Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Adebowale E Salako

17 Meat Potential Indicators of Red Sokoto, Sahel and West African Dwarf Goat Based on Morphometrical Measurements

Authors: Ozioma Beauty Nwaodu, Adebowale E Salako, Omolara Mabel Akinyemi, Nkechi Uche, Isuama Isu, Uchechi Jane Elechi

Abstract:

Goats form an integral part of livestock production in the tropics. Meat potential is determined subjectively by resource poor livestock keepers, using hand to measure the rump width (RW). Objective evaluation of meat potential in different breads of goats can overcome problems associated with subjective evaluation. Hence, the objectives were to predict meatiness in Red Sokoto (RS), Sahel and the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats, using product of the body length (BL), wither height (WH) and (RW) and to indicate the inherent size of each breed, using WH: BL ratio. These three parameters were used because they are less environmentally sensitive. A total of 2849 goats were sampled purposefully from the Akinyele and Oranyan markets in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. RS showed no significant difference for BL and WH but different from the RW of both sexes (p < 0.01). Similarly WAD showed no significant difference for the BL and WH, but differed (p < 0.01) between sexes for RW. Using the ANOVA, BL:WH ratio showed no significant difference between the breeds. WAD goats have the highest mean for BL:WH ratio. Western meat livestock is primarily identified using BL:WH. The combinations of these body parameters as indicator for meat type in meat animals showed that WAD goat has more potential to lay down meat, than RS and Sahel.

Keywords: quantitative, morphologial traits, descriptive analysis, goats

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16 Co-Integration Model for Predicting Inflation Movement in Nigeria

Authors: Salako Rotimi, Oshungade Stephen, Ojewoye Opeyemi

Abstract:

The maintenance of price stability is one of the macroeconomic challenges facing Nigeria as a nation. This paper attempts to build a co-integration multivariate time series model for inflation movement in Nigeria using data extracted from the abstract of statistics of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) from 2008 to 2017. The Johansen cointegration test suggests at least one co-integration vector describing the long run relationship between Consumer Price Index (CPI), Food Price Index (FPI) and Non-Food Price Index (NFPI). All three series show increasing pattern, which indicates a sign of non-stationary in each of the series. Furthermore, model predictability was established with root-mean-square-error, mean absolute error, mean average percentage error, and Theil’s unbiased statistics for n-step forecasting. The result depicts that the long run coefficient of a consumer price index (CPI) has a positive long-run relationship with the food price index (FPI) and non-food price index (NFPI).

Keywords: economic, inflation, model, series

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15 Predicting the Effects of Counseling Psychology on the Sexual Risk Behavior of In-School Adolescents: Implication for National Development

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Adebayo Adeyinka Salako

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The study adopted a descriptive research design. Two hundred (200) in-school adolescents were purposely selected in Afijio Local Government Area of Oyo State. Two hypotheses were also raised to pilot the study. The researchers developed an instrument which was validated by psychological experts, the instrument tagged counseling psychology and sexual risk behavior questionnaire (CPSRBQ)(r = 0.78). The results were analysed using t-test at 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that there is a significant relationship between counseling psychology and sexual risk behavior of in-school adolescents. It was also noticed that there is a significant difference in the sexual risk behavior of male and female adolescents. Based on the findings, it was recommended that more counselors are still needed in Nigeria schools. There is need for restructuring Nigeria Curriculum most especially on sex education and related diseases. Lastly, adolescents should be more exposed to seminars on HIV/AIDS, sex education enlightenment programmes and marital counseling.

Keywords: counseling psychology, sexual behavior, risk and adolescent, cognitive sciences

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14 Continuous Improvement Programme as a Strategy for Technological Innovation in Developing Nations. Nigeria as a Case Study

Authors: Sefiu Adebowale Adewumi

Abstract:

Continuous improvement programme (CIP) adopts an approach to improve organizational performance with small incremental steps over time. In this approach, it is not the size of each step that is important, but the likelihood that the improvements will be ongoing. Many companies in developing nations are now complementing continuous improvement with innovation, which is the successful exploitation of new ideas. Focus area of CIP in the organization was in relation to the size of the organizations and also in relation to the generic classification of these organizations. Product quality was prevalent in the manufacturing industry while manpower training and retraining and marketing strategy were emphasized for improvement to be made in the service, transport and supply industries. However, focus on innovation in raw materials, process and methods are needed because these are the critical factors that influence product quality in the manufacturing industries.

Keywords: continuous improvement programme, developing countries, generic classfications, technological innovation

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13 Influence of HIV Testing on Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention Practices and Transmission among Undergraduate Youths in North-West University, Mafikeng

Authors: Paul Bigala, Samuel Oladipo, Steven Adebowale

Abstract:

This study examines factors influencing knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention Practices and Transmission (KHAPPT) among young undergraduate students (15-24 years). Knowledge composite index was computed for 820 randomly selected students. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression were used for the analyses (α=.05). The overall mean knowledge score was 16.5±3.4 out of a possible score of 28. About 83% of the students have undergone HIV test, 21.0% have high KHAPPT, 18% said there is cure for the disease, 23% believed that asking for condom is embarrassing and 11.7% said it is safe to share unsterilized sharp objects with friends or family members. The likelihood of high KHAPPT was higher among students who have had HIV test (OR=3.314; C.I=1.787-6.145, p<0.001) even when other variables were used as control. The identified predictors of high KHAPPT were; ever had HIV test, faculty, and ever used any HIV/AIDS prevention services. North-West University Mafikeng should intensify efforts on the HIV/AIDS awareness program on the campus.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS knowledge, undergraduate students, HIV testing, Mafikeng

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12 Resiliency, Peer and Parental Support as Determinants of Adolescents' Social Adjustment among Secondary Students in Ilorin, Kwara State

Authors: Titilola Adebowale

Abstract:

Some factors are responsible for the social adjustment among the adolescents. The study investigated resiliency, peer and parental support as factors that could determine social adjustment among adolescents in Ilorin, Kwara state. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. A sample size of 300 SS1 & SS2 students from ten secondary schools, six public and four private schools were randomly selected within Ilorin Metropolis. Self-structured questionnaire that was validated and the reliability ensured was used to collect data from the respondents. Four hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data collected was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Regression Analysis. The findings revealed that there was a positive relationship between resiliency and social adjustment: r (298) = .402, p<0.01, r2 = .162; that there was a positive relationship between peer support and social adjustment: r (298) = .570, p<0.01, r2 = .325; that there was a positive relationship between parental support and social adjustment: r (298) = .451, p<0.01, r2 = .203; also reveals significant joint contribution of the independent variables (resilience, peer support, parental support) to the prediction of social adjustment: F (3,296) = 55.587, P<0.01. Various recommendations were given which includes the roles of government, agencies, individuals, parents, teachers, religious and marriage institutions.

Keywords: resiliency, peer support, parental support, adolescents, social adjustment

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11 Perception of Secondary Schools’ Students on Computer Education in Federal Capital Territory (FCT-Abuja), Nigeria

Authors: Salako Emmanuel Adekunle

Abstract:

Computer education is referred to as the knowledge and ability to use computers and related technology efficiently, with a range of skills covering levels from basic use to advance. Computer continues to make an ever-increasing impact on all aspect of human endeavours such as education. With numerous benefits of computer education, what are the insights of students on computer education? This study investigated the perception of senior secondary school students on computer education in Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. A sample of 7500 senior secondary schools students was involved in the study, one hundred (100) private and fifty (50) public schools within FCT. They were selected by using simple random sampling technique. A questionnaire [PSSSCEQ] was developed and validated through expert judgement and reliability co-efficient of 0.84 was obtained. It was used to gather relevant data on computer education. Findings confirmed that the students in the FCT had positive perception on computer education. Some factors were identified that affect students’ perception on computer education. The null hypotheses were tested using t-test and ANOVA statistical analyses at 0.05 level of significance. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made which include competent teachers should be employed into all secondary schools; this will help students to acquire relevant knowledge in computer education, technological supports should be provided to all secondary schools; this will help the users (students) to solve specific problems in computer education and financial supports should be provided to procure computer facilities that will enhance the teaching and the learning of computer education.

Keywords: computer education, perception, secondary school, students

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10 Attitudes of Academic Staff towards the Use of Information Communication Technology as a Pedagogical Tool for Effective Teaching in FCT College of Education, Zuba-Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: Salako Emmanuel Adekunle

Abstract:

With numerous advantages of ICT in teaching such as using images to improve the retentive memory of students, academic staff is yet to deliver instructions adequately and effectively due to no power supply, lack of technical supports and non-availability of functional ICT tools. This study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of academic staff towards the use of information communication technology as a pedagogical tool for effective teaching in FCT College of Education, Zuba-Abuja, Nigeria. A sample of 200 academic staff from five schools/faculties was involved in the study. The respondents were selected by using simple random sampling technique (SRST). A questionnaire was developed and validated by the experts in Measurement and Evaluation, and reliability co-efficient of 0.85 was obtained. It was used to gather relevant data from the respondents. This study revealed that the respondents had positive attitudes towards the use of ICT as a pedagogical tool for effective teaching. Also, the uses of ICT by the academic staff included: to encourage closer relationship for attainment of higher academic, and to deliver instructions effectively. The study also revealed that there is a significant relationship between the attitudes and the uses of ICT by the academic staff. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made which include: power supply should be provided to operate ICT facilities for effective teaching, and technical assistance on ICT usage for effective delivery of instructions should be provided among other recommendations.

Keywords: academic staff, attitudes, information communication technology, pedagogical tool, teaching, use

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9 Delineation of Fracture Zones for Investigation of Groundwater Potentials Using Vertical Electrical Sounding in a Sedimentary Complex Terrain

Authors: M. N. Yahaya, K. A. Salako, U. Z. Magawata

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Vertical electrical sounding (VES) method was used to investigate the groundwater potential at the southern part of Gulumbe district, Kebbi State, north-western part of Nigeria. The study was carried out with the aim of determining the subsurface layer’s parameters (resistivity and thickness) and uses the same to characterize the groundwater potential of the study area. The Schlumberger configuration was used for data acquisition. A total number of thirty-three (33) sounding points (VES) were surveyed over six profiles. The software IPI2WIN was used to obtain n-layered geo-electric sections. The geo-electric section drawn from the results of the interpretation revealed that three subsurface layers could be delineated, which comprise of top soil, sand, sandstone, coarse sand, limestone, and gravelly sand. The results of the resistivity sounding were correlated with the lithological logs of nearby boreholes that expose cross-section geologic units around the study area. We found out that the area is dominated by three subsurface layers. The coarse sand layers constituted the aquifer zones in the majority of sounding stations. Thus, this present study concluded that the depth of any borehole in the study area should be located between the depth of 18.5 to 39 m. The study further classified the VES points penetrated based on their conductivity content as highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitably, and poor zones for groundwater exploration. Hence, from this research, we recommended that boreholes can be sited in high conductivity zones across VES 2, 11, 13, 16, 20, 21, 27, and 33, respectively.

Keywords: vertical electrical sounding, resistivity, geo-electric, resistivity, aquifer and groundwater

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8 Bacteriological and Mineral Analyses of Leachate Samples from Erifun Dumpsite, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebowale T. Odeyemi, Oluwafemi A. Ajenifuja

Abstract:

The leachate samples collected from Erifun dumpsite along Federal Polythenic road, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, were subjected to bacteriological and mineral analyses. The bacteriological estimation and isolation were done using serial dilution and pour plating techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using agar disc diffusion technique. Atomic Absorption Spectophotometry method was used to analyze the heavy metal contents in the leachate samples. The bacterial and coliform counts ranged from 4.2 × 105 CFU/ml to 2.97 × 106 CFU/ml and 5.0 × 104 CFU/ml to 2.45 x 106 CFU/ml, respectively. The isolated bacteria and percentage of occurrence include Bacillus cereus (22%), Enterobacter aerogenes (18%), Staphylococcus aureus (16%), Proteus vulgaris (14%), Escherichia coli (14%), Bacillus licheniformis (12%) and Klebsiella aerogenes (4%). The mineral value ranged as follow; iron (21.30mg/L - 25.60mg/L), zinc (1.80mg/L - 5.60mg/L), copper (1.00mg/L - 2.60mg/L), chromium (0.50mg/L - 1.30mg/L), candium (0.20mg/L - 1.30mg/L), nickel (0.20mg/L - 0.80mg/L), lead (0.05mg/L-0.30mg/L), cobalt (0.03mg/L - 0.30mg/L) and in all samples manganese was not detected. The entire organisms isolated exhibited a high level of resistance to most of the antibiotics used. There is an urgent need for awareness to be created about the present situation of the leachate in Erifun, on the need for treatment of the nearby stream and other water sources before they can be used for drinking and other domestic use. In conclusion, a good method of waste disposal is required in those communities to prevent leachate formation, percolation, and runoff into water bodies during the raining season.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, dumpsite, bacteriological analysis, heavy metal

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7 Assessment of Physico-Chemical Properties and Acceptability of Avocado Pear (Persea americana) Skin Inclusion in Ruminant Diets

Authors: Gladys Abiemwense Ibhaze, Anthony Henry Ekeocha, Adebowale Noah Fajemisin, Tope Oke, Caroline Tosin Alade,

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the silage quality and acceptability of ensiled avocado pear skin (APS) with cassava peel (CSP) and brewers’ grain (BG) using eighteen (18) West African Dwarf goats with an average weight of 7.0±1.5 kg. The experimental diets; 1) 50% cassava peel+ 50% brewers’ grain, 2) 50% brewers’ grain+ 50% avocado pear skin, 3) 50% cassava peel +25% brewers’ grain+ 25% avocado pear skin were ensiled for 21 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD). The chemical composition of the diets was investigated. The acceptability of the diets was evaluated for twelve (12) days. Results obtained showed that the crude protein content ranged from 12.18 – 12.47%, crude fiber (15.99-22.67%). Results obtained showed that diet 1 had the least pH value (4.0), followed by diet 3 (4.5) and diet 2 (5.2). All diets were firm in texture and maintained their initial color. The temperature ranged from 27-29 ⁰C with diet 2 having the highest temperature of 29 ⁰C. Acceptability of experimental diets varied (p < 0.05) significantly. Dry matter intake ranged from (426.22-686.73g/day) with animals on a diet one recording the highest dry matter intake. The coefficient of preference and percentage preference, also differed (p <0.05) significantly among the diets. Diet 1 had a coefficient of preference greater than unity. However, this was not significantly (p>0.05) different from diet two but differed from diet 3. Conclusively, APS could be included in goats’ diets in the absence of CSP during feed scarcity provided a rich source of protein is available.

Keywords: avocado pear skin, Brewers' grain, Cassava peel, preference

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6 Drying Effect on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Cocoyam Flour

Authors: K. Maliki, A. Ajayi, O. M. Makanjuola, O. J. Adebowale

Abstract:

Cocoyam is herbaceous perennial plant which belongs to the family Araceae and genus xanthosoma or cococasia is mostly cultivated as food crop. It is very rich in Vitamin B6, Magnesium and also in dietary fiber. Matured cocoyam is eaten boiled, Fried or roasted in Nigeria. It can also be dried and used to make flour. Food drying is a method of food preservation in which food is dried, thus inhibit the growth of bacteria yeast and mold through the removal of water. Drying effect on the proximate composition and functional properties of cocoyam flour were investigated. Freshly harvested cocoyam cultivars at matured level were washed with portable water, peeled, sliced into 0.3mm thickness blanch in boiling water at 100°C for 15 minutes and dried using sun drying oven and cabinet dryers. The blanched slices were divided into three lots and were subjected to different drying methods. The dried cocoyam slices were milled into flour using Apex mill and packed into Low Density Polyethylene Film (LDPE) 75 Micron 4 thickness and kept for four months under ambient temperature before analysis. The results showed that the moisture content, ash, crude fiber, fat, protein and carbohydrate ranged from 7.35% to 13.89%, 1.45% to 3.3%, 1.2% to 3.41%, 2.1% to 3.1%, 6.30% to 9.1% and 66% to 82% respectively. The functional properties of the cocoyam flour ranged from 1. 65ml/g to 4.24ml/g water absorption capacity, 0.85ml/g to 2.11ml/g oil absorption capacity 0.56ml/g and 0.78ml/g bulk density and 4.91% to 6.80% swelling capacity. The result showed that there was not significant difference (P ≥ 0.5) across the various drying methods used. Cabinet drying method was found to have the best quality characteristic values than the other drying methods. In conclusion, drying of cocoyam could be used for value addition and provide extension to shelf-life.

Keywords: cocoyam flour, drying, cabinet dryer, oven dryer

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5 Studies on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Extracted Cocoyam Starch Flour

Authors: Adebola Ajayi, Francis B. Aiyeleye, Olakunke M. Makanjuola, Olalekan J. Adebowale

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Cocoyam, a generic term for both xanthoma and colocasia, is a traditional staple root crop in many developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. It is mostly cultivated as food crop which is very rich in vitamin B6, magnesium and also in dietary fiber. The cocoyam starch is easily digested and often used for baby food. Drying food is a method of food preservation that removes enough moisture from the food so bacteria, yeast and molds cannot grow. It is a one of the oldest methods of preserving food. The effect of drying methods on the proximate composition and functional properties of extracted cocoyam starch flour were studied. Freshly harvested cocoyam cultivars at matured level were washed with portable water, peeled, washed and grated. The starch in the grated cocoyam was extracted, dried using sun drying, oven and cabinet dryers. The extracted starch flour was milled into flour using Apex mill and packed and sealed in low-density polyethylene film (LDPE) 75 micron thickness with Nylon sealing machine QN5-3200HI and kept for three months under ambient temperature before analysis. The result showed that the moisture content, ash, crude fiber, fat, protein and carbohydrate ranged from 6.28% to 12.8% 2.32% to 3.2%, 0.89% to 2.24%%, 1.89% to 2.91%, 7.30% to 10.2% and 69% to 83% respectively. The functional properties of the cocoyam starch flour ranged from 2.65ml/g to 4.84ml/g water absorption capacity, 1.95ml/g to 3.12ml/g oil absorption capacity, 0.66ml/g to 7.82ml/g bulk density and 3.82% to 5.30ml/g swelling capacity. Significant difference (P≥0.5) was not obtained across the various drying methods used. The drying methods provide extension to the shelf-life of the extracted cocoyam starch flour.

Keywords: cocoyam, extraction, oven dryer, cabinet dryer

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4 Awareness and Utilization of Social Network Tools among Agricultural Science Students in Colleges of Education in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebowale Olukayode Efunnowo

Abstract:

This study was carried out to assess the awareness and utilization of Social Network Tools (SNTs) among agricultural science students in Colleges of Education in Ogun State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling techniques were used to select 280 respondents from the study area. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the objectives while Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to test the hypothesis. The result showed that the majority (71.8%) of the respondents were single, with a mean age of 20 years. Almost all (95.7%) the respondents were aware of Facebook and 2go as a Social Network Tools (SNTs) while 85.0% of the respondents were not aware of Blackplanet, LinkedIn, MyHeritage and Bebo. Many (41.1%) of the respondents had views that using SNTs can enhance extensive literature survey, increase internet browsing potential, promote teaching proficiency, and update on outcomes of researches. However, 51.4% of the respondents perceived that SNTs usage as what is meant for the lecturers/adults only while 16.1% considered it as mainly used by internet fraudsters. Findings revealed that about 50.0% of the respondents browsed Facebook and 2go daily while more than 80% of the respondents used Blackplanet, MyHeritage, Skyrock, Bebo, LinkedIn and My YearBook as the need arise. Major constraints to the awareness and utilization of SNTs were high cost and poor quality of ICTs facilities (77.1%), epileptic power supply (75.0%), inadequate telecommunication infrastructure (71.1%), low technical know-how (62.9%) and inadequate computer knowledge (61.1%). The result of PPMC analysis showed that there was an inverse relationship between constraints and utilization of SNTs at p < 0.05. It can be concluded that constraints affect efficient and effective utilization of SNTs in the study area. It is hereby recommended that management of colleges of education and agricultural institutes should provide good internet connectivity, computer facilities, and alternative power supply in order to increase the awareness and utilization of SNTs among students.

Keywords: awareness, utilization, social network tools, constraints, students

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3 Multilevel Modelling of Modern Contraceptive Use in Nigeria: Analysis of the 2013 NDHS

Authors: Akiode Ayobami, Akiode Akinsewa, Odeku Mojisola, Salako Busola, Odutolu Omobola, Nuhu Khadija

Abstract:

Purpose: Evidence exists that family planning use can contribute to reduction in infant and maternal mortality in any country. Despite these benefits, contraceptive use in Nigeria still remains very low, only 10% among married women. Understanding factors that predict contraceptive use is very important in order to improve the situation. In this paper, we analysed data from the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) to better understand predictors of contraceptive use in Nigeria. The use of logistics regression and other traditional models in this type of situation is not appropriate as they do not account for social structure influence brought about by the hierarchical nature of the data on response variable. We therefore used multilevel modelling to explore the determinants of contraceptive use in order to account for the significant variation in modern contraceptive use by socio-demographic, and other proximate variables across the different Nigerian states. Method: This data has a two-level hierarchical structure. We considered the data of 26, 403 married women of reproductive age at level 1 and nested them within the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja at level 2. We modelled use of modern contraceptive against demographic variables, being told about FP at health facility, heard of FP on TV, Magazine or radio, husband desire for more children nested within the state. Results: Our results showed that the independent variables in the model were significant predictors of modern contraceptive use. The estimated variance component for the null model, random intercept, and random slope models were significant (p=0.00), indicating that the variation in contraceptive use across the Nigerian states is significant, and needs to be accounted for in order to accurately determine the predictors of contraceptive use, hence the data is best fitted by the multilevel model. Only being told about family planning at the health facility and religion have a significant random effect, implying that their predictability of contraceptive use varies across the states. Conclusion and Recommendation: Results showed that providing FP information at the health facility and religion needs to be considered when programming to improve contraceptive use at the state levels.

Keywords: multilevel modelling, family planning, predictors, Nigeria

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2 Determining the Materiality of an Undisclosed Fact: An Onerous Duty on the Assured

Authors: Adekemi Adebowale

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The duty of disclosure in Nigerian insurance law is in need of reform. The materiality of an undisclosed fact (notwithstanding that it was an honest and innocent non-disclosure) currently entitles insurers to avoid insurance policies, leaving an insured with an uncovered loss. While the test of materiality requires an insured to voluntarily disclose facts that will influence an insurer's decision without proper guidelines from the insurer, the insurer is only expected to prove that the undisclosed fact had influenced its judgment in fixing the premium or determining whether to accept the risk. This problem places an onerous duty on the assured to volunteer to the insurer every material fact even though the insured only has a slight idea about the mind of a hypothetical prudent insurer. This paper explores the modern approach to revisiting the problem of an insured’s pre-contractual obligation to determine material facts in Nigerian insurance law. The aim is to build upon the change in the structure of insurance contract obligations in other common law jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom. The doctrinal and comparative methodology captures the burden imposed on the insured under the existing Nigerian insurance law. It finds that the continued application of the law leaves the insured in the weakest position, and he stands to lose in a contract supposedly created for his benefit. It is apparent that if this problem remains unresolved, the over-all consequence will contribute to a significant decline in the insurance contract, which may affect the Nigerian economy. The paper aims to evaluate the risks of the continuous application of the traditional law, which does not keep with the pace of modern insurance practice. It will ultimately produce a legally compliant reform, along with a significant deviation from the archaic structure that exists in the Nigerian insurance law. This paper forms part of an on-going PhD research on "The insured’s pre-contractual duty of utmost of utmost good faith". The outcome from the research to date finds that the insured bears the burden of the obligation to act in utmost good faith where it concerns disclosure of material facts.

Keywords: disclosure, materiality, Nigeria, United Kingdom, utmost good faith

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1 Online Guidance and Counselling Needs and Preferences of University Undergraduates in a Nigerian University

Authors: Olusegun F. Adebowale

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Research has confirmed that the emergence of information technology is significantly reflected in the field of psychology and its related disciplines due to its widespread use at reasonable price and its user-friendliness. It is consequently affecting ordinary life in many areas like shopping, advertising, corresponding and educating. Specifically the innovations of computer technology led to several new forms of communication, all with implications and applicability for counselling and psychotherapy practices. This is premise on which online counselling is based. Most institutions of higher learning in Nigeria have established their presence on the Internet and have deployed a variety of applications through ICT. Some are currently attempting to include counselling services in such applications with the belief that many counselling needs of students are likely to be met. This study therefore explored different challenges and preferences students present in online counselling interaction in a given Nigerian university with the view to guide new universities that may want to invest into these areas as to necessary preparations and referral requirements. The study is a mixed method research incorporating qualitative and quantitative methodologies to sample the preferences and concerns students express in online interaction. The sample comprised all the 876 students who visited the university online counselling platform either voluntarily, by invitation or by referral. The instrument for data collection was the online counselling platform of the university 'OAU Online counsellors'. The period of data collection spanned between January 2011 and October 2012. Data were analysed quantitatively (using percentages and Mann-Whitney U test) and qualitatively (using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA)). The results showed that the students seem to prefer real-time chatting as their online medium of communicating with the online counsellor. The majority of students resorted to e-mail when their effort to use real-time chatting were becoming thwarted. Also, students preferred to enter into online counselling relationships voluntarily to other modes of entry. The results further showed that the prevalent counselling needs presented by students during online counselling sessions were mainly in the areas of social interaction and academic/educational concerns. Academic concerns were found to be prevalent, in form of course offerings, studentship matters and academic finance matters. The personal/social concerns were in form of students’ welfare, career related concerns and relationship matters. The study concludes students’ preferences include voluntary entry into online counselling, communication by real-time chatting and a specific focus on their academic concerns. It also recommends that all efforts should be made to encourage students’ voluntary entry into online counselling through reliable and stable internet infrastructure that will be able to support real-time chatting.

Keywords: online, counselling, needs, preferences

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