Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 760

Search results for: Ahmad Daryani

730 Development of Potato Starch Based Active Packaging Films Loaded with Antioxidants and Its Effect on Shelf Life of Beef

Authors: Bilal Ahmad Ashwar, Asima Shah, Adil Gani, Inam u nisa, Farooq Ahmad Masoodi

Abstract:

The effects of 5% BHT and green tea extracts (GTE) on the physical, barrier, mechanical, thermal and antioxidant properties of potato starch films were investigated. Results showed both BHT and GTE significantly lowered solubility of films. Addition of BHT significantly decreased water vapour transmission rate. Both BHT and GTE promoted significant increase in the elastic modulus but a decrease in % EAB, however BHT was more effective in increasing elastic modulus. Increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) and enthalpy of transition (ΔH) of films was observed with the incorporation of GTE and BHT. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed smooth surface of the films. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of both BHT and GTE films were stronger in fatty food stimulant (95% ethanol. The GTE and BHT films were individually applied to fresh beef samples and were stored at 4 0C and room temperature for 10 days. Metmyoglobin formation and lipid oxidation (TBARS) were monitored periodically. The addition of GTE extracts and BHT resulted in decreases in metmyoglobin and TBARS values. We conclude that extracts of GTE and BHT have potential as preservatives for fresh beef.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, SEM, tensile properties, starch film, WVTR, DPPH scavenging activity, TBARS, metmyoglobin

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729 Microwave Synthesis, Optical Properties and Surface Area Studies of NiO Nanoparticles

Authors: Ayed S. Al-Shihri, Abul Kalam, Abdullah G. Al-Sehemi, Gaohui Du, Tokeer Ahmad, Ahmad Irfan

Abstract:

We report here the synthesis of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles by microwave-assisted method, using a common precipitating agent followed by calcination in air at 400°C. The effect of the microwave and pH on the crystallite size, morphology, structure, energy band gap and surface area of NiO have been investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and BET surface area studies. X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of monophasic and highly crystalline cubic NiO. TEM analysis led to decrease the average grain size of NiO nanoparticles from 16.5 nm to 14 nm on increasing the amount of NaOH. FTIR studies also confirm the formation of NiO nanoparticles. It was observed that on increasing the volume of NaOH, the optical band gap energy (2.85 eV to 2.95 eV) and specific surface area (33.1 to 39.8 m2/g) increases, however the average particles size decreases (16.5 nm to 14 nm). This method may be extended to large scale synthesis of other metal oxides nanoparticles and the present study could be used for the potential applications in water treatment and many other fields.

Keywords: Electron Microscopy, Optical Properties, BET surface area analysis, X-ray techniques

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728 Review of the Effect of Strategic Planning on Fulfillment of State Road Management and Transportation Organization Objectives

Authors: Ahmad Aslizadeh, Elahe Memari, Ahmad Memari

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To compile and execute a strategy for State Road Management and Transportation Organization, we need to identify and include them in the process of planning. Therefore, present research work tries to rely on experiences by managers and experts from State Road Management and Transportation Organization and other sources like books, magazines and new papers, such factors have to be identified and be applied in this important and vital process before proceeding to strategic planning. Trying to present a conceptual model from factors effective on strategic planning success in fulfillment of State Road Management and Transportation Organization, the present research figures on indicating the role of organizational factors in efficiency of the process to managers. In this research connection between six main factors studied in fulfillment of State Road Management and Transportation Organization objectives. The factors are improvement of strategic thinking in senior managers, improvement of organization business, rationalizing resource allocation in different sections of the organization, conformity of strategic planning with organization needs, conformity of organization activities with environmental changes, stabilization of organizational culture, all approved through implemented tests.

Keywords: Strategic Planning, improvement of organization business, rationalization of resource allocation in different sections of the organization, stability of organizational culture

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727 Immune Responses and Pathological Manifestations in Chicken to Oral Infection with Salmonella typhimurium

Authors: Mudasir Ahmad Syed, Raashid Ahmd Wani, Mashooq Ahmad Dar, Uneeb Urwat, Riaz Ahmad Shah, Nazir Ahmad Ganai

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Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) is a primary avian pathogen responsible for severe intestinal pathology in younger chickens and economic losses. However, the Salmonella Typhimurium is also able to cause infection in humans, described by typhoid fever and acute gastro-intestinal disease. A study was conducted at days to investigate pathological, histopathological, haemato-biochemical, immunological and expression kinetics of NRAMP (natural resistance associated macrophage protein) gene family (NRAMP1 and NRAMP2) in broiler chickens following experimental infection of Salmonella Typhimurium at 0,1,3,5,7,9,11,13 and 15 days respectively. Infection was developed in birds through oral route at 2×108 CFU/ml. Clinical symptoms appeared 4 days post infection (dpi) and after one-week birds showed progressive weakness, anorexia, diarrhea and lowering of head. On postmortem examination, liver showed congestion, hemorrhage and necrotic foci on surface, while as spleen, lungs and intestines revealed congestion and hemorrhages. Histopathological alterations were principally observed in liver in second week post infection. Changes in liver comprised of congestion, areas of necrosis, reticular endothelial hyperplasia in association with mononuclear cell and heterophilic infiltration. Hematological studies confirm a significant decrease (P<0.05) in RBC count, Hb concentration and PCV. White blood cell count showed significant increase throughout the experimental study. An increase in heterophils was found up to 7dpi and a decreased pattern was observed afterwards. Initial lymphopenia followed by lymphocytosis was found in infected chicks. Biochemical studies showed a significant increase in glucose, AST and ALT concentration and a significant decrease (P<0.05) in total protein and albumin level in the infected group. Immunological studies showed higher titers of IgG in infected group as compared to control group. The real time gene expression of NRAMPI and NRAMP2 genes increased significantly (P<0.05) in infected group as compared to controls. The peak expression of NRAMP1 gene was seen in liver, spleen and caecum of infected birds at 3dpi, 5dpi and 7dpi respectively, while as peak expression of NRAMP2 gene in liver, spleen and caecum of infected chicken was seen at 9dpi, 5dpi and 9dpi respectively. This study has role in diagnostics and prognostics in the poultry industry for the detection of salmonella infections at early stages of poultry development.

Keywords: Biochemistry, Histopathology, Poultry, Salmonella typhimurium, NRAMP, real time expression

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726 Fabrication and Characterization of Cu50 (Zr50-xNix) 50 Nanocrystalline Coating by Cold Spray Technique for Potential Antibiofilm Application

Authors: Ahmad Alazemi, M. Sherif El-Eskandrany, Mohamad Kishk, Thanyan AlOnaizi, Ahmad Alduweesh, Shorouq Abdullaleel

Abstract:

Arc melting technique followed by top-down approach, using a high-energy ball milling technique were employed to synthesize nanocrystalline of Cu50(Zr50-xNix)50 (x = 0, 10, 20 and 30 at.%) powder particles. The end-products of the alloy powders obtained after 50 h of the ball milling time were uniform in composition and had spherical-like morphology with an average particle size of 0.75 µm in diameter. The powders, which consisted of nanocrystalline grains with an average grain size of 10 nm in diameter, were used as feedstock materials for double face coating of stainless (SUS304) sheets, using cold spraying process. The coating materials enjoyed nanocrystalline structure and uniform composition. Biofilms were grown on 20-mm2 SUS304 sheets coated coupons inoculated with 1.5 × 108 CFU ml−1 E. coli. Significant biofilm inhibition was recorded in the nanoparticles coated coupons in comparison to non-coated SUS304 coupon. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that formation of biofilms can be significantly inhibited by Cu-based alloys especially in case of high (Ni) content. The inhibition of biofilm formation by nanocrystalline powders of Cu-based provides a practical approach to achieve the inhibition of biofilms formed by an emerging pathogen.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Biofilm, nanocrystalline, E.coli, FE-HRTEM/EDS

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725 Platelet Indices among the Cases of Vivax Malaria

Authors: Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Mubashra Ahmad, Ramlah Mehmood, Nazia Mahboob, Waqar Nasir

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Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of thrombocytopenia and study changes in MPV and PDW among cases of vivax malaria. Design: Descriptive analytic study. Place and duration of study: Department of pediatrics, Fazle Omar Hospital, from January to December 2012. Methodology: All patients from birth to 16 years age, who presented in Fazle- Omar hospital, Rabwah from January to December 2012 were included in this study. Hundred patients with other febrile illnesses were taken as control. Full blood counts were checked by Madonic CA 620 analyzer. Name, age, sex, weight, platelet counts. MPV, PDW, any evidence of bleeding, outcome of cases included in this study and taken as control were recorded on data sheets. Results: One hundred and forty-two patients were included in this study. There was no incidence of death or active bleeding. Median platelet count was 109000/mm3. Thrombocytopenia was present in 108 (76.1%) patients. Severe thrombocytopenia was present in 10(7%) patients. Minimum count was 27000/mm3 and maximum was 341000/mm3. Platelet counts of control group was significantly more as compared with study group.(p<.001) Median MPV was 8.70. Minimum value was 6.40 and maximum was 11.90. MPV of study group was significantly more than control group.(p<.001) Median PDW was 11.30. Minimum value was 8.5 and maximum was 16.70. There was no difference between PDW of study and control groups (p=0.246). Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia is a common complication among pediatric cases of vivax malaria. MPV of cases of vivax malaria is higher than control group.

Keywords: platelet, thrombocytopenia, malaria vivax, mean platelet volume

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724 Assessment of the Adoption and Distribution Pattern of Agroforestry in Faisalabad District Using GIS

Authors: Irfan Ahmad, Raza Ghafoor, Hammad Raza Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Farrakh Nawaz, M. Tahir Siddiqui

Abstract:

Due to the exploding population of Pakistan the pressure on natural forests is increasing to meet the demands of wood and wood based products. Agroforestry is being practiced throughout the world on scientific basis but unfortunately the farmers of Pakistan are reluctant in its adoption. The presents study was designed to assess the adoption of agroforestry practices in Faisalabad with respect to land holdings of farmers and future suitability by using Geographic information system (GIS). Faisalabad is the third largest city of the country and is famous due to the textile industry. A comprehensive survey from target villages of the Lyallpur town of Faisalabad district was carried out. Out of total 65 villages, 40 were selected for study. From each selected village, one farmer who was actively engaged in farming activities was selected. It was observed that medium sized farmers having 10-20 acre were more in number as compared to small and large farmers. Number of trees was found maximum in large farm lands, ratio of diseased trees was almost similar in all categories with maximum in small farmlands (24.1%). Regarding the future prospects 35% farmer were interested in agroforestry practices 65% were not interested in the promotion of trees due to the non-availability of technical guidance and proper markets. Geographic images of the study site can further help the researchers and policy makers in the promotion of agroforestry.

Keywords: Adoption, geographic information system (GIS), agroforestry trends, Faisalabad

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723 Vocational Teaching Method: A Conceptual Model in Teaching Automotive Practical Work

Authors: Adnan Ahmad, Yusri Kamin, Asnol Dahar Minghat, Mohd. Khir Nordin, Dayana Farzeha, Ahmad Nabil

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The purpose of this study is to identify the teaching method practices of the practical work subject in Vocational Secondary School. This study examined the practice of Vocational Teaching Method in Automotive Practical Work. The quantitative method used the sets of the questionnaire. 283 students and 63 teachers involved from ten VSS involved in this research. Research finding showed in conducting the introduction session teachers prefer used the demonstration method and questioning technique. While in deliver the content of practical task, teachers applied group monitoring and problem-solving approach. To conclude the task of automotive practical work, teachers choose re-explain and report writing to make sure students really understand all the process of teaching. VTM-APW also involved the competency-based concept to embed in the model. Derived from factors investigated, research produced the combination of elements in teaching skills and vocational skills which could be used as the best teaching method in automotive practical work for school level. As conclusion this study has concluded that the VTM-APW model is able to apply in teaching to make an improvement with current practices in Vocational Secondary School. Hence, teachers are suggested to use this method to enhance student's knowledge in Automotive and teachers will deliver skills to the current and future workforce relevant with the required competency skilled in workplace.

Keywords: vocational teaching method, practical task, teacher preferences, student preferences

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722 Self-Determination among Individuals with Intellectual Disability: An Experiment

Authors: Wasim Ahmad, Bir Singh Chavan, Nazli Ahmad

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Objectives: The present investigation is an attempt to find out the efficacy of training the special educators on promoting self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. Methods: The study equipped the special educators with necessary skills and knowledge to train individuals with the intellectual disability for practicing self-determination. Subjects: Special educators (N=25) were selected for training on self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. After receiving the training, (N=50) individuals with an intellectual disability were selected and intervened by the trained special educators. Tool: Self-Determination Scale for Adults with Mild Mental Retardation (SDSAMR) developed by Keshwal and Thressiakutty (2010) has been used. It’s a reliable and valid tool used by many researchers. It has 36 items distributed in five domains namely: personal management, community participation, recreation and leisure time, choice making and problem solving. Analysis: The collected data was analyzed using the statistical techniques such as t-test, ANCOVA, and Posthoc Tuckey test. Results: The findings of the study reveal that there is a significant difference at 1% level in the pre and post tests mean scores (t-15.56) of self-determination concepts among the special educators. This indicates that the training enhanced the performance of special educators on the concept of self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. The study also reveals that the training received on transition planning by the special educators found to be effective because they were able to practice the concept by imparting and training the individuals with intellectual disability to if determined. The results show that there was a significant difference at 1% level in the pre and post tests mean scores (t-16.61) of self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. Conclusion: To conclude it can be said that the training has a remarkable impact on the performance of the individuals with intellectual disability on self-determination.

Keywords: Experiment, Self-Determination, individuals with intellectual disability, special educators

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721 Contribution of Upper Body Kinematics on Tennis Serve Performance

Authors: Fuzail Ahmad, Ikram Hussain, Tawseef Ahmad Bhat

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Tennis serve is characterized as one of the most prominent techniques pertaining to the success of winning a point. The study was aimed to explore the contributions of the upper body kinematics on the tennis performance during Davis Cup (Oceania Group). Four Indian International tennis players who participated in the Davis Cup held at Indore, India were inducted as the subjects for this study, with mean age 27 ± 4.79 Years, mean weight 186 ± 6.03 cm, mean weight 81.25 ± 7.41kg, respectively. The tennis serve was bifurcated into three phases viz, preparatory phase, force generation phase and follow through phase. The kinematic data for the study was recorded through the high speed canon camcorder having a shuttle speed of 1/2000, at a frame rate of 50 Hz. The data was analysed with the motion analysis software. The descriptive statistics and F-test was employed through SPSS version 17.0 for the determination of the undertaken kinematic parameters of the study, and was computed at a 0.05 level of significance with 46 degrees of freedom. Mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient also employed to find out the relationship among the upper body kinematic parameter and performance. In the preparatory phase, the analysis revealed that no significant difference exists among the kinematic parameters of the players on the performance. However, in force generation phase, wrist velocity (r= 0.47), torso velocity (r= -0.53), racket velocity r= 0.60), and in follow through phase, torso acceleration r= 0.43), elbow angle (r= -0.48) play a significant role on the performance of the tennis serve. Therefore, players should ponder upon the velocities of the above segments at the time of preparation for the competitions.

Keywords: Kinematics, Motion Analysis, Davis Cup, tennis serve

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720 Demographic Factors Influence on Awareness of Islamic Financing among Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Entrepreneurs in the North East Region of Nigeria

Authors: Bashir Ahmad, Ahmad, Daneji, Hamidu Aminu, Aliyu Mukhtar, Haruna Mohammed

Abstract:

It has been established and universally agreed that vibrant Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) play significant roles in economic growth and development. In Nigeria, MSMEs are not playing the expected roles. Notable among the plethora of reasons is lack of prompt and sufficient finance. Government and other stakeholders attempted in several ways at different times to provide the required finance to MSMEs but the results were not encouraging and consequently, many failed. In recent past, Islamic financing emerged world over as promising alternative source of financing. However, its awareness among MSMEs entrepreneurs in north east region of Nigeria stands to be questioned. This study explored the 'Demographic Factors Influence on Awareness of Islamic Financing among MSMEs entrepreneurs in the North East Region of Nigeria'. The primary data used in this study were collected through questionnaire. In analyzing the collected data, the study used frequency, percentages, Pearson correlation, ANOVA and test of homogeneity test (Levene’s test) parameters generated from SPSS (version 15). The findings of the study revealed that entrepreneurs’ age, state of origin, religion and educational level influence their MSMEs awareness of Islamic Financing in the north east region of Nigeria. The study recommended that Islamic Financing institutions, government and relevant agencies should do more to enhance the awareness of Islamic financing among MSMEs entrepreneurs in the north east region of Nigeria.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, awareness, demographic factors, Islamic financing

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719 SWOT Analysis of the Industrial Sector in Kuwait

Authors: Amr Nounou, Abdullah Al-Alaian, Ahmad Al-Enzi, Hasan Al-Herz, Ahmad Bakri, Shant Tatorian

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Kuwait is a country that has an imbalanced economy since most of its national outcome comes from the oil trade. It is so risky for a country to be dependent on a single source for income, and this increases the need to diversify its economy. In addition, according to the Public Authority for Industry, the contribution of the industrial sector to the current Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Kuwait is low which is about 4.33%. Therefore, the development of the industrial sector can be one of the means to diversify the economy and increase the industry's contribution to the national outcome. This is in accordance with Kuwait’s vision of 2035 which aims at increasing the contribution of the industrial sector to the GDP to 12%. In order to do so, this study aims at proposing a strategic plan that will accomplish certain objectives when implemented. It is based on analyzing the industrial sectors in Kuwait taking into consideration studying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats facing them. At the same time, it tends to gain from the experience of leading models and neighboring countries regarding the development of the industrial sector. In this study, the SWOT analysis technique will be conducted on all industrial sectors based on evaluation criteria in which it is determined whether any of them has a potential for improvement or not. In other words, it is determined whether the sectors are able to compete locally, regionally, or globally. Based on the results of the SWOT analysis, certain sectors will be chosen, assessed based on an assessment scheme, and their potentials for improvement will be aligned with the overall objectives. To ensure the achievement of the study’s objectives, an action plan will be proposed regarding recommendations for the related authorities, and for entrepreneurs. In addition, monitoring tools are going to be provided for the purpose of periodically checking the progress made in the implementation of the plan.

Keywords: Productivity, Economy, Competitiveness, SWOT analysis, Kuwait, industrial sector, GDP

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718 Impact of Unusual Dust Event on Regional Climate in India

Authors: Kanika Taneja, V. K. Soni, Kafeel Ahmad, Shamshad Ahmad

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A severe dust storm generated from a western disturbance over north Pakistan and adjoining Afghanistan affected the north-west region of India between May 28 and 31, 2014, resulting in significant reductions in air quality and visibility. The air quality of the affected region degraded drastically. PM10 concentration peaked at a very high value of around 1018 μgm-3 during dust storm hours of May 30, 2014 at New Delhi. The present study depicts aerosol optical properties monitored during the dust days using ground based multi-wavelength Sky radiometer over the National Capital Region of India. High Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 500 nm was observed as 1.356 ± 0.19 at New Delhi while Angstrom exponent (Alpha) dropped to 0.287 on May 30, 2014. The variation in the Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and real n(λ) and imaginary k(λ) parts of the refractive index indicated that the dust event influences the optical state to be more absorbing. The single scattering albedo, refractive index, volume size distribution and asymmetry parameter (ASY) values suggested that dust aerosols were predominant over the anthropogenic aerosols in the urban environment of New Delhi. The large reduction in the radiative flux at the surface level caused significant cooling at the surface. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (DARF) was calculated using a radiative transfer model during the dust period. A consistent increase in surface cooling was evident, ranging from -31 Wm-2 to -82 Wm-2 and an increase in heating of the atmosphere from 15 Wm-2 to 92 Wm-2 and -2 Wm-2 to 10 Wm-2 at top of the atmosphere.

Keywords: dust storm, aerosol optical properties, sky radiometer, radiative transfer model

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717 Effect of Various Durations of Type 2 Diabetes on Muscle Performance

Authors: Varsha Chorsiya, Santosh Kumar Yadav, Shobha Keswani, Nishat Quddus, Sohrab Ahmad Khan, Zuheb Ahmad Shiddiqui

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Introduction: Early onset diabetes is more aggressive than the late onset diabetes. Diabetic individual has a greater spectrum of life period to suffer from its damage, complications, and long-term disability. This study aimed at assessing knee joint muscle performance under various durations of diabetes. Method and Materials: A total of 30 diabetic subjects (18 male and 12 females) without diabetic neuropathy were included for the study. They were divided into three groups with 5 years, 10 years and 15 years of duration of disease each. Muscle performance was evaluated through strength and flexibility. Peak torque for quadriceps muscle was measured using isokinetic dynamometer. Flexibility for quadriceps and hamstring muscles were measured through Ducan’s Elys test and 90/90 test. Results: The result showed significant difference in muscle strength (p<0.05), flexibility (p≤0.05) between groups. Discussion: Optimal muscle strength and flexibility are vital for musculoskeletal health and functional independence. Conclusion: The reduced muscle performance and functional impairment in nonneuropathic diabetic patients suggest that other mechanism besides neuropathy that contribute to altered biomechanics. These findings of this study project early management of these altered parameters through disease-specific physical therapy and assessment-based intervention. Clinical Relevance: Managing disability is more costly than managing disease. Prompt and timely identification and management strategy can dramatically reduce the cost of care for diabetic patients.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, muscle performance, muscle flexibility, muscle torque

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716 Fungi Associated with Decline of Kikar (Acacia nilotica) and Red River Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in Faisalabad

Authors: I. Ahmad, S. Ahmad, M. Asif, M. F. Nawaz, A. Hannan, M. A. Tanvir, M. F. Azhar

Abstract:

During this research, a comprehensive survey of tree growing areas of Faisalabad district of Pakistan was conducted to observe the symptoms, spectrum, occurrence and severity of A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis decline. Objective of current research was to investigate specific fungal pathogens involved in decline of A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis. For this purpose, infected roots, bark, neck portion, stem, branches, leaves and infected soils were collected to identify associated fungi. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Czepak dox agar media were used for isolations. Identification of isolated fungi was done microscopically and different fungi were identified. During survey of urban locations of Faisalabad, disease incidence on Kikar and Eucalyptus was recorded as 3.9-7.9% and 2.6-7.1% respectively. Survey of Agroforest zones of Faisalabad revealed decline incidence on kikar 7.5% from Sargodha road while on Satiana and Jhang road it was not planted. In eucalyptus trees, 4%, 8% and 0% disease incidence was observed on Jhang road, Sargodha road and Satiana road respectively. The maximum fungus isolated from the kikar tree was Drechslera australiensis (5.00%) from the stem part. Aspergillus flavus also gave the maximum value of (3.05%) from the bark. Alternaria alternata gave the maximum value of (2.05%) from leaves. Rhizopus and Mucor spp. were recorded minimum as compared to the Drechslera, Alternaria and Aspergillus. The maximum fungus isolated from the Eucalyptus tree was Armillaria luteobubalina (5.00%) from the stem part. The other fungi isolated were Macrophamina phaseolina and A. niger.

Keywords: Decline, frequency of mycoflora, A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis, Drechslera australiensis, Armillaria luteobubalina

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715 Production of Size-Selected Tin Nanoclusters for Device Applications

Authors: Ahmad I. Ayesh

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This work reports on the fabrication of tin nanoclusters by sputtering and inert-gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. This technique allows to fine tune the size and yield of nanoclusters by controlling the nanocluster source parameters. The produced nanoclusters are deposited on SiO2/Si substrate with pre-formed electrical electrodes to produce a nanocluster device. Those devices can be potentially used for gas sensor applications.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nanoclusters, tin, inert-gas condensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
714 Inner Derivations of Low-Dimensional Diassociative Algebras

Authors: M. A. Fiidow, Ahmad M. Alenezi

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In this work, we study the inner derivations of diassociative algebras in dimension two and three, an algorithmic approach is adopted for the computation of inner derivation, using some results from the derivation of finite dimensional diassociative algebras. Some basic properties of inner derivation of finite dimensional diassociative algebras are also provided.

Keywords: diassociative algebras, inner derivations, derivations, left and right operator

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713 Data Mining Practices: Practical Studies on the Telecommunication Companies in Jordan

Authors: Dina Ahmad Alkhodary

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This study aimed to investigate the practices of Data Mining on the telecommunication companies in Jordan, from the viewpoint of the respondents. In order to achieve the goal of the study, and test the validity of hypotheses, the researcher has designed a questionnaire to collect data from managers and staff members from main department in the researched companies. The results shows improvements stages of the telecommunications companies towered Data Mining.

Keywords: Business, Development, Mining, Data

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712 The Phenomena of Virtual World Adoption: Antecedents and Consequences of Virtual World Experience

Authors: Norita Ahmad, Reza Barkhi, Xiaobo Xu

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We design an experimental study to learn about the cognitive implications of the use of avatars in a Virtual World (VW) (i.e., Second Life). The results support our proposed model, where a positive flow experience with VW influences the attitude towards VW, in turn influencing intention to use VW. Furthermore, VW flow experience can itself be impacted by perceived peer influence, familiarity with VW, and personality of the individuals behind the avatars in VW.

Keywords: flow experience, avatar, personality type, second life, virtual world

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711 Investigation of the Corroded Steel Beam

Authors: Hesamaddin Khoshnoodi, Ahmad Rahbar Ranji

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Corrosion in steel structures is one of the most important issues that should be considered in designing and constructing. Corrosion reduces the cross section and load capacity of element and leads to costly damage of structures. In this paper, the corrosion has been modeled for moment stresses. Moreover, the steel beam has been modeled using ABAQUS advanced finite element software. The conclusions of this study demonstrated that the displacement of the analyzed composite steel girder bridge might increase.

Keywords: Corrosion, deformation, ABAQUS, steel beam

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710 Reconstruction and Rejection of External Disturbances in a Dynamical System

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, A. Benallegue, A. El Hadri

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In this paper, we have proposed an observer for the reconstruction and a control law for the rejection application of unknown bounded external disturbance in a dynamical system. The strategy of both the observer and the controller is designed like a second order sliding mode with a proportional-integral (PI) term. Lyapunov theory is used to prove the exponential convergence and stability. Simulations results are given to show the performance of this method.

Keywords: Nonlinear Control, sliding mode observer, disturbance rejection, non-linear systems

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709 Assessment of Land Suitability for Tea Cultivation Using Geoinformatics in the Mansehra and Abbottabad District, Pakistan

Authors: Nasir Ashraf, Sajid Rahid Ahmad, Adeel Ahmad

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Pakistan is a major tea consumer country and ranked as the third largest importer of tea worldwide. Out of all beverage consumed in Pakistan, tea is the one with most demand for which tea import is inevitable. Being an agrarian country, Pakistan should cultivate its own tea and save the millions of dollars cost from tea import. So the need is to identify the most suitable areas with favorable weather condition and suitable soils where tea can be planted. This research is conducted over District Mansehra and District Abbottabad in Khyber Pakhtoonkhwah Province of Pakistan where the most favorable conditions for tea cultivation already exist and National Tea Research Institute has done successful experiments to cultivate high quality tea. High tech approach is adopted to meet the objectives of this research by using the remotely sensed data i.e. Aster DEM, Landsat8 Imagery. The Remote Sensing data was processed in Erdas Imagine, Envi and further analyzed in ESRI ArcGIS spatial analyst for final results and representation of result data in map layouts. Integration of remote sensing data with GIS provided the perfect suitability analysis. The results showed that out of all study area, 13.4% area is highly suitable while 33.44% area is suitable for tea plantation. The result of this research is an impressive GIS based outcome and structured format of data for the agriculture planners and Tea growers. Identification of suitable tea growing areas by using remotely sensed data and GIS techniques is a pressing need for the country. Analysis of this research lets the planners to address variety of action plans in an economical and scientific manner which can lead tea production in Pakistan to meet demand. This geomatics based model and approach may be used to identify more areas for tea cultivation to meet our demand which we can reduce by planting our own tea, and our country can be independent in tea production.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geoinformatics, GIS, Suitability Analysis, agrarian country

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708 A Study on the Synthesis of Boron Nitride Microtubes

Authors: Pervaiz Ahmad, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Yusoff Mohd Amin

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A unique cone-like morphologies of boron nitride microtubes with larger internal space and thin walls structure are synthesized in a dual zone quartz tube furnace at 1200 ° C with ammonia as a reaction atmosphere. The synthesized microtubes are found to have diameter in the range of 1 to ̴ 2 μm with walls thickness estimated from 10 – 100 nm. XPS survey shows N 1s and B 1s peaks at 398.7 eV and 191 eV that represent h-BN in the sample. Raman spectroscopy indicates a high intensity peak at 1372.53 (cm-1) that corresponds to the E2g mode of h-BN.

Keywords: Synthesis, Growth, BNMTs, reaction atmosphere

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707 Semiconductor Supported Gold Nanoparticles for Photodegradation of Rhodamine B

Authors: Ahmad Alshammari, Abdulaziz Bagabas, Muhamad Assulami

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Rhodamine B (RB) is a toxic dye used extensively in textile industry, which must be remediated before its drainage to the environment. In the present study, supported gold nanoparticles on commercially available titania and zincite were successfully prepared and then their activity on the photodegradation of RB under UV-A light irradiation were evaluated. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by ICP, BET, XRD, and TEM. Kinetic results showed that Au/TiO2 was an inferior photocatalyst to Au/ZnO. This observation could be attributed to the strong reflection of UV irradiation by gold nanoparticles over TiO2 support.

Keywords: Photodegradation, supported AuNPs, semiconductor photocatalyst, rhodamine B

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706 Neighbor Caring Environment System (NCE) Using Parallel Replication Mechanism

Authors: Ahmad Shukri Mohd Noor, Emma Ahmad Sirajudin, Rabiei Mamat

Abstract:

Pertaining to a particular Marine interest, the process of data sampling could take years before a study can be concluded. Therefore, the need for a robust backup system for the data is invariably implicit. In recent advancement of Marine applications, more functionalities and tools are integrated to assist the work of the researchers. It is anticipated that this modality will continue as research scope widens and intensifies and at the same to follow suit with current technologies and lifestyles. The convenience to collect and share information these days also applies to the work in Marine research. Therefore, Marine system designers should be aware that high availability is a necessary attribute in Marine repository applications as well as a robust backup system for the data. In this paper, the approach to high availability is related both to hardware and software but the focus is more on software. We consider a NABTIC repository system that is primitively built on a single server and does not have replicated components. First, the system is decomposed into separate modules. The modules are placed on multiple servers to create a distributed system. Redundancy is added by placing the copies of the modules on different servers using Neighbor Caring Environment System(NCES) technique. NCER is utilizing parallel replication components mechanism. A background monitoring is established to check servers’ heartbeats to confirm their aliveness. At the same time, a critical adaptive threshold is maintained to make sure a failure is timely detected using Adaptive Fault Detection (AFD). A confirmed failure will set the recovery mode where a selection process will be done before a fail-over server is instructed. In effect, the Marine repository service is continued as the fail-over masks a recent failure. The performance of the new prototype is tested and is confirmed to be more highly available. Furthermore, the downtime is not noticeable as service is immediately restored automatically. The Marine repository system is said to have achieved fault tolerance.

Keywords: Availability, Fault tolerance, Replication, Fault Detection, marine application

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705 The Thermal Simulation of Hydraulic Cable Drum Trailers 15-Ton

Authors: Ahmad Abdul-Razzak Aboudi Al-Issa

Abstract:

Thermal is the main important aspect in any hydraulic system since it is affected on the hydraulic system performance. Therefore must be simulated the hydraulic system -that was designed- in this aspect before constructing it. In this study, an existed expert system was using to simulate the thermal aspect of a designed hydraulic system that will be used in an industrial field. The expert system which is used in this study is (Hydraulic System Calculations), and its symbol (HSC). HSC had been designed and coded in an interactive program userfriendly named (Microsoft Visual Basic 2010).

Keywords: Fluid Power, Expert System, hydraulic system, thermal and hydrodynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
704 Generating Arabic Fonts Using Rational Cubic Ball Functions

Authors: Jamaludin Md. Ali, Fakharuddin Ibrahim, Ahmad Ramli

Abstract:

In this paper, we will discuss about the data interpolation by using the rational cubic Ball curve. To generate a curve with a better and satisfactory smoothness, the curve segments must be connected with a certain amount of continuity. The continuity that we will consider is of type G1 continuity. The conditions considered are known as the G1 Hermite condition. A simple application of the proposed method is to generate an Arabic font satisfying the required continuity.

Keywords: Continuity, data interpolation, rational ball curve, hermite condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
703 Laser Additive Manufacturing: A Literature Review

Authors: C. Mallika Parveen, Mihika Shivkumar, Pranav Mohan Parki, Tahseen Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the several manufacturing processes in use today. AM comprises of techniques such as ‘Selective Laser Sintering’ and ‘Selective Laser Melting’ etc. along with other equipment and materials has been developed way back in 1980s, although major use of these methods has risen during the last decade. AM seems to be the most efficient way when compared to the traditional machining procedures. Still many problems continue to hinder its progress to becoming the most widely used of all. This paper contributes to the better understanding of AM and also aims at providing viable solutions to these problems, which may further help in enabling AM to become the most flaw free production method.

Keywords: prototype, additive manufacturing (AM), laser sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
702 A New Modification of Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Coefficients with Global Convergence Properties

Authors: Ahmad Alhawarat, Mustafa Mamat, Mohd Rivaie, Ismail Mohd

Abstract:

Conjugate gradient method has been enormously used to solve large scale unconstrained optimization problems due to the number of iteration, memory, CPU time, and convergence property, in this paper we find a new class of nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient with global convergence properties proved by exact line search. The numerical results for our new βK give a good result when it compared with well-known formulas.

Keywords: conjugate gradient method, conjugate gradient coefficient, global convergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
701 Design and Simulation Interface Circuit for Piezoresistive Accelerometers with Offset Cancellation Ability

Authors: Mohsen Bagheri, Ahmad Afifi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for read out of the piezoresistive accelerometer sensors. The circuit works based on instrumentation amplifier and it is useful for reducing offset in Wheatstone bridge. The obtained gain is 645 with 1 μv/°c equivalent drift and 1.58 mw power consumption. A Schmitt trigger and multiplexer circuit control output node. A high speed counter is designed in this work. The proposed circuit is designed and simulated in 0.18 μm CMOS technology with 1.8 v power supply.

Keywords: piezoresistive accelerometer, zero offset, Schmitt trigger, bidirectional reversible counter

Procedia PDF Downloads 171