Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Abolaji Mayowa Akinyele

24 An Investigation of Environmental Education Knowledge for Sustainable Development in High School Sectors in UK

Authors: Abolaji Mayowa Akinyele

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate student’s awareness, Knowledge and understanding of environmental issues for sustainable development. Findings revealed that; despite the positive attitude shown by students towards environmental education, a relatively low level of understanding of environmental concept was recorded in school settings regardless of efforts by government and other environmental agencies at creating awareness about environmental related issues. This brought about the investigation of students environmental education knowledge in high school settings. About 205 Students were randomly selected for data collection using validated instruments titled student’s knowledge and attitude questionnaire as well as student’s response to questions (interview) concerning global warming. T-test statistics, chi-square and simple percentage were the major statistical tools employed in data analysis. This study revealed that environment based-education (school curriculum) as well as efforts by government/environmental agencies (mass media) plays a major role in promoting students understanding, of environmental concepts, awareness of major environmental issues and positive attitude towards natural environment.

Keywords: environmental issues, sustainable development, students attitude, students knowledge

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23 Maintaining Biodiversity Through Environmental Conservation Awareness Program in Nigeria School Sectors

Authors: Oluwasegun A. Oke, Mayowa A. Abolaji, Oluwaseun A. Adefila

Abstract:

Environmental problems have become a priority on the world political agenda for the last two decades and this is inevitably linked with the general degradation of our environment which calls for ultimate attention. Therefore, this study searched for better and more involving methods of imparting environmental knowledge to average learner with the view of creating awareness, increasing knowledge as well as changing their attitude positively towards conservation of the environment. The study also investigated the effectiveness of conservation club in creating awareness (among students) about environmental conservation. About 240 Students were randomly selected for data collection using validated instruments (questionnaires). T-test statistics, chi-square and simple percentage were the major statistical tools employed in data analysis. This study revealed that environmental conservation club plays a vital role in creating awareness as well as promoting students understanding of environmental issues to promote positive attitude towards natural environment.

Keywords: environmental conservation, biodiversity, awareness program, environmental disasters

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22 The Use of Rice Husk Ash as a Stabilizing Agent in Lateritic Clay Soil

Authors: J. O. Akinyele, R. W. Salim, K. O. Oikelome, O. T. Olateju

Abstract:

Rice Husk (RH) is the major byproduct in the processing of paddy rice. The management of this waste has become a big challenge to some of the rice producers, some of these wastes are left in open dumps while some are burn in the open space, and these two actions have been contributing to environmental pollution. This study evaluates an alternative waste management of this agricultural product for use as a civil engineering material. The RH was burn in a controlled environment to form Rice Husk Ash (RHA). The RHA was mix with lateritic clay at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% proportion by weight. Chemical test was conducted on the open burn and controlled burn RHA with the lateritic clay. Physical test such as particle size distribution, Atterberg limits test, and density test were carried out on the mix material. The chemical composition obtained for the RHA showed that the total percentage compositions of Fe2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 were found to be above 70% (class “F” pozzolan) which qualifies it as a very good pozzolan. The coefficient of uniformity (Cu) was 8 and coefficient of curvature (Cc) was 2 for the soil sample. The Plasticity Index (PI) for the 0, 2, 4, 6, 8. 10% was 21.0, 18.8, 16.7, 14.4, 12.4 and 10.7 respectively. The work concluded that RHA can be effectively used in hydraulic barriers and as a stabilizing agent in soil stabilization.

Keywords: rice husk ash, pozzolans, paddy rice, lateritic clay

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21 Exploring the Factors Affecting the Dependability of Mobile Devices in the Current World

Authors: Mayowa A. Sofowora, Seraphim D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

In recent times the level of advancement in electronics and manufacturing technologies for portable electronic devices, especially for mobile devices such as cell phones, smartphones, personal digital assistants and tablet computers is unprecedented. Mobile devices have become indispensable to individuals, and businesses all over the world. The high level of manufacturing and production of mobile devices has led to the rapid release of newer and sleeker models with new features and capabilities. However, these newer models therefore render older models obsolete, and this pushes people to frequently replace their devices. The drawback of such frequent replacements is that a large number of devices are disposed and they end up as e-waste. The fact that e-waste constitutes a major hazard to human health and to the environment is the motivation behind this study whose aim is to develop a model of possible factors that affects the dependability of mobile devices which in turn leads to the obsolescence of these devices.

Keywords: dependability, mobile devices, obsolescence, e-waste

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20 Meat Potential Indicators of Red Sokoto, Sahel and West African Dwarf Goat Based on Morphometrical Measurements

Authors: Ozioma Beauty Nwaodu, Adebowale E Salako, Omolara Mabel Akinyemi, Nkechi Uche, Isuama Isu, Uchechi Jane Elechi

Abstract:

Goats form an integral part of livestock production in the tropics. Meat potential is determined subjectively by resource poor livestock keepers, using hand to measure the rump width (RW). Objective evaluation of meat potential in different breads of goats can overcome problems associated with subjective evaluation. Hence, the objectives were to predict meatiness in Red Sokoto (RS), Sahel and the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats, using product of the body length (BL), wither height (WH) and (RW) and to indicate the inherent size of each breed, using WH: BL ratio. These three parameters were used because they are less environmentally sensitive. A total of 2849 goats were sampled purposefully from the Akinyele and Oranyan markets in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. RS showed no significant difference for BL and WH but different from the RW of both sexes (p < 0.01). Similarly WAD showed no significant difference for the BL and WH, but differed (p < 0.01) between sexes for RW. Using the ANOVA, BL:WH ratio showed no significant difference between the breeds. WAD goats have the highest mean for BL:WH ratio. Western meat livestock is primarily identified using BL:WH. The combinations of these body parameters as indicator for meat type in meat animals showed that WAD goat has more potential to lay down meat, than RS and Sahel.

Keywords: quantitative, morphologial traits, descriptive analysis, goats

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19 The Legal Framework for Solid Waste Disposal and Management in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Alabi Odunayo Mayowa, Ajayi Oluwasola Felix

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Solid waste such as “garbage” “trash” “refuse” “slug” and “rubbish” is disposed off or is required to be disposed off in accordance with national law. The study relies on primary and secondary sources of information. The primary sources include the Constitution, statutes and subsidiary legislation. The secondary sources of information include books, journals, conference proceedings, newspapers, magazines and internet materials. The information obtained from these sources is subjected to content and contextual analysis. The study examines the Kwara State Environmental Protection Agency Law, 1992 and other laws on waste disposal and management in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study also examines the regulations and the agency i.e. the Kwara State Environmental Protection Agency created by the law with a view to determine the inadequacies in the law.

Keywords: solid waste, waste disposal, waste management, domestic waste

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18 Grain Size Characteristics and Sediments Distribution in the Eastern Part of Lekki Lagoon

Authors: Mayowa Philips Ibitola, Abe Oluwaseun Banji, Olorunfemi Akinade-Solomon

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A total of 20 bottom sediment samples were collected from the Lekki Lagoon during the wet and dry season. The study was carried out to determine the textural characteristics, sediment distribution pattern and energy of transportation within the lagoon system. The sediment grain sizes and depth profiling was analyzed using dry sieving method and MATLAB algorithm for processing. The granulometric reveals fine grained sand both for the wet and dry season with an average mean value of 2.03 ϕ and -2.88 ϕ, respectively. Sediments were moderately sorted with an average inclusive standard deviation of 0.77 ϕ and -0.82 ϕ. Skewness varied from strongly coarse and near symmetrical 0.34- ϕ and 0.09 ϕ. The kurtosis average value was 0.87 ϕ and -1.4 ϕ (platykurtic and leptokurtic). Entirely, the bathymetry shows an average depth of 4.0 m. The deepest and shallowest area has a depth of 11.2 m and 0.5 m, respectively. High concentration of fine sand was observed at deep areas compared to the shallow areas during wet and dry season. Statistical parameter results show that the overall sediments are sorted, and deposited under low energy condition over a long distance. However, sediment distribution and sediment transport pattern of Lekki Lagoon is controlled by a low energy current and the down slope configuration of the bathymetry enhances the sorting and the deposition rate in the Lekki Lagoon.

Keywords: Lekki Lagoon, Marine sediment, bathymetry, grain size distribution

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17 Assessment of Health and Safety Item on Construction Site in Ondo State

Authors: Ikumapayi Catherine Mayowa

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The well-being of humans on a construction site is critical; abundant manpower had been lost through accidents which kill or make workers physically unfit to carry out construction activities, these, in turn, have multiple effects on the whole economy. Thus, it is necessary to put all safety items and regulations in place before construction activities can commence. This study was carried out in the Ondo state of Nigeria to investigate and analyze the state of health and safety of construction workers in the state. The study was done using first-hand observations, 50 construction project sites were visited in ten major towns of Ondo state, questionnaires were distributed, and the results were analyzed. The result shows that construction workers are being exposed to many construction site hazards due to lack of inadequate safety programs and lack of appropriate safety equipment for workers on site. From the data gotten from each site visited and the statistical analysis, it can be concluded that occurrences of an accident on construction sites depend significantly on the available safety facilities on the sites. The result of the regression statistics shows that the dependence of the frequency of occurrence of an accident on the availability of safety items on the site is 0.0362 which is less than 0.05 maximum significant level allowed. Therefore, a vital way of sustaining our building strategy is given a detail attention to the provision of adequate health and safety items on construction sites which will reduce the occurrence of accident, loss of manpower and death of skilled workers.

Keywords: construction sites, health, safety, welfare

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16 Physiochemical Parameters Assessment and Evaluation of the Quality of Drinking Water in Some Parts of Lagos State

Authors: G. T. Mudashiru, Mayowa P. Ibitola

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Investigation was carried out at Ikorodu North local council development area of Lagos state using physiochemical parameters to study the quality drinking water. It was ascertained that the human functions and activities were dependent on the continuous and availability of good drinking water. Six water samples were collected at six different boreholes from various outlets and homes in Ikorodu North local council development area. Lagos state Nigeria. Analysis was carried out to determine the purity of water for domestic use. Physicochemical properties evaluation was adapted using standard chemical methods. A number of parameters such as PH, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids, color, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, hardness were determined. Heavy metals such as Zn, Mg, Fe, Pb, Hg, and Mn as well as total coliform counts were observed. The resulted values of each parameter were justified with World Health Organization (WHO) and Lagos state water regulatory commission LSWRC standard values for quantitative comparison. The result reveals that all the water had pH value well below the WHO maximum permissible level for potable water. Other physicochemical parameters were within the safe limit of WHO standard showing the portability nature of the water. It can be concluded that though the water is potable, there should be a kind of treatment of the water before consumption to prevent outbreak of diseases.

Keywords: drinking water, physiology, boreholes, heavy metals, domestic

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15 Evaluation and Provenance Studies of Heavy Mineral Deposits in Recent Sediment of Ologe Lagoon, South Western, Nigeria

Authors: Mayowa Philips Ibitola, Akinade-Solomon Olorunfemi, Abe Oluwaseun Banji

Abstract:

Heavy minerals studies were carried out on eighteen sediment samples from Ologe lagoon located at Lagos Barrier complex, with the aim of evaluating the heavy mineral deposits and determining the provenance of the sediments. The samples were subjected to grain analysis techniques in order to collect the finest grain size. Separation of heavy minerals from the samples was done with the aid of bromoform to enable petrographic analyses of the heavy mineral suite, under the polarising microscope. The data obtained from the heavy mineral analysis were used in preparing histograms and pie chart, from which the individual heavy mineral percentage distribution and ZTR index were derived. The percentage composition of the individual heavy mineral analyzed are opaque mineral 63.92%, Zircon 12.43%, Tourmaline 5.79%, Rutile 13.44%, Garnet 1.74% and Staurolite 3.52%. The calculated zircon, tourmaline, rutile index in percentage (ZTR) varied between 76.13 -92.15%, average garnet-zircon index (GZI), average rutile-zircon index (RuZI) and average staurolite-zircon index values in all the stations are 16.18%, 54.33%, 25.11% respectively. The mean ZTR index percentage value is 85.17% indicates that the sediments within the lagoon are mineralogically matured. The high percentage of zircon, rutile, and tourmaline indicates an acid igneous rock source for the sediments. However, the low percentage of staurolite, rutile and garnet occurrence indicates sediment of metamorphic rock source input.

Keywords: lagoon, provenance, heavy mineral, ZTR index

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14 Creating Shared Value: A Paradigm Shift from Corporate Social Responsibility to Creating Shared Value

Authors: Bolanle Deborah Motilewa, E.K. Rowland Worlu, Gbenga Mayowa Agboola, Marvellous Aghogho Chidinma Gberevbie

Abstract:

Businesses operating in the modern business world are faced with varying challenges; amongst which is the need to ensure that they are performing their societal function of being responsible in the society in which they operate. This responsibility to society is generally termed as corporate social responsibility. For many years, the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) was solely philanthropic, where organizations gave ‘charity’ or ‘alms’ to society, without any link to the organization’s mission and objectives. However, there has arisen a shift in the application of CSR from an act of philanthropy to a strategy with a business model engaged in by organizations to create a win-win situation of performing their societal obligation, whilst simultaneously performing their economic obligation. In more recent times, the term has moved from CSR to creating shared value, which is simply corporate policies and practices that enhance the competitiveness of a business organization while simultaneously advancing social and economic conditions in the communities in which the company operates. Creating shared value has in more recent light found more meaning in underdeveloped countries, faced with deep societal challenges that businesses can solve whilst creating economic value. This study thus reviews literature on CSR, conceptualizing the shift to creating shared value and finally viewing its potential significance in Africa’s development.

Keywords: africapitalism, corporate social responsibility, development, shared value

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13 Psychological Variables of Sport Participation and Involvement among Student-Athletes of Tertiary Institutions in South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Mayowa Adeyeye

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the psychological variables motivating sport participation and involvement among student-athletes of tertiary institutions in south-west Nigeria. One thousand three hundred and fifty (N-1350) student-athletes were randomly selected in all sports from nine tertiary institutions in south-west Nigeria. These tertiary institutions include University of Lagos, Lagos State University, Obafemi Awolowo University, Osun State University, University of Ibadan, University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Federal University of Technology Akungba, University of Ilorin, and Kwara State University. The descriptive survey research method was adopted while a self developed validated likert type questionnaire named Sport Participation Scale (SPS) was used to elicit opinion from respondents. The test-retest reliability value obtained for the instrument, using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient was 0.96. Out of the one thousand three hundred and fifty (N-1350) questionnaire administered, only one thousand two hundred and five (N-1286) were correctly filled, coded and analysed using inferential statistics of Chi-Square (X2) while all the tested hypotheses were set at .05 alpha level. Based on the findings of this study, the result revealed that several psychological factors influence student athletes to continue participation in sport, which includes love for the game, famous athletes as role model and family support. However, the analysis further revealed that the stipends the student-athletes get from their universities have no influence on their participation and involvement in sport.

Keywords: sport participation, involvement, student-athletes, role model, family, peer

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12 The Impact of Leadership Style and Sense of Competence on the Performance of Post-Primary School Teachers in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Babajide S. Adeokin, Oguntoyinbo O. Kazeem

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The not so pleasing state of the nation's quality of education has been a major area of research. Many researchers have looked into various aspects of the educational system and organizational structure in relation to the quality of service delivery of the staff members. However, there is paucity of research in areas relating to the sense of competence and commitment in relation to leadership styles. Against this backdrop, this study investigated the impact of leadership style and sense of competence on the performance of post-primary school teachers in Oyo state Nigeria. Data were generated across public secondary schools in the city using survey design method. Ibadan as a metropolis has eleven local government areas contained in it. A systematic random sampling technique of the eleven local government areas in Ibadan was done and five local government areas were selected. The selected local government areas are Akinyele, Ibadan North, Ibadan North-East, Ibadan South and Ibadan South-West. Data were obtained from a range of two – three public secondary schools selected in each of the local government areas mentioned above. Also, these secondary schools are a representation of the variations in the constructs under consideration across the Ibadan metropolis. Categorically, all secondary school teachers in Ibadan were clustered into selected schools in those found across the five local government areas. In all, a total of 272 questionnaires were administered to public secondary school teachers, while 241 were returned. Findings revealed that transformational leadership style makes room for job commitment when compared with transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles. Teachers with a high sense of competence are more likely to demonstrate more commitment to their job than others with low sense of competence. We recommend that, it is important an assessment is made of the leadership styles employed by principals and school administrators. This guides administrators and principals in to having a clear, comprehensive knowledge of the style they currently adopt in the management of the staff and the school as a whole; and know where to begin the adjustment process from. Also to make an impact on student achievement, being attentive to teachers’ levels of commitment may be an important aspect of leadership for school principals.

Keywords: Ibadan, leadership style, sense of competence, teachers, public secondary schools

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11 Attribution Theory and Perceived Reliability of Cellphones for Teaching and Learning

Authors: Mayowa A. Sofowora, Seraphin D. Eyono Obono

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The use of information and communication technologies such as computers, mobile phones and the internet is becoming prevalent in today’s world; and it is facilitating access to a vast amount of data, services, and applications for the improvement of people’s lives. However, this prevalence of ICTs is hampered by the problem of low income levels in developing countries to the point where people cannot timeously replace or repair their ICT devices when damaged or lost; and this problem serves as a motivation for this study whose aim is to examine the perceptions of teachers on the reliability of cellphones when used for teaching and learning purposes. The research objectives unfolding this aim are of two types: objectives on the selection and design of theories and models, and objectives on the empirical testing of these theories and models. The first type of objectives is achieved using content analysis in an extensive literature survey, and the second type of objectives is achieved through a survey of high school teachers from the ILembe and Umgungudlovu districts in the KwaZuluNatal province of South Africa. Data collected from this questionnaire based survey is analysed in SPSS using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations after checking the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. The main hypothesis driving this study is that there is a relationship between the demographics and the attribution identity of teachers on one hand, and their perceptions on the reliability of cellphones on the other hand, as suggested by existing literature; except that attribution identities are considered in this study under three angles: intention, knowledge and ability, and action. The results of this study confirm that the perceptions of teachers on the reliability of cellphones for teaching and learning are affected by the school location of these teachers, and by their perceptions on learners’ cellphones usage intentions and actual use.

Keywords: attribution, cellphones, e-learning, reliability

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10 Conceptualizing a Strategic Facilities Management Decision Framework for Heritage Building Maintenance Management

Authors: Adegoriola Mayowa I., Lai Joseph H. K., Yung Esther H. K., Chan Edwin H. K.

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Heritage buildings (HBs) as structures with historical and architectural relevance that form an integral part of contemporary society. These buildings deserve to be protected for as long as possible to retain their significance. Therefore, the need to prioritize HB maintenance management is pertinent. However, the decision-making process of HBMM can be relatively daunting. The decision-making challenge may be attributed to the multiple 'stakeholders' expectation and requirement which needs to be met. To this end, professionals in the built environment have identified the need to apply the strategic concept of facilities management (FM) in decision making. Furthermore, the different maintenance dimensions have been applied to maintenance management of residential, commercial, and health facilities. Unfortunately, these different maintenance approaches, such as FM, sustainable FM, urban FM, green FM, and strategic FM, are yet to be fully explored in the decision-making process of HBMM. To bridge this gap, this study focuses on developing a framework for strategic decision-making HBMM, which helps achieve HBMM sustainability. At the study's inception, relevant works of literature in the domains of HBMM and FM were conducted. This review helped in the identification of contemporary maintenance practices and their applicability to HBMM. Afterward, a conceptual framework to aid decision-making in HBMM was developed. This framework integrated the concept of FM scope (people, place, process, and technology) while ensuring that decisions plans were made at strategic, tactical, and operational levels. Also, the different characteristics of HBs and stakeholders' requirements were considered in the framework. The conceptual framework presents a holistic guide for professionals in HBMM to ensure that decision processes and outcomes are practical and efficient. It also contributes to the existing body of knowledge on the integration of FM in HBMM. Furthermore, it will serve as a basis for future studies by applying the conceptualized framework in actual cases.

Keywords: decision-making, facility management, strategy, sustainability, heritage building, maintenance

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9 An Analysis of Institutional Environments on Corporate Social Responsibility Practices in Nigerian Renewable Energy Firms

Authors: Bolanle Deborah Motilewa, E. K. Rowland Worlu, Gbenga Mayowa Agboola, Ayodele Maxwell Olokundun

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Several studies have proposed a one-size fit all approach to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices, such that CSR as it applies to developed countries is adapted to developing countries, ignoring the differing institutional environments (such as the regulative, economic, social and political environments), which affects the profitability and practices of businesses operating in them. CSR as it applies to filling institutional gaps in developing countries, was categorized into four themes: environmental protection, product and service innovation, social innovation and local cluster development. Based on the four themes, the study employed a qualitative research approach through the use of interviews and review of available publications to study the influence of institutional environments on CSR practices engaged in by three renewable energy firms operating in Nigeria. Over the course of three 60-minutes sessions with the top management and selected workers of the firms, four propositions were made: regulatory environment influences environmental protection practice of Nigerian renewable firms, economic environment influences product and service innovation practice of Nigerian renewable energy firms, the social environment impacts on social innovation in Nigerian renewable energy firms, and political environment affects local cluster development practice of Nigerian renewable energy firms. It was also observed that beyond institutional environments, the international exposure of an organization’s managers reflected in their approach to CSR. This finding on the influence of international exposure on CSR practices creates an area for further study. Insights from this paper are set to help policy makers in developing countries, CSR managers, and future researchers.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, renewable energy firms, institutional environment, social entrepreneurship

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8 Corporate Social Responsibility as a Determinant of Sustainability of SME: A Study of House of Tara, a Small Business Operating in Nigeria

Authors: Bolanle Deborah Motilewa, E. K. Rowland Worlu, Gbenga Mayowa Agboola, Ayodele Maxwell Olokundun

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In the pursuit of profit maximization as a major objective of business organizations, several firms forfeit their social and economic responsibility whilst focusing on activities that are deemed to solely profit the firm, without taking into cognizance the effect of their operations on the society in which they operate. Business analysts have, however, realized the determinant role of social responsibility in corporate performance, such that firms that are able to imbibe corporate social responsibility in their core business operations may be able to take advantage of the social reputation gained across their several stakeholders. Small and medium enterprises operating in highly competitive markets are also advised to leverage on this reputation gained from being socially responsible, if they seek ways to remain relevant in the same markets dominated by multinational corporations. Adapting a case study approach, this study highlights the advantages (such as employee and customer loyalty) gained by House of Tara, a small business operating in the beauty and make-up industry in Nigeria, resulting from the firm’s commitment to advancing the society in which it operates through several social responsibility activities. It is observed that although competing with major makeup brands such as MAC, Maybelline, Dior, Mary Kay and others, House of Tara has been able to not only thrive, but gain a sizeable market in the Nigerian makeup industry, because several consumers purchase their products not solely because of the quality or price of their product, but because they perceive themselves as buying into the firm’s CSR vision. This study, therefore, recommends that small and medium enterprises that may lack adequate resources (manpower, technology, capital) needed to successfully compete with multinationals, can harness the potentials in the reputation and loyalty gained from adequate investment in corporate social responsibility.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, small and medium enterprises, House of Tara, sustainability

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7 Multidimensional Poverty and Its Correlates among Rural Households in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Tamunotonye Mayowa Braide, Isaac Oluwatayo

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This study investigates multidimensional poverty, and its correlates among rural households in Sekhukhune and Capricorn District municipalities (SDM & CDM) in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Primary data were collected from 407 rural households selected through purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Analytical techniques employed include descriptive statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and the Alkire Foster (A-F) methodology. The results of the descriptive statistics showed there are more females (66%) than males (34%) in rural areas of Limpopo Province, with about 45% of them having secondary school education as the highest educational level attained and only about 3% do not have formal education. In the analysis of deprivation, eight dimensions of deprivation, constructed from 21 variables, were identified using the PCA. These dimensions include type and condition of dwelling water and sanitation, educational attainment and income, type of fuel for cooking and heating, access to clothing and cell phone, assets and fuel for light, health condition, crowding, and child health. In identifying the poor with poverty cut-off (0.13) of all indicators, about 75.9% of the rural households are deprived in 25% of the total dimensions, with the adjusted headcount ratio (M0) being 0.19. Multidimensional poverty estimates showed higher estimates of poor rural households with 71%, compared to 29%, which fall below the income poverty line. The study conducted poverty decomposition, using sub-groups within the area by examining regions and household characteristics. In SDM, there are more multidimensionally poor households than in CDM. The water and sanitation dimension is the largest contributor to the multidimensional poverty index (MPI) in rural areas of Limpopo Province. The findings can, therefore, assist in better design of welfare policy and target poverty alleviation programs and as well help in efficient resource allocation at the provincial and local municipality levels.

Keywords: Alkire-Foster methodology, Limpopo province, multidimensional poverty, principal component analysis, South Africa

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6 Utilizing Spatial Uncertainty of On-The-Go Measurements to Design Adaptive Sampling of Soil Electrical Conductivity in a Rice Field

Authors: Ismaila Olabisi Ogundiji, Hakeem Mayowa Olujide, Qasim Usamot

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The main reasons for site-specific management for agricultural inputs are to increase the profitability of crop production, to protect the environment and to improve products’ quality. Information about the variability of different soil attributes within a field is highly essential for the decision-making process. Lack of fast and accurate acquisition of soil characteristics remains one of the biggest limitations of precision agriculture due to being expensive and time-consuming. Adaptive sampling has been proven as an accurate and affordable sampling technique for planning within a field for site-specific management of agricultural inputs. This study employed spatial uncertainty of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) estimates to identify adaptive re-survey areas in the field. The original dataset was grouped into validation and calibration groups where the calibration group was sub-grouped into three sets of different measurements pass intervals. A conditional simulation was performed on the field ECa to evaluate the ECa spatial uncertainty estimates by the use of the geostatistical technique. The grouping of high-uncertainty areas for each set was done using image segmentation in MATLAB, then, high and low area value-separate was identified. Finally, an adaptive re-survey was carried out on those areas of high-uncertainty. Adding adaptive re-surveying significantly minimized the time required for resampling whole field and resulted in ECa with minimal error. For the most spacious transect, the root mean square error (RMSE) yielded from an initial crude sampling survey was minimized after an adaptive re-survey, which was close to that value of the ECa yielded with an all-field re-survey. The estimated sampling time for the adaptive re-survey was found to be 45% lesser than that of all-field re-survey. The results indicate that designing adaptive sampling through spatial uncertainty models significantly mitigates sampling cost, and there was still conformity in the accuracy of the observations.

Keywords: soil electrical conductivity, adaptive sampling, conditional simulation, spatial uncertainty, site-specific management

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5 Spatial Analysis of Survival Pattern and Treatment Outcomes of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Patients in Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Akinsola Oluwatosin, Udofia Samuel, Odofin Mayowa

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The study is aimed at assessing the Geographic Information System (GIS)-based spatial analysis of Survival Pattern and Treatment Outcomes of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases for Lagos, Nigeria, with an objective to inform priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) develops due to problems such as irregular drug supply, poor drug quality, inappropriate prescription, and poor adherence to treatment. The shapefile(s) for this study were already georeferenced to Minna datum. The patient’s information was acquired on MS Excel and later converted to . CSV file for easy processing to ArcMap from various hospitals. To superimpose the patient’s information the spatial data, the addresses was geocoded to generate the longitude and latitude of the patients. The database was used for the SQL query to the various pattern of the treatment. To show the pattern of disease spread, spatial autocorrelation analysis was used. The result was displayed in a graphical format showing the areas of dispersing, random and clustered of patients in the study area. Hot and cold spot analysis was analyzed to show high-density areas. The distance between these patients and the closest health facility was examined using the buffer analysis. The result shows that 22% of the points were successfully matched, while 15% were tied. However, the result table shows that a greater percentage of it was unmatched; this is evident in the fact that most of the streets within the State are unnamed, and then again, most of the patients are likely to supply the wrong addresses. MDR-TB patients of all age groups are concentrated within Lagos-Mainland, Shomolu, Mushin, Surulere, Oshodi-Isolo, and Ifelodun LGAs. MDR-TB patients between the age group of 30-47 years had the highest number and were identified to be about 184 in number. The outcome of patients on ART treatment revealed that a high number of patients (300) were not ART treatment while a paltry 45 patients were on ART treatment. The result shows the Z-score of the distribution is greater than 1 (>2.58), which means that the distribution is highly clustered at a significance level of 0.01.

Keywords: tuberculosis, patients, treatment, GIS, MDR-TB

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4 Modelling the Physicochemical Properties of Papaya Based-Cookies Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Mayowa Saheed Sanusi A, Musiliu Olushola Sunmonua, Abdulquadri Alakab Owolabi Raheema, Adeyemi Ikimot Adejokea

Abstract:

The development of healthy cookies for health-conscious consumers cannot be overemphasized in the present global health crisis. This study was aimed to evaluate and model the influence of ripeness levels of papaya puree (unripe, ripe and overripe), oven temperature (130°C, 150°C and 170°C) and oven rack speed (stationary, 10 and 20 rpm) on physicochemical properties of papaya-based cookies using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The physicochemical properties (baking time, cookies mass, cookies thickness, spread ratio, proximate composition, Calcium, Vitamin C and Total Phenolic Content) were determined using standard procedures. The data obtained were statistically analysed at p≤0.05 using ANOVA. The polynomial regression model of response surface methodology was used to model the physicochemical properties. The adequacy of the models was determined using the coefficient of determination (R²) and the response optimizer of RSM was used to determine the optimum physicochemical properties for the papaya-based cookies. Cookies produced from overripe papaya puree were observed to have the shortest baking time; ripe papaya puree favors cookies spread ratio, while the unripe papaya puree gives cookies with the highest mass and thickness. The highest crude protein content, fiber content, calcium content, Vitamin C and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) were observed in papaya based-cookies produced from overripe puree. The models for baking time, cookies mass, cookies thickness, spread ratio, moisture content, crude protein and TPC were significant, with R2 ranging from 0.73 – 0.95. The optimum condition for producing papaya based-cookies with desirable physicochemical properties was obtained at 149°C oven temperature, 17 rpm oven rack speed and with the use of overripe papaya puree. The Information on the use of puree from unripe, ripe and overripe papaya can help to increase the use of underutilized unripe or overripe papaya and also serve as a strategic means of obtaining a fat substitute to produce new products with lower production cost and health benefit.

Keywords: papaya based-cookies, modeling, response surface methodology, physicochemical properties

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3 Effects of Mental Skill Training Programme on Direct Free Kick of Grassroot Footballers in Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Mayowa Adeyeye, Kehinde Adeyemo

Abstract:

The direct free kick is considered a great opportunity to score a goal but this is not always the case amidst Nigerian and other elite footballers. This study, therefore, examined the extent to which an 8 weeks mental skill training programme is effective for improving accuracy in direct free kick in football. Sixty (n-60) students of Pepsi Football Academy participated in the study. They were randomly distributed into two groups of positive self-talk group (intervention n-30) and control group (n-30). The instrument used in the collection of data include a standard football goal post while the research materials include a dummy soccer wall, a cord, an improvised vanishing spray, a clipboard, writing materials, a recording sheet, a self-talk log book, six standard 5 football, cones, an audiotape and a compact disc. The Weinberge and Gould (2011) mental skills training manual was used. The reliability coefficient of the apparatus following a pilot study stood at 0.72. Before the commencement of the mental skills training programme, the participants were asked to take six simulated direct free kick. At the end of each physical skills training session after the pre-test, the researcher spent at least 15 minutes with the groups exposing them to the intervention. The mental skills training programme alongside physical skills training took place in two different locations for the different groups under study, these included Agege Stadium Main bowl Football Pitch (Imagery Group), and Ogba Ijaye (Control Group). The mental skills training programme lasted for eight weeks. After the completion of the mental skills training programme, all the participants were asked to take another six simulated direct free kick attempts using the same field used for the pre-test to determine the efficacy of the treatments. The pre-test and post-test data were analysed using inferential statistics of t-test, while the alpha level was set at 0.05. The result revealed significant differences in t-test for positive self-talk and control group. Based on the findings, it is recommended that athletes should be exposed to positive self-talk alongside their normal physical skills training for quality delivery of accurate direct free kick during training and competition.

Keywords: accuracy, direct free kick, pepsi football academy, positive self-talk

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2 Community Engagement: Experience from the SIREN Study in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Arti Singh, Carolyn Jenkins, Oyedunni S. Arulogun, Mayowa O. Owolabi, Fred S. Sarfo, Bruce Ovbiagele, Enzinne Sylvia

Abstract:

Background: Stroke, the leading cause of adult-onset disability and the second leading cause of death, is a major public health concern particularly pertinent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where nearly 80% of all global stroke mortalities occur. The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) seeks to comprehensively characterize the genomic, sociocultural, economic, and behavioral risk factors for stroke and to build effective teams for research to address and decrease the burden of stroke and other non communicable diseases in SSA. One of the first steps to address this goal was to effectively engage the communities that suffer the high burden of disease in SSA. This study describes how the SIREN project engaged six sites in Ghana and Nigeria over the past three years, describing the community engagement activities that have arisen since inception. Aim: The aim of community engagement (CE) within SIREN is to elucidate information about knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) about stroke and its risk factors from individuals of African ancestry in SSA, and to educate the community about stroke and ways to decrease disabilities and deaths from stroke using socioculturally appropriate messaging and messengers. Methods: Community Advisory Board (CABs), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and community outreach programs. Results: 27 FGDs with 168 participants including community heads, religious leaders, health professionals and individuals with stroke among others, were conducted, and over 60 CE outreaches have been conducted within the SIREN performance sites. Over 5,900 individuals have received education on cardiovascular risk factors and about 5,000 have been screened for cardiovascular risk factors during the outreaches. FGDs and outreach programs indicate that knowledge of stroke, as well as risk factors and follow-up evidence-based care is limited and often late. Other findings include: 1) Most recognize hypertension as a major risk factor for stroke. 2) About 50% report that stroke is hereditary and about 20% do not know organs affected by stroke. 3) More than 95% willing to participate in genetic testing research and about 85% willing to pay for testing and recommend the test to others. 4) Almost all indicated that genetic testing could help health providers better treat stroke and help scientists better understand the causes of stroke. The CABs provided stakeholder input into SIREN activities and facilitated collaborations among investigators, community members and stakeholders. Conclusion: The CE core within SIREN is a first-of-its kind public outreach engagement initiative to evaluate and address perceptions about stroke and genomics by patients, caregivers, and local leaders in SSA and has implications as a model for assessment in other high-stroke risk populations. SIREN’s CE program uses best practices to build capacity for community-engaged research, accelerate integration of research findings into practice and strengthen dynamic community-academic partnerships within our communities. CE has had several major successes over the past three years including our multi-site collaboration examining the KABP about stroke (symptoms, risk factors, burden) and genetic testing across SSA.

Keywords: community advisory board, community engagement, focus groups, outreach, SSA, stroke

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1 Awareness Creation of Benefits of Antitrypsin-Free Nutraceutical Biopowder for Increasing Human Serum Albumin Synthesis as Possible Adjunct for Management of MDRTB or MDRTB-HIV Patients

Authors: Vincent Oghenekevbe Olughor, Olusoji Mayowa Ige

Abstract:

Except for a preexisting liver disease and malnutrition, there are no predilections for low serum albumin (SA) levels in humans. At normal reference levels (4.0-6.0g/dl) SA is a universal marker for mortality and morbidity risks assessments where depletion by 1.0g/dl increases mortality risk by 137% and morbidity by 89%.It has 40 known functions contributing significantly to the sustenance of human life. A depletion in SA to <2.2g/dl, in most clinical settings worldwide, leads to loss of oncotic pressure of blood causing clinical manifestations of bipedal Oedema, in which the patients remain conscious. SA also contributes significantly to buffering of blood to a life-sustaining pH of 7.35-7.45. A drop in blood pH to <6.9 will lead to instant coma and death, which can occur after SA continues to deplete after manifestations of bipedal Oedema. In an intervention study conducted in 2014 following the discovery that “SA is depleted during malaria fever”, a Nutraceutical formulated for use as treatment adjunct to prevent SA depletions during malaria to <2.4g/dl after Efficacy testing was found to be satisfactory. There are five known types of Malaria caused by Apicomplexan parasites, Plasmodium: the most lethal being that caused by Plasmodium falciparum causing malignant tertian malaria, in which the fever was occurring every 48 hours coincides with the dumping of malaria-toxins (Hemozoin) into blood, causing contamination: blood must remain sterile. Other Apicomplexan parasites, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium, are opportunistic infections of HIV. Separate studies showed SA depletions in MDRTB (multidrug resistant TB), and MDRTB-HIV patients by the same mechanism discovered with malaria and such depletions will be further complicated whenever Apicomplexan parasitic infections co-exist. Both Apicomplexan parasites and the TB parasite belong to the Obligate-group of Parasites, which are parasites that replicate only inside its host; and most of them have capacities to over-consume host nutrients during parasitaemia. In MDRTB patients the body attempts repeatedly to prevent depletions in SA to critical levels in the presence of adequate nutrients and only for a while in MDRTB-HIV patients. These groups of patients will, therefore, benefit from the already tested Nutraceutical in malaria patients. The Nutraceutical bio-Powder was formulated (to BP 1988 specification) from twelve nature-based food-grade nutrients containing all dedicated nutrients for ensuring improved synthesis of Albumin by the liver. The Nutraceutical was administered daily for 38±2days in 23 children, in a prospective phase-2 clinical trial, and its impact on body weight and core blood parameters were documented at the start and end of efficacy testing period. Sixteen children who did not experience malaria-induced depletions of SA had significant SA increase; seven children who experienced malaria-induced depletions of SA had insignificant SA decrease. The Packed Cell Volume Percentage (PCV %), a measure of the Oxygen carrying capacity of blood and the amount of nutrients the body can absorb, increased in both groups. The total serum proteins (SA+ Globulins) increased or decreased within the continuum of normal. In conclusion, MDRTB and MDRTB-HIV patients will benefit from a variant of this Nutraceutical when used as treatment adjunct.

Keywords: antitrypsin-free Nutraceutical, apicomplexan parasites, no predilections for low serum albumin, toxoplasmosis

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