster them in different ways.

Keywords: XML, similarity measure, clustering, cluster quality, semantic clustering

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11 Effect of Sulfur Content on Fatigue Strength of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: Sachin S. Patil, Mohan I. Mehta, Sandip J. Sutar, Akshay B. Patil, Shreyas S. Kirwai, Suresh Arangi

Abstract:

MnS is the most commonly found inclusion in steel, which is desirable for machinability of alloy steels but only up to a certain limit, beyond which it weakens fatigue properties of steel. In present work, the effect of sulfur content and its inclusions on the fatigue behavior of AISI 4140 steel is studied (sulfur content 0.002% and 0.016%). Metallurgical analysis, Mechanical testing and Rotating Bending Fatigue (RBF) test were carried out. With the increase in sulfur content, ductility and toughness of the material decrease significantly and large scatter is observed in UTS and impact energy values. From the results of RBF testing, it can be observed that increase in sulfur content from 0.002% to 0.016% has a negligible effect on the endurance strength of AISI 4140 for similar hardness level. Fractography analysis was carried out to study the failure modes in testing.

Keywords: AISI 4140, sulfur content, MnS inclusion, rotating bending fatigue

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10 Comparative Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Smokers versus Non Nonsmokers Patients: Observational Studies

Authors: Pratima Tatke, Archana Avhad, Bhanu Duggal, Meeta Rajivlochan, Sujata Saunik, Pradip Vyas, Nidhi Pandey, Aditee Dalvi, Jyothi Subramanian

Abstract:

Background: Smoking is well established risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. It is strongly related to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. The aim of this study is to observe effect of smoking status on percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) after 1 year. Methods: 2527 patients who underwent PCI at different hospital of Maharashtra(India) from 2012 to 2015 under the health insurance scheme which is launched by Health department, Government of Maharashtra for below poverty line(BPL) families which covers cardiology. Informed consent of patients was taken .They were followed by telephonic survey after 6months to 1year of PCI . Outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction, restenosis, cardiac rehospitalization, death, and a composite of events after PCI. Made group of two non smokers-1861 and smokers (including patients who quit at time of PCI )-659. Results: Statistical Analysis using Pearson’s chi square test revealed that there was trend seen of increasing incidence of death, Myocardial infarction and Restenosis in smokers than non smokers .Smokers had a greater death risk compared to nonsmoker; 5.7% and 5.1% respectively p=0.518. Also Repeat procedures (2.1% vs. 1.5% p=0.222), breathlessness (17.8% vs. 18.20% p=0.1) and Myocardial Infarction (7.3% vs. 10%) high in smoker than non smokers. Conclusion: Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were observed even after successful PCI in smokers. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention should be encouraged to stop smoking.

Keywords: coronary artery diseases, major adverse cardiovascular events, percutaneous coronary intervention, smoking

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9 Development of Fire Douse Vehicle

Authors: Nikhil Verma, Akshay Kant Mishra, Rishabh Rastogi, Bikarama Prasad Yadav

Abstract:

Emerging fire incidents are the protuberant contributor out turning into life loss, property damage and importantly firefighters. It insinuates that a firefighting and rescue operation of the existing equipment or apparatus and their proficiency is limited, particularly in annihilating firefighting environments. The proposed methodology will help in developing a technology which can be useful in minimizing the risks and losses due to fire. In this paper, design and development of combat mini vehicle comprising of multi-purpose nozzle system is proposed which can target diverse fires simultaneously at distinct time and location. Basically, the system is semi-automated type protection system which can be manoeuvred by controller. Designing of robust vehicle based on semi-automated protection type system is consummated using SolidWorks platform. Concept of developing a robust vehicle will help to fight fires in multiple directions reducing the time required to douse multiple fires.

Keywords: fire douse vehicle, multiple fires, multi-purpose nozzle, semi-automated system

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8 Interpretation of Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) Traces for the Earth Fault Damage Practically Simulated on the Power Transformer Specially Developed for Performing Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Various Transformers

Authors: Akshay A. Pandya, B. R. Parekh

Abstract:

This paper presents how earth fault damage in the transformer can be detected by Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA). The test methods used by the authors for presenting the results are described. The power transformer of rating 10 KVA, 11000 V/440 V, 3-phase, 50 Hz, Dyn11 has been specially developed in-house for carrying out SFRA testing by practically simulated various transformer damages on it. Earth fault has been practically simulated on HV “U” phase winding and LV “W” phase winding separately. The result of these simulated faults are presented and discussed. The motivation of this presented work is to extend the guideline approach; there are ideas to organize database containing collected measurement results. Since the SFRA interpretation is based on experience, such databases are thought to be of great importance when interpreting SFRA response. The evaluation of the SFRA responses against guidelines and experience have to be performed and conclusions regarding usefulness of each simulation has been drawn and at last overall conclusion has also been drawn.

Keywords: earth fault damage, power transformer, practical simulation, SFRA traces, transformer damages

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7 Design of Fuzzy Logic Based Global Power System Stabilizer for Dynamic Stability Enhancement in Multi-Machine Power System

Authors: N. P. Patidar, J. Earnest, Laxmikant Nagar, Akshay Sharma

Abstract:

This paper describes the diligence of a new input signal based fuzzy power system stabilizer in multi-machine power system. Instead of conventional input pairs like speed deviation (∆ω) and derivative of speed deviation i.e. acceleration (∆ω ̇) or speed deviation and accelerating power deviation of each machine, in this paper, deviation of active power through the tie line colligating two areas is used as one of the inputs to the fuzzy logic controller in concurrence with the speed deviation. Fuzzy Logic has the features of simple concept, easy effectuation, and computationally efficient. The advantage of this input is that, the same signal can be fed to each of the fuzzy logic controller connected with each machine. The simulated system comprises of two fully symmetrical areas coupled together by two 230 kV lines. Each area is equipped with two superposable generators rated 20 kV/900MVA and area-1 is exporting 413 MW to area-2. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme has been assessed by performing small signal stability assessment and transient stability assessment. The proposed control scheme has been compared with a conventional PSS. Digital simulation is used to demonstrate the performance of fuzzy logic controller.

Keywords: Power System Stabilizer (PSS), small signal stability, inter-area oscillation, fuzzy logic controller, membership function, rule base

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6 Mediation Analysis of the Efficacy of the Nimotuzumab-Cisplatin-Radiation (NCR) Improve Overall Survival (OS): A HPV Negative Oropharyngeal Cancer Patient (HPVNOCP) Cohort

Authors: Akshay Patil

Abstract:

Objective: Mediation analysis identifies causal pathways by testing the relationships between the NCR, the OS, and an intermediate variable that mediates the relationship between the Nimotuzumab-cisplatin-radiation (NCR) and OS. Introduction: In randomized controlled trials, the primary interest is in the mechanisms by which an intervention exerts its effects on the outcomes. Clinicians are often interested in how the intervention works (or why it does not work) through hypothesized causal mechanisms. In this work, we highlight the value of understanding causal mechanisms in randomized trial by applying causal mediation analysis in a randomized trial in oncology. Methods: Data was obtained from a phase III randomized trial (Subgroup of HPVNOCP). NCR is reported to significantly improve the OS of patients locally advanced head and neck cancer patients undergoing definitive chemoradiation. Here, based on trial data, the mediating effect of NCR on patient overall survival was systematically quantified through progression-free survival(PFS), disease free survival (DFS), Loco-regional failure (LRF), and the disease control rate (DCR), Overall response rate (ORR). Effects of potential mediators on the HR for OS with NCR versus cisplatin-radiation (CR) were analyzed by Cox regression models. Statistical analyses were performed using R software Version 3.6.3 (The R Foundation for Statistical Computing) Results: Effects of potential mediator PFS was an association between NCR treatment and OS, with an indirect-effect (IE) 0.76(0.62 – 0.95), which mediated 60.69% of the treatment effect. Taking into account baseline confounders, the overall adjusted hazard ratio of death was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43 – 0.96; P=0.03). The DFS was also a significant mediator and had an IE 0.77 (95% CI; 0.62-0.93), 58% mediated). Smaller mediation effects (maximum 27%) were observed for LRF with IE 0.88(0.74 – 1.06). Both DCR and ORR mediated 10% and 15%, respectively, of the effect of NCR vs. CR on the OS with IE 0.65 (95% CI; 0.81 – 1.08) and 0.94(95% CI; 0.79 – 1.04). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that PFS and DFS were the most important mediators of the OS with nimotuzumab to weekly cisplatin-radiation in HPVNOCP.

Keywords: mediation analysis, cancer data, survival, NCR, HPV negative oropharyngeal

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5 Smart Help at the Workplace for Persons with Disabilities (SHW-PWD)

Authors: Ghassan Kbar, Shady Aly, Ibrahim Alsharawy, Akshay Bhatia, Nur Alhasan, Ronaldo Enriquez

Abstract:

The Smart Help for persons with disability (PWD) is a part of the project SMARTDISABLE which aims to develop relevant solution for PWD that target to provide an adequate workplace environment for them. It would support PWD needs smartly through smart help to allow them access to relevant information and communicate with other effectively and flexibly, and smart editor that assist them in their daily work. It will assist PWD in knowledge processing and creation as well as being able to be productive at the work place. The technical work of the project involves design of a technological scenario for the Ambient Intelligence (AmI) - based assistive technologies at the workplace consisting of an integrated universal smart solution that suits many different impairment conditions and will be designed to empower the Physically disabled persons (PDP) with the capability to access and effectively utilize the ICTs in order to execute knowledge rich working tasks with minimum efforts and with sufficient comfort level. The proposed technology solution for PWD will support voice recognition along with normal keyboard and mouse to control the smart help and smart editor with dynamic auto display interface that satisfies the requirements for different PWD group. In addition, a smart help will provide intelligent intervention based on the behavior of PWD to guide them and warn them about possible misbehavior. PWD can communicate with others using Voice over IP controlled by voice recognition. Moreover, Auto Emergency Help Response would be supported to assist PWD in case of emergency. This proposed technology solution intended to make PWD very effective at the work environment and flexible using voice to conduct their tasks at the work environment. The proposed solution aims to provide favorable outcomes that assist PWD at the work place, with the opportunity to participate in PWD assistive technology innovation market which is still small and rapidly growing as well as upgrading their quality of life to become similar to the normal people at the workplace. Finally, the proposed smart help solution is applicable in all workplace setting, including offices, manufacturing, hospital, etc.

Keywords: ambient intelligence, ICT, persons with disability PWD, smart application, SHW

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4 Approximate Spring Balancing for the Arm of a Humanoid Robot to Reduce Actuator Torque

Authors: Apurva Patil, Ashay Aswale, Akshay Kulkarni, Shubham Bharadiya

Abstract:

The potential benefit of gravity compensation of linkages in mechanisms using springs to reduce actuator requirements is well recognized, but practical applications have been elusive. Although existing methods provide exact spring balance, they require additional masses or auxiliary links, or all the springs used originate from the ground, which makes the resulting device bulky and space-inefficient. This paper uses a method of static balancing of mechanisms with conservative loads such as gravity and spring loads using non-zero-free-length springs with child–parent connections and no auxiliary links. Application of this method to the developed arm of a humanoid robot is presented here. Spring balancing is particularly important in this case because the serial chain of linkages has to work against gravity.This work involves approximate spring balancing of the open-loop chain of linkages using minimization of potential energy variance. It uses the approach of flattening the potential energy distribution over the workspace and fuses it with numerical optimization. The results show the considerable reduction in actuator torque requirement with practical spring design and arrangement. Reduced actuator torque facilitates the use of lower end actuators which are generally smaller in weight and volume thereby lowering the space requirements and the total weight of the arm. This is particularly important for humanoid robots where the parent actuator has to handle the weight of the subsequent actuators as well. Actuators with lower actuation requirements are more energy efficient, thereby reduce the energy consumption of the mechanism. Lower end actuators are lower in cost and facilitate the development of low-cost devices. Although the method provides only an approximate balancing, it is versatile, flexible in choosing appropriate control variables that are relevant to the design problem and easy to implement. The true potential of this technique lies in the fact that it uses a very simple optimization to find the spring constant, free-length of the spring and the optimal attachment points subject to the optimization constraints. Also, it uses physically realizable non-zero-free-length springs directly, thereby reducing the complexity involved in simulating zero-free-length springs from non-zero-free-length springs. This method allows springs to be attached to the preceding parent link, which makes the implementation of spring balancing practical. Because auxiliary linkages can be avoided, the resultant arm of the humanoid robot is compact. The cost benefits and reduced complexity can be significant advantages in the development of this arm of the humanoid robot.

Keywords: actuator torque, child-parent connections, spring balancing, the arm of a humanoid robot

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3 Assessment of Five Photoplethysmographic Methods for Estimating Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Akshay B. Pawar, Rohit Y. Parasnis

Abstract:

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a widely used indicator of the regulation between the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the cardiovascular system. Besides being non-invasive, it also has the potential to predict mortality in cases involving critical injuries. The gold standard method for determining HRV is based on the analysis of RR interval time series extracted from ECG signals. However, because it is much more convenient to obtain photoplethysmogramic (PPG) signals as compared to ECG signals (which require the attachment of several electrodes to the body), many researchers have used pulse cycle intervals instead of RR intervals to estimate HRV. They have also compared this method with the gold standard technique. Though most of their observations indicate a strong correlation between the two methods, recent studies show that in healthy subjects, except for a few parameters, the pulse-based method cannot be a surrogate for the standard RR interval- based method. Moreover, the former tends to overestimate short-term variability in heart rate. This calls for improvements in or alternatives to the pulse-cycle interval method. In this study, besides the systolic peak-peak interval method (PP method) that has been studied several times, four recent PPG-based techniques, namely the first derivative peak-peak interval method (P1D method), the second derivative peak-peak interval method (P2D method), the valley-valley interval method (VV method) and the tangent-intersection interval method (TI method) were compared with the gold standard technique. ECG and PPG signals were obtained from 10 young and healthy adults (consisting of both males and females) seated in the armchair position. In order to de-noise these signals and eliminate baseline drift, they were passed through certain digital filters. After filtering, the following HRV parameters were computed from PPG using each of the five methods and also from ECG using the gold standard method: time domain parameters (SDNN, pNN50 and RMSSD), frequency domain parameters (Very low-frequency power (VLF), Low-frequency power (LF), High-frequency power (HF) and Total power or “TP”). Besides, Poincaré plots were also plotted and their SD1/SD2 ratios determined. The resulting sets of parameters were compared with those yielded by the standard method using measures of statistical correlation (correlation coefficient) as well as statistical agreement (Bland-Altman plots). From the viewpoint of correlation, our results show that the best PPG-based methods for the determination of most parameters and Poincaré plots are the P2D method (shows more than 93% correlation with the standard method) and the PP method (mean correlation: 88%) whereas the TI, VV and P1D methods perform poorly (<70% correlation in most cases). However, our evaluation of statistical agreement using Bland-Altman plots shows that none of the five techniques agrees satisfactorily well with the gold standard method as far as time-domain parameters are concerned. In conclusion, excellent statistical correlation implies that certain PPG-based methods provide a good amount of information on the pattern of heart rate variation, whereas poor statistical agreement implies that PPG cannot completely replace ECG in the determination of HRV.

Keywords: photoplethysmography, heart rate variability, correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plot

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2 White-Rot Fungi Phellinus as a Source of Antioxidant and Antitumor Agents

Authors: Yogesh Dalvi, Ruby Varghese, Nibu Varghese, C. K. Krishnan Nair

Abstract:

Introduction: The Genus Phellinus, locally known as Phansomba is a well-known traditional folk medicine. Especially, in Western Ghats of India, many tribes use several species of Phellinus for various ailments related to teeth, throat, tongue, stomach and even wound healing. It is one of the few mushrooms which play a pivotal role in Ayurvedic Dravyaguna. Aim: The present study focuses on to investigate phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, and antitumor (in vitro and in vivo) potential of Phellinus robinae from South India, Kerala Material and Methods: The present study explores the following: 1. Phellinus samples were collected from Ranni, Pathanamthitta district of Kerala state, India from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and species were identified using rDNA region. 2. The fruiting body was shadow dried, powdered and extracted with 50% alcohol using water bath at 60°C which was further condensed by rotary evaporator and lyophilized at minus 40°C temperature. 3. Secondary metabolites were analyzed by using various phytochemical screening assay (Hager’s Test, Wagner’s Test, Sodium hydroxide Test, Lead acetate Test, Ferric chloride Test, Folin-ciocalteu Test, Foaming Test, Benedict’s test, Fehling’s Test and Lowry’s Test). 4. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were analyzed by DPPH, FRAP and Iron chelating assay. 5. The antitumor potential of Water alcohol extract of Phellinus (PAWE) is evaluated through In vitro condition by Trypan blue dye exclusion method in DLA cell line and In vivo by murine model. Result and Discussion: Preliminary phytochemical screening by various biochemical tests revealed presence of a variety of active secondary molecules like alkaloids, flavanoids, saponins, carbohydrate, protein and phenol. In DPPH and FRAP assay PAWE showed significantly higher antioxidant activity as compared to standard Ascorbic acid. While, in Iron chelating assay, PAWE exhibits similar antioxidant activity that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standard. Further, in the in vitro study, PAWE showed significant inhibition on DLA cell proliferation in dose dependent manner and showed no toxicity on mice splenocytes, when compared to standard chemotherapy drug doxorubicin. In vivo study, oral administration of PAWE showed dose dependent tumor regression in mice and also raised the immunogenicity by restoring levels of antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney tissue. In both in vitro and in vivo gene expression studies PAWE up-regulates pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Caspases 3, 8 and 9) and down- regulates anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl2). PAWE also down regulates inflammatory gene (Cox-2) and angiogenic gene (VEGF). Conclusion: Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that PAWE contains various secondary metabolites which contribute to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property as evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and Iron chelating assay. PAWE exhibits anti-proliferative activity by the induction of apoptosis through a signaling cascade of death receptor-mediated extrinsic (Caspase8 and Tnf-α), as well as mitochondria-mediated intrinsic (caspase9) and caspase pathways (Caspase3, 8 and 9) and also by regressing angiogenic factor (VEGF) without any inflammation or adverse side effects. Hence, PAWE serve as a potential antioxidant and antitumor agent.

Keywords: antioxidant, antitumor, Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA), fungi, Phellinus robinae

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1 Design Challenges for Severely Skewed Steel Bridges

Authors: Muna Mitchell, Akshay Parchure, Krishna Singaraju

Abstract:

There is an increasing need for medium- to long-span steel bridges with complex geometry due to site restrictions in developed areas. One of the solutions to grade separations in congested areas is to use longer spans on skewed supports that avoid at-grade obstructions limiting impacts to the foundation. Where vertical clearances are also a constraint, continuous steel girders can be used to reduce superstructure depths. Combining continuous long steel spans on severe skews can resolve the constraints at a cost. The behavior of skewed girders is challenging to analyze and design with subsequent complexity during fabrication and construction. As a part of a corridor improvement project, Walter P Moore designed two 1700-foot side-by-side bridges carrying four lanes of traffic in each direction over a railroad track. The bridges consist of prestressed concrete girder approach spans and three-span continuous steel plate girder units. The roadway design added complex geometry to the bridge with horizontal and vertical curves combined with superelevation transitions within the plate girder units. The substructure at the steel units was skewed approximately 56 degrees to satisfy the existing railroad right-of-way requirements. A horizontal point of curvature (PC) near the end of the steel units required the use flared girders and chorded slab edges. Due to the flared girder geometry, the cross-frame spacing in each bay is unique. Staggered cross frames were provided based on AASHTO LRFD and NCHRP guidelines for high skew steel bridges. Skewed steel bridges develop significant forces in the cross frames and rotation in the girder websdue to differential displacements along the girders under dead and live loads. In addition, under thermal loads, skewed steel bridges expand and contract not along the alignment parallel to the girders but along the diagonal connecting the acute corners, resulting in horizontal displacement both along and perpendicular to the girders. AASHTO LRFD recommends a 95 degree Fahrenheit temperature differential for the design of joints and bearings. The live load and the thermal loads resulted in significant horizontal forces and rotations in the bearings that necessitated the use of HLMR bearings. A unique bearing layout was selected to minimize the effect of thermal forces. The span length, width, skew, and roadway geometry at the bridges also required modular bridge joint systems (MBJS) with inverted-T bent caps to accommodate movement in the steel units. 2D and 3D finite element analysis models were developed to accurately determine the forces and rotations in the girders, cross frames, and bearings and to estimate thermal displacements at the joints. This paper covers the decision-making process for developing the framing plan, bearing configurations, joint type, and analysis models involved in the design of the high-skew three-span continuous steel plate girder bridges.

Keywords: complex geometry, continuous steel plate girders, finite element structural analysis, high skew, HLMR bearings, modular joint

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