Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Adetunji Abiola Olaoye

23 Empirical Analyses of Students’ Self-Concepts and Their Mathematics Achievements

Authors: Adetunji Abiola Olaoye

Abstract:

The study examined the students’ self-concepts and mathematics achievement viz-a-viz the existing three theoretical models: Humanist self-concept (M1), Contemporary self-concept (M2) and Skills development self-concept (M3). As a qualitative research study, it comprised of one research question, which was transformed into hypothesis viz-a-viz the existing theoretical models. Sample to the study comprised of twelve public secondary schools from which twenty-five mathematics teachers, twelve counselling officers and one thousand students of Upper Basic II were selected based on intact class as school administrations and system did not allow for randomization. Two instruments namely 10 items ‘Achievement test in Mathematics’ (r1=0.81) and 10 items Student’s self-concept questionnaire (r2=0.75) were adapted, validated and used for the study. Data were analysed through descriptive, one way ANOVA, t-test and correlation statistics at 5% level of significance. Finding revealed mean and standard deviation of pre-achievement test scores of (51.322, 16.10), (54.461, 17.85) and (56.451, 18.22) for the Humanist Self-Concept, Contemporary Self-Concept and Skill Development Self-Concept respectively. Apart from that study showed that there was significant different in the academic performance of students along the existing models (F-cal>F-value, df = (2,997); P<0.05). Furthermore, study revealed students’ achievement in mathematics and self-concept questionnaire with the mean and standard deviation of (57.4, 11.35) and (81.6, 16.49) respectively. Result confirmed an affirmative relationship with the Contemporary Self-Concept model that expressed an individual subject and specific self-concept as the primary determinants of higher academic achievement in the subject as there is a statistical correlation between students’ self-concept and mathematics achievement viz-a-viz the existing three theoretical models of Contemporary (M2) with -Z_cal<-Z_val, df=998: P<0.05*. The implication of the study was discussed with recommendations and suggestion for further studies proffered.

Keywords: contemporary, humanists, self-concepts, skill development

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22 Item Response Calibration/Estimation: An Approach to Adaptive E-Learning System Development

Authors: Adeniran Adetunji, Babalola M. Florence, Akande Ademola

Abstract:

In this paper, we made an overview on the concept of adaptive e-Learning system, enumerates the elements of adaptive learning concepts e.g. A pedagogical framework, multiple learning strategies and pathways, continuous monitoring and feedback on student performance, statistical inference to reach final learning strategy that works for an individual learner by “mass-customization”. Briefly highlights the motivation of this new system proposed for effective learning teaching. E-Review literature on the concept of adaptive e-learning system and emphasises on the Item Response Calibration, which is an important approach to developing an adaptive e-Learning system. This paper write-up is concluded on the justification of item response calibration/estimation towards designing a successful and effective adaptive e-Learning system.

Keywords: adaptive e-learning system, pedagogical framework, item response, computer applications

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21 Lean Impact Analysis Assessment Models: Development of a Lean Measurement Structural Model

Authors: Catherine Maware, Olufemi Adetunji

Abstract:

The paper is aimed at developing a model to measure the impact of Lean manufacturing deployment on organizational performance. The model will help industry practitioners to assess the impact of implementing Lean constructs on organizational performance. It will also harmonize the measurement models of Lean performance with the house of Lean that seems to have become the industry standard. The sheer number of measurement models for impact assessment of Lean implementation makes it difficult for new adopters to select an appropriate assessment model or deployment methodology. A literature review is conducted to classify the Lean performance model. Pareto analysis is used to select the Lean constructs for the development of the model. The model is further formalized through the use of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in defining the underlying latent structure of a Lean system. An impact assessment measurement model developed can be used to measure Lean performance and can be adopted by different industries.

Keywords: impact measurement model, lean bundles, lean manufacturing, organizational performance

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20 Solanum tuberosum Ammonium Transporter Gene: Some Bioinformatics Insights

Authors: A. T. Adetunji, F. B. Lewu, R. Mundembe

Abstract:

Plants require nitrogen (N) to support desired production levels. Nitrogen is available to plants in the form of nitrate or ammonium, which are transported into the cell with the aid of various transport proteins. Ammonium transporters (AMTs) play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which nitrogen is preferentially absorbed by plants. Solanum tuberosum AMT1 (StAMT1) was characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. Nucleotide database sequences were used to design AMT1-specific primers which were used to amplify the AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned StAMT1 to the AMT1 family. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that StAMT1 is 92%, 83% and 76% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, Lotus japonicus LjAMT1.1 and Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.2 respectively. StAMT1 fragments were shown to correspond to the 5th - 10th trans-membrane domains. Residue StAMT1 D15 is predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport.

Keywords: ammonium transporter, bioinformatics, nitrogen, primers, Solanum tuberosum

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19 Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Ladele Ademola A., Nkiru T. Meludu, Olufunke Ezekiel, Olaoye Taye F., Okanlowan Oluwatoyin M.

Abstract:

Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and micro-enterprises of sweet potato production. The study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two methods. The first method involved the use of a fabricated gas powered cabinet dryer to dry sulphited chips and the second method was the use of traditional sun drying method without the addition of the chemical. The blends were also assessed in terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40 of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100% sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100% Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet potato/ yellow maize). In addition, chemical analysis carried out revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and Iron in the blended products.

Keywords: blends, diversification, sensory evaluation, sweet potato, utilization

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18 Usage and Benefits of Handheld Devices as Educational Tools in Higher Institutions of Learning in Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Abiola A. Sokoya

Abstract:

Handheld devices are now in use as educational tools for learning in most of the higher institutions, because of the features and functions which can be used in an academic environment. This study examined the usage and the benefits of handheld devices as learning tools. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, while the data collected was analyzed using simple percentage. It was, however, observed that handheld devices offer numerous functions and application for learning, which could improve academic performance of students. Students are now highly interested in using handheld devices for mobile learning apart from making and receiving calls. The researchers recommended that seminars be organized for students on functions of some common handheld devices that can aid learning for academic purposes. It is also recommended that management of each higher institution should make appropriate policies in-line with the usage of handheld technologies to enhance mobile learning. Government should ensure that appropriate policies and regulations are put in place for the importation of high quality handheld devices into the country, Nigeria being a market place for the technologies. By this, using handheld devices for mobile learning will be enhanced.

Keywords: handheld devices, educational tools, mobile e- learning, usage, benefits

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17 Geochemical Evaluation of Weathering-Induced Release of Trace Metals from the Maastritchian Shales in Parts of Bida an Anambra Basins, Nigeria

Authors: Adetunji Olusegun Aderigibigbe

Abstract:

Shales, especially black shales, are of great geological significance, in the study of heavy/trace metal contamination. This is due to their abundance in occurrence and high concentration of heavy metals embedded which are released during their weathering. Heavy metals constitute one of the most dangerous pollution known to human because they are toxic (i.e., carcinogenic), non-biodegradable and can enter the global eco-biological circle. In the past, heavy metal contamination in aquatic environment and agricultural top soil has been attributed to industrial wastes, mining extractions and pollution from traffic vehicles; only a few studies have focused on weathering of shale as possible source of heavy metal contamination. Based on the above background, this study attempts to establish weathering of shale as possible source of trace/heavy metal contaminations. This was done by carefully selecting fresh and their corresponding weathered shale samples from selected localities in Bida and Anambra Basins. The samples were analysed in Activation Laboratories Ltd; Ontario, Canada for trace/heavy metal. It was observed that some major and trace metals were released during weathering, i.e., some were depleted and some enriched. By this contamination of water zones and agricultural top soils are not only traceable to biogenic processes but geogenic inputs (weathering of shale) as well.

Keywords: contamination, fresh samples, heavy metals, pollution, shales, trace metals, weathered samples

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16 Attitude, Practice, and Prevalence of Injuries among Building Construction Workers in Lagos State

Authors: O. J. Makinde, O. A. Abiola

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Background: Hazards and injuries are two common phenomena that have been associated with the building construction profession. Apart from injuries, deaths from injuries sustained at work have been high in this profession. This study, therefore, attempts to determine the attitude, practice, and prevalence of injuries among this group of workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 285 respondents. The sampling was multi-staged. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit information such as socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, attitude and practice of occupational safety and prevalence of injuries among the workers. The data were analyzed using epi-info 3.5.1 statistical software. Result: The modal age group is 25-34yrs which made up 40% of the respondents. Most of the respondents were male (86.3%). Most of the respondent (52.3%) have their highest educational level as the secondary school. Most of the respondents (64.9%) had a poor attitude to occupational safety while 91.6% had poor occupational safety practices. The prevalence of occupational injury was very high (64.9%). Particles in the eyes have the highest prevalence (52.3%) while electric shock has the least prevalence (19.6%).None of the respondent working at a height used safety belt while working. Conclusion: Attitude and practice of occupational safety are poor among this group of workers and prevalence of injuries was high.

Keywords: building, construction, Hazard, injury, workers

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15 Electrokinetic Application for the Improvement of Soft Clays

Authors: Abiola Ayopo Abiodun, Zalihe Nalbantoglu

Abstract:

The electrokinetic application (EKA), a relatively modern chemical treatment has a potential for in-situ ground improvement in an open field or under existing structures. It utilizes a low electrical gradient to transport electrolytic chemical ions between bespoke electrodes inserted in the fine-grained, low permeable soft soils. The paper investigates the efficacy of the EKA as a mitigation technique for the soft clay beds. The laboratory model of the EKA comprises of rectangular plexiglass test tank, electrolytes compartments, geosynthetic electrodes and direct electric current supply. Within this setup, the EK effects resulted from the exchange of ions between anolyte (anodic) and catholyte (cathodic) ends through the tested soil were examined by basic experimental laboratory testing methods. As such, the treated soft soil properties were investigated as a function of the anode-to-cathode distances and curing periods. The test results showed that there have been some changes in the physical and engineering properties of the treated soft soils. The significant changes in the physicochemical and electrical properties suggested that their corresponding changes can be utilized as a monitoring technique to evaluate the improvement in the engineering properties EK treated soft clay soils.

Keywords: electrokinetic, electrolytes, exchange ions, geosynthetic electrodes, soft soils

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14 Characterization of Solanum tuberosum Ammonium Transporter Gene Using Bioinformatics Approach

Authors: Adewole Tomiwa Adetunji, Francis Bayo Lewu, Richard Mundembe

Abstract:

Plants require nitrogen (N) to support desired production levels. There is a need for better understanding of N transport mechanism in order to improve N assimilation by plant root. Nitrogen is available to plants in the form of nitrate or ammonium, which are transported into the cell with the aid of various transport proteins. Ammonium transporters (AMTs) play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which N is preferentially absorbed by plants. Solanum tuberosum AMT1 (StAMT1) was amplified, sequenced and characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. Nucleotide database sequences were used to design 976 base pairs AMT1-specific primers which include forward primer 5’- GCCATCGCCGCCGCCGG-3’ and reverse primer 5’-GGGTCAGATCCATACCCGC-3’. These primers were used to amplify the Solanum tuberosum AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned StAMT1 to the AMT1 family due to the clade and high similarity it shared with other plant AMT1 genes. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that StAMT1 is 92%, 83% and 76% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, Lotus japonicus LjAMT1.1, and Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.2 respectively. StAMT1 fragments were shown to correspond to the 5th-10th trans-membrane domains. Residue StAMT1 D15 is predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport.

Keywords: ammonium transporter, bioinformatics, nitrogen, primers, Solanum tuberosum

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13 Nurses' View on Costing Nursing Care: A Case Study of Two Selected Public Hospitals in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Funmilayo Abiola Opadoja, Samuel Olukayode Awotona

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Nursing services costing has been a major interest to nurses for a long period of time. Determination of nursing costing is germane in order to show the effectiveness of nursing practice in an improved and affordable health care delivery system. This has been a major concern of managers that have the mind of quality and affordable health services. The treatment or intervention should be considered as ‘product’ of nursing care and should provide an explainable term for billing. The study was non-experimental, descriptive and went about eliciting the views of nurses on costing nursing care at two public hospitals namely: University College Hospital and Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital. The questionnaire was the instrument used in eliciting nurse’s response. It was administered randomly on 300 selected respondents across various wards within the hospitals. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS20.0 to generate frequency, and cross-tabulations to explore the statistical relationship between variables. The result shows that 89.2% of the respondents viewed costing of nursing care as an important issued to be looked into. The study concluded that nursing care costing is germane to enhancing the status and imagery of the nurses, it is essential because it would enhance the performance of nurses in discharging their duties. There is need to have a procedural manual agreed on by nursing practitioner on costing of each care given.

Keywords: costing, health care delivery system, intervention, nursing care, practitioner

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12 Pilot Scale Sub-Surface Constructed Wetland: Evaluation of Performance of Bed Vegetated with Water Hyacinth in the Treatment of Domestic Sewage

Authors: Abdul-Hakeem Olatunji Abiola, A. E. Adeniran, A. O. Ajimo, A. B. Lamilisa

Abstract:

Introduction: Conventional wastewater treatment technology has been found to fail in developing countries because they are expensive to construct, operate and maintain. Constructed wetlands are nowadays considered as a low-cost alternative for effective wastewater treatment, especially where suitable land can be available. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the constructed wetland vegetated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) plant for the treatment of wastewater. Methodology: The sub-surface flow wetland used for this study was an experimental scale constructed wetland consisting of four beds A, B, C, and D. Beds A, B, and D were vegetated while bed C which was used as a control was non-vegetated. This present study presents the results from bed B vegetated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and control bed C which was non-vegetated. The influent of the experimental scale wetland has been pre-treated with sedimentation, screening and anaerobic chamber before feeding into the experimental scale wetland. Results: pH and conductivity level were more reduced, colour of effluent was more improved, nitrate, iron, phosphate, and chromium were more removed, and dissolved oxygen was more improved in the water hyacinth bed than the control bed. While manganese, nickel, cyanuric acid, and copper were more removed from the control bed than the water hyacinth bed. Conclusion: The performance of the experimental scale constructed wetland bed planted with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is better than that of the control bed. It is therefore recommended that plain bed without any plant should not be encouraged.

Keywords: constructed experimental scale wetland, domestic sewage, treatment, water hyacinth

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11 Emotional Intelligence and Sports Coaches

Authors: Stephens Oluyemi Adetunji, Nel Norma Margaret, Krogs Sozein

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There has been a shift in the role of sports from being a form of entertainment and relaxation to becoming a huge business concern and high money spinning venture. This shift has placed a greater demand on sport coaches as regards expectations for high performance from investors as well as other stake holders. The responsibility of sports coaches in ensuring high performance of sports men and women has become increasingly more demanding from both spectators and sports organisers. Coaches are leaders who should possess soft skills such as emotional intelligence aside from employing skills and drills to ensure high performance of athletes. This study is, therefore, designed to determine the emotional intelligence of sports coaches in South Africa. An assessment of the emotional intelligence of sports coaches would enable the researchers to identify those who have low emotional intelligence and to design an intervention program that could improve their emotional intelligence. This study will adopt the pragmatic world view of research using the mixed methods research design of the quantitative and qualitative approach. The non-probability sampling technique will be used to select fifty sports coaches for the quantitative study while fifteen sports coaches will be purposively selected for the qualitative study. One research question which seeks to ascertain the level of emotional intelligence of sports coaches will be raised to guide this study. In addition, two research hypotheses stating that there will be no significant difference in the level of emotional intelligence of sports coaches on the basis of gender and type of sports will be formulated and statistically analysed at 0.05 level of significance. For the quantitative study, an emotional intelligence test will be used to measure the emotional intelligence of sport coaches. Focus group interviews and open ended questions will be used to obtain the qualitative data. Quantitative data obtained will be statistically analysed using the SPSS version 22.0 while the qualitative data will be analysed using atlas ti. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations will be made.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, high performance, sports coaches, South Africa

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10 Study of Causes and Effects of Road Projects Abandonment in Nigeria

Authors: Monsuru Oyenola Popoola, Oladapo Samson Abiola, Wusamotu Alao Adeniji

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The prevalent and incessant abandonment of road construction projects are alarming that it creates several negative effects to social, economic and environmental values of the project. The purpose of this paper is to investigate and determined the various causes and effects of abandoning road construction projects in Nigeria. Likert Scale questionnaire design was used to administered and analysed the data obtained for the stydy. 135 (Nr) questionnaires were completed and retrieved from the respondents, out of 200 (Nr) questionnaires sent out, representing a response rate of 67.5%. The analysis utilized the Relative Importance Index (R.I.I.) method and the results are presented in tabular form. The findings confirms that at least 20 factors were the causes of road projects abandonment in Nigeria with most including Leadership Instability, Improper Project Planning, Inconsistence in government policies and Design, Contractor Incompetence, Economy Instability and Inflation, Delay in remittance of money, Improper financial analysis, Poor risk management, Climatic Conditions, Improper Project Estimates etc. The findings also show that at least eight (8) effect were identified on the system, and these include; Waste of Financial Resources, Loss of economic value, Environmental degradation, Loss of economic value, Reduction in standard of living, Litigation and Arbitration, etc. The reflection is that allocating reasonable finance, developing appropriate and effective implementation plans and monitoring, evaluation and reporting on development project activities by key actors should enhance in resolving the problem of road projects abandonment.

Keywords: road construction, abandonment of road projects, climatic condition, project planning, contractor

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9 Improving Customer Service through Empathy

Authors: Abiola Olukemi Ogunyemi

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Many organizations would like to gain customer loyalty, and to achieve this they invest in customer management systems which help them to learn and anticipate the customers’ needs, get feedback from them and serve them. One of the most elementary ways to achieve customer loyalty is for employees to be able to empathize with their customers, and to be able to feel what they feel when the company betrays their trust, which usually otherwise shown in patronage and loyalty. Unfortunately, the staff and management of organizations do not always realize the negative impact of treating customers badly, because they do not stop to think how these customers feel. If they did, they would be more careful and more respectful of these people who are human beings just like they are. They would be wiser, since this would ultimately make them more profitable businesses. This paper looks at thirteen descriptions of situations in which customers felt treated badly by organizations they trusted, and focuses on the feelings of these customers. If the organization (made of people) could empathize with the customer, then customer service would be surely enhanced. It is expected that these stories, real experiences narrated by young professionals working in Nigeria, can awaken greater empathy for consumers within organizations. Thus, they may help the organization to learn empathy and to incorporate it into their foundational principles for ethical behavior. The paper’s contents contribute to a heightened appreciation of empathy as an organizing mechanism by showing how putting one in the consumer’s shoes can help managers to understand how he or she feels. This will lead organizations to be even more innovative in finding ways to meet their customers’ needs and to deserve and win their loyalty. It addresses an issue that cuts across cultures, and therefore can be quite thought-provoking for every business owner or for team leads within organizations. By trying to stimulate empathy across the seller-buyer divide, it necessarily contributes to a deeper understanding of empathy as a building block for a sustainable society.

Keywords: customer service, empathy, ethical behavior, respectfulness

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8 Genetic Diversity Analysis of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L. R. Rr.]) Accessions from Northwestern Nigeria

Authors: Sa’adu Mafara Abubakar, Muhammad Nuraddeen Danjuma, Adewole Tomiwa Adetunji, Richard Mundembe, Salisu Mohammed, Francis Bayo Lewu, Joseph I. Kiok

Abstract:

Pearl millet is the most drought tolerant of all domesticated cereals, is cultivated extensively to feed millions of people who mainly live in hash agroclimatic zones. It serves as a major source of food for more than 40 million smallholder farmers living in the marginal agricultural lands of Northern Nigeria. Pearl millet grain is more nutritious than other cereals like maize, is also a principal source of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals for millions of poorest people in the regions where it is cultivated. Pearl millet has recorded relatively little research attention compared with other crops and no sufficient work has analyzed its genetic diversity in north-western Nigeria. Therefore, this study was undertaken with the objectives to analyze the genetic diversity of pearl millet accessions using SSR marker and to analyze the extent of evolutionary relationship among pearl millet accessions at the molecular level. The result of the present study confirmed diversity among accessions of pearl millet in the study area. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers were used for genetic analysis and evolutionary relationship of the accessions of pearl millet. To analyze the level of genetic diversity, 8 polymorphic SSR markers were used to screen 69 accessions collected based on three maturity periods. SSR markers result reveal relationships among the accessions in terms of genetic similarities, evolutionary and ancestral origin, it also reveals a total of 53 alleles recorded with 8 microsatellites and an average of 6.875 per microsatellite, the range was from 3 to 9 alleles in PSMP2248 and PSMP2080 respectively. Moreover, both the factorial analysis and the dendrogram of phylogeny tree grouping patterns and cluster analysis were almost in agreement with each other that diversity is not clustering according to geographical patterns but, according to similarity, the result showed maximum similarity among clusters with few numbers of accessions. It has been recommended that other molecular markers should be tested in the same study area.

Keywords: pearl millet, genetic diversity, simple sequence repeat (SSR)

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7 Assessing Empathy of Deliquent Adolescents

Authors: Stephens Oluyemi Adetunji, Nel Norma Margaret, Naidu Narainsamy

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Empathy has been identified by researchers to be a crucial factor in helping adolescents to refrain from delinquent behavior. Adolescent delinquent behavior is a social problem that has become a source of concern to parents, psychologists, educators, correctional services, researchers as well as governments of nations. Empathy is a social skill that enables an individual to understand and to share another’s emotional state. An individual with a high level of empathy will avoid any act or behavior that will affect another person negatively. The need for this study is predicated on the fact that delinquent adolescent behavior could lead to adult criminality. This, in the long run, has the potential of resulting in an increase in crime rate thereby threatening public safety. It has therefore become imperative to explore the level of empathy of delinquent adolescents who have committed crime and are awaiting trial. It is the conjecture of this study that knowledge of the empathy level of delinquent adolescents will provide an opportunity to design an intervention strategy to remediate the deficit. This study was therefore designed to determine the level of empathy of delinquent adolescents. In addition, this study provides a better understanding of factors that may prevent adolescents from developing delinquent behavior, in this case, delinquents’ empathy levels. In the case of participants who have a low level of empathy, remediation strategies to improve their empathy level would be designed. Two research questions were raised to guide this study. A mixed methods research design was employed for the study. The sample consists of fifteen male adolescents who are between 13-18 years old with a mean age of 16.5 years old. The participants are adolescents who are awaiting trial. The non-probability sampling technique was used to obtain the sample for the quantitative study while purposive sampling was used in the case of the qualitative study. A self–report questionnaire and structured interview were used to assess the level of empathy of participants. The data obtained was analysed using the simple percentages for the quantitative data and transcribing the qualitative data. The result indicates that most of the participants have low level of empathy. It is also revealed that there is a difference in the empathy level on the basis of whether they are from parents living together and those whose parents are separated. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the level of empathy of participants be improved through training and emphasizing the importance of stimulating family environment for children. It is also recommended that programs such as youth mentoring and youth sheltering be established by the government of South Africa to address the menace of delinquent adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents, behavior, delinquents, empathy

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6 Culturally Adapting Videos to Involve Nigerian Patients with Cancer in Clinical Trials

Authors: Abiola Falilat Ibraheem, Akinyimika Sowunmi, Valerie Otti

Abstract:

Background: Introduction of innovative cancer clinical trials to Nigeria is a critical step in addressing global inequities of cancer burden. Low health and clinical trial literacy among Nigerian patients have been sighted as a significant barrier to ensuring that patients enrolled in clinical trials are truly informed. Video intervention has been shown to be the most proactive method to improving patient’s clinical trial knowledge. In the US, video interventions have been successful at improving education about cancer clinical trials among minority patients. Thus, this study aimed to apply and adapt video interventions addressing attitudinal barriers peculiar to Nigerian patients. Methods: A hospital-based representative mixed-method study was conducted at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) from July to December 2020, comprising of cancer patients aged 18 and above. Patients were randomly selected during every clinic day, of which 63 patients volunteered to participate in this study. We first administered a cancer literacy survey to determine patients’ knowledge about clinical trials. For patients who had prior knowledge, a pre-intervention test was administered, after which a 15-minute video (attitudes and intention to enroll in therapeutic clinical trials (AIET)) to improve patients’ knowledge, perception, and attitudes towards clinical trials was played, and then ended by administering a post-intervention test to the patients. For patients who had no prior knowledge, the AIET video was played for them, followed by the post-intervention test. Results: Out of 63 patients sampled, 43 (68.3%) had breast cancer. On average, patients agreed to understand their cancer diagnosis and treatment very well. 84.1% of patients had never heard about cancer clinical trials, and 85.7% did not know what cancer clinical trials were. There was a strong positive relationship (r=0.916) between the pretest and posttest, which means that the intervention improved patients’ knowledge, perception, and attitudes about cancer clinical trials. In the focus groups, patients recommended adapting the video in Nigerian settings and representing all religions in order to address trust in local clinical trialists. Conclusion: Due to the small size of patients, change in clinical trial knowledge was not statistically significant. However, there is a trend suggesting that culturally adapted video interventions can be used to improve knowledge and perception about cancer clinical trials.

Keywords: clinical trials, culturally targeted intervention, patient education, video intervention

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5 Oral Supplementation of Sweet Orange Extract “Citrus Sinensis” as Substitute for Synthetic Vitamin C on Transported Pullets in Humid Tropics

Authors: Mathew O. Ayoola, Foluke Aderemi, Tunde E. Lawal, Opeyemi Oladejo, Micheal A. Abiola

Abstract:

Food animals reared for meat require transportation during their life cycle. The transportation procedures could initiate stressors capable of disrupting the physiological homeostasis. Such stressors associated with transportation may include; loading and unloading, crowding, environmental temperature, fear, vehicle motion/vibration, feed / water deprivation, and length of travel. This may cause oxidative stress and damage to excess free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS). In recent years, the application of natural products as a substitute for synthetic electrolytes and tranquilizers as anti-stress agents during the transportation is yet under investigation. Sweet orange, a predominant fruit in humid tropics, has been reported to have a good content of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid). Vitamin C, which is an active ingredient in orange juice, plays a major role in the biosynthesis of Corticosterone, a hormone that enhances energy supply during transportation and heat stress. Ninety-six, 15weeks, Isa brown pullets were allotted to four (4) oral treatments; sterile water (T1), synthetic vit C (T2), 30ml orange/liter of water (T3), 50ml orange/1 liter (T4). Physiological parameters; body temperature (BTC), rectal temperature (RTC), respiratory rate (RR), and panting rate (PR) were measured pre and post-transportation. The birds were transported with a specialized vehicle for a distance of 50km at a speed of 60 km/hr. The average environmental THI and within the vehicle was 81.8 and 74.6, respectively, and the average wind speed was 11km/hr. Treatments and periods had a significant (p>0.05) effect on all the physiological parameters investigated. Birds on T1 are significantly (p<0.05) different as compared to T2, T3, and T4. Values recorded post-transportation are significantly (p<0.05) higher as compared to pre-transportation for all parameters. In conclusion, this study showed that transportation as a stressor can affect the physiological homeostasis of pullets. Oral supplementation of electrolytes or tranquilizers is essential as an anti-stress during transportation. The application of the organic product in form of sweet orange could serve as a suitable alternative for the synthetic vitamin C.

Keywords: physiological, pullets, sweet orange, transportation stress, and vitamin C

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4 Urban Waste Management for Health and Well-Being in Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Bolawole F. Ogunbodede, Mokolade Johnson, Adetunji Adejumo

Abstract:

High population growth rate, reactive infrastructure provision, inability of physical planning to cope with developmental pace are responsible for waste water crisis in the Lagos Metropolis. Septic tank is still the most prevalent waste-water holding system. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of septage treatment infrastructure. Public waste-water treatment system statistics relative to the 23 million people in Lagos State is worrisome. 1.85 billion Cubic meters of wastewater is generated on daily basis and only 5% of the 26 million population is connected to public sewerage system. This is compounded by inadequate budgetary allocation and erratic power supply in the last two decades. This paper explored community participatory waste-water management alternative at Oworonshoki Municipality in Lagos. The study is underpinned by decentralized Waste-water Management systems in built-up areas. The initiative accommodates 5 step waste-water issue including generation, storage, collection, processing and disposal through participatory decision making in two Oworonshoki Community Development Association (CDA) areas. Drone assisted mapping highlighted building footage. Structured interviews and focused group discussion of land lord associations in the CDA areas provided collaborator platform for decision-making. Water stagnation in primary open drainage channels and natural retention ponds in framing wetlands is traceable to frequent of climate change induced tidal influences in recent decades. Rise in water table resulting in septic-tank leakage and water pollution is reported to be responsible for the increase in the water born infirmities documented in primary health centers. This is in addition to unhealthy dumping of solid wastes in the drainage channels. The effect of uncontrolled disposal system renders surface waters and underground water systems unsafe for human and recreational use; destroys biotic life; and poisons the fragile sand barrier-lagoon urban ecosystems. Cluster decentralized system was conceptualized to service 255 households. Stakeholders agreed on public-private partnership initiative for efficient wastewater service delivery.

Keywords: health, infrastructure, management, septage, well-being

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3 Sceletium Tortuosum: A review on its Phytochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, Biological and Clinical Activities

Authors: Tomi Lois Olatunji, Frances Siebert, Ademola Emmanuel Adetunji, Brian Harvey, Johane Gericke, Josias Hamman, Frank Van Der Kooy

Abstract:

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E.Br, the most sought after and widely researched species in the genus Sceletium is a succulent forb endemic to South Africa. Traditionally, this medicinal plant is mainly masticated or smoked and used for the relief of toothache, abdominal pain, and as a mood-elevator, analgesic, hypnotic, anxiolytic, thirst and hunger suppressant, and for its intoxicating/euphoric effects. Sceletium tortuosum is currently of widespread scientific interest due to its clinical potential in treating anxiety and depression, relieving stress in healthy individuals, and enhancing cognitive functions. These pharmacological actions are attributed to its phytochemical constituents referred to as mesembrine-type alkaloids. Aim of the review: The aim of this review was to comprehensively summarize and critically evaluate recent research advances on the phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, biological and clinical activities of the medicinal plant S. tortuosum. Additionally, current ongoing research and future perspectives are also discussed. Methods: All relevant scientific articles, books, MSc and Ph.D. dissertations on botany, behavioral pharmacology, traditional uses, and phytochemistry of S. tortuosum were retrieved from different databases (including Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science). For pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects of S. tortuosum, the focus fell on relevant publications published between 2009 and 2021. Results: Twenty-five alkaloids belonging to four structural classes viz: mesembrine, Sceletium A4, joubertiamine, and tortuosamine, have been identified from S. tortuosum, of which the mesembrine class is predominant. The crude extracts and commercially available standardized extracts of S. tortuosum have displayed a wide spectrum of biological activities (e.g. antimalarial, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-HIV, neuroprotection, enhancement of cognitive function) in in vitro or in vivo studies. This plant has not yet been studied in a clinical population, but has potential for enhancing cognitive function, and managing anxiety and depression. Conclusion: As an important South African medicinal plant, S. tortuosum has garnered many research advances on its phytochemistry and biological activities over the last decade. These scientific studies have shown that S. tortuosum has various bioactivities. The findings have further established the link between the phytochemistry and pharmacological application, and support the traditional use of S. tortuosum in the indigenous medicine of South Africa.

Keywords: Aizoaceae, Mesembrine, Serotonin, Sceletium tortuosum, Zembrin®, psychoactive, antidepressant

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2 Spatial Pattern of Environmental Noise Levels and Auditory Ailments in Abeokuta Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Olusegun Oguntoke, Aramide Y. Tijani, Olayide R. Adetunji

Abstract:

Environmental noise has become a major threat to the quality of human life, and it is generally more severe in cities. This study assessed the level of environmental noise, mapped the spatial pattern at different times of the day and examined the association with morbidity of auditory ailments in Abeokuta metropolis. The entire metropolis was divided into 80 cells (areas) of 1000 m by 1000 m; out of which 33 were randomly selected for noise levels assessment. Portable noise meter (AR824) was used to measure noise level, and Global Positioning System (Garmin GPS-72H) was employed to take the coordinates of the sample sites for mapping. Risk map of the noise levels was produced using Kriging interpolation techniques based on the spatial spread of measured noise values across the study area. Data on cases of hearing impairments were collected from four major hospitals in the city. Data collected from field measurements and medical records were subjected to descriptive (frequency and percentage) and inferential (mean, ANOVA and correlation) statistics using SPSS (version 20.0). ArcMap 10.1 was employed for spatial analysis and mapping. Results showed mean noise levels range at morning (42.4 ± 4.14 – 88.2 ± 15.1 dBA), afternoon (45.0 ± 6.72– 86.4 ± 12.5 dBA) and evening (51.0 ± 6.55–84.4 ± 5.19 dBA) across the study area. The interpolated maps identified Kuto, Okelowo, Isale-Igbein, and Sapon as high noise risk areas. These are the central business district and nucleus of Abeokuta metropolis where commercial activities, high traffic volume, and clustered buildings exist. The monitored noise levels varied significantly among the sampled areas in the morning, afternoon and evening (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was found between diagnosed cases of auditory ailments and noise levels measured in the morning (r=0.39 at p < 0.05). Common auditory ailments found across the metropolis included impaired hearing (25.8%), tinnitus (16.4%) and otitis (15.0%). The most affected age groups were between 11-30 years while the male gender had more cases of hearing impairments (51.2%) than the females. The study revealed that environmental noise levels exceeded the recommended standards in the morning, afternoon and evening in 60.6%, 61% and 72.7% of the sampled areas respectively. Summarily, environmental noise in the study area is high and contributes to the morbidity of auditory ailments. Areas identified as hot spots of noise pollution should be avoided in the location of noise sensitive activities while environmental noise monitoring should be included as part of the mandate of the regulatory agencies in Nigeria.

Keywords: noise pollution, associative analysis, auditory impairment, urban, human exposure

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1 Determinants of Unmet Need for Contraception among Currently Married Women in Rural and Urban Communities of Osun State, South-West Nigeria

Authors: Abiola O. Temitayo-Oboh, Olugbenga L. Abodunrin, Wasiu O. Adebimpe, Micheal C. Asuzu

Abstract:

Introduction: Many women who are sexually active would prefer to avoid becoming pregnant but are not using any method of contraception. These women are considered to have an unmet need for contraception. In an ideal situation, all women who want to space or limit their births and are exposed to the risk of conception would use some kind of conception; in practice, however, some women fail to use contraception which put them at risk of having mistimed or unwanted births, induced abortion, or maternal death. This study, therefore, aimed to assess the determinants of unmet need for contraception among currently married women in rural and urban communities of Osun State, South-West Nigeria. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional comparative study, which was carried out among currently married women. Three hundred and twenty respondents each were selected for the rural and urban groups from four Local Government Areas using multi-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and focus group discussion (FGD) guide; data analysis was done with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 and detailed content analysis method respectively. Statistical analysis of the difference between proportions was done by the use of the Chi-square test and T-test was used to compare the means of the continuous variables. The study also utilized descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analytical techniques to examine the effect of some variables on unmet need. Level of statistical significance was set at p-value < 0.05 for all values. Results: Two hundred and ninety-six (92.5%) of the rural and 306 (95.6%) of the urban study population had heard of contraception, 365 (57.0 %) of the total respondents had good knowledge [162 (50.6 %) for rural respondents and 203 (63.4 %) for urban respondents]. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Five hundred and twenty-one (81.4%) respondents had a positive attitude towards contraception [243 (75.9%) in the rural and 278 (86.9%) in the urban area], and the difference was also statistically significant (p < 0.001). Only 47 (14.7%) and 59 (18.4%) of rural and urban women were current contraceptive users respectively. The total unmet need for contraception among rural women was 138 (43.1%) of which 82 (25.6%) was for spacing and 56 (17.5%), for limiting. While the total unmet need for contraception among urban women was 145 (45.3%) of which 96 (30.0%) was for spacing and 49 (15.3%) for limiting. Number of living children, knowledge of contraceptive methods, discussion with health workers about family planning, couples discussion about family planning and availability of family planning services were found to be predictors of women’s unmet need for contraception (p < 0.05). Conclusion: It is, therefore, recommended that there is need to intensify reproductive health education in bridging the knowledge gap, improving attitude and modifying practices regarding use of contraception in Nigeria. Hence, this will help to enhance the utilization of family planning services among Nigerian women.

Keywords: contraception, married women, Nigeria, rural, urban, unmet need

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