Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: Abdi Dharma

65 The Concept of Dharma under Hindu, Buddhist and Sikh Religions: A Comparative Analysis

Authors: Venkateswarlu Kappara

Abstract:

The term ‘Dharma’ is complex and ubiquitous. It has no equivalent word in English Initially applied to Aryans. In Rig Veda, it appears in a number of places with different meanings. The word Dharma comes from the roots word ‘dhr’ (Dhri-Dharayatetiiti Dharmaha). Principles of Dharma are all pervading. The closest synonyms for Dharma in English is ‘Righteousness.’ In a holy book Mahabharata, it is mentioned that Dharma destroys those who destroy it, Dharma Protects those who protect it. Also, Dharma might be shadowed, now and then by evil forces, but at the end, Dharma always triumphs. This line embodies the eternal victory of good over evil. In Mahabharata, Lord Krishna says Dharma upholds both, this worldly and other worldly affairs. Rig Veda says, ‘O Indra! Lead us on the path of Rta, on the right path over all evils.’ For Buddhists, Dharma most often means the body of teachings expounded by the Buddha. The Dharma is one of the three Jewels (Tri Ratnas) of Buddhism under which the followers take refuge. They are: the ‘Buddha’ meaning the minds perfection or enlightenment, the Dharma, meaning the teachings and the methods of the Buddha, and the Sangha meaning those awakened people who provide guidance and support followers. Buddha denies a separate permanent ‘I.’ Buddha Accepts Suffering (Dukka). Change / impermanence (Anicca) and not– self (Annatta) Dharma in the Buddhist scriptures has a variety of meanings including ‘phenomenon’ and ‘nature’ or ‘characteristic.’ For Sikhs, the word ‘Dharma’ means the ‘path’ of righteousness’ The Sikh scriptures attempt to answer the exposition of Dharma. The main Holy Scripture of the Sikh religion is called the Guru Granth Sahib. The faithful people are fully bound to do whatever the Dharma wants them to do. Such is the name of the Immaculate Lord. Only one who has faith comes to know such a state of mind. The righteous judge of Dharma, by the Hukam of God’s Command, sits and Administers true justice. From Dharma flow wealth and pleasure. The study indicates that in Sikh religion, the Dharma is the path of righteousness; In Buddhism, the mind’s perfection of enlightenment, and in Hinduism, it is non-violence, purity, truth, control of senses, not coveting the property of others. The comparative study implies that all religions dealt with Dharma for welfare of the mankind. The methodology adapted is theoretical, analytical and comparative. The present study indicates how far Indian philosophical systems influenced the present circumstances and how far the present system is not compatible with Ancient philosophical systems. A tentative generalization would be that the present system which is mostly influenced by the British Governance may not totally reflect the ancient norms. However, the mental make-up continues to be influenced by Ancient philosophical systems.

Keywords: Dharma, Dukka (suffering), Rakshati, righteous

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64 Uses and Gratification with the Website Secret-thai.com

Authors: Siriporn Meenanan

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to study about the uses and gratification of the sample who use the website that named secret-thai.com which provides moral contents, inspires, and builds up the spirit. The study found that the samples mainly use this website to follow up on the dharma activities. They also use the space as the web board to discuss about dharma issues. Moreover, the contents help readers to relax and also provides the guidelines to deal with stress and uncomfortable situations properly. The samples found to be most satisfied. In other words, the samples found the contents of the website are complete, and can cover their needs. Moreover, they found that contents useful in their ways of living. In addition, they are satisfied with the beautiful and interesting design of the website and well classification of the contents that readers can easily find the information that they want.

Keywords: website, uses and gratification, Secret-Thai.com, moral contents

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
63 A Critical Analysis on Traditional Bases of Indian Society

Authors: Sujit Kumar, Anita Surroch

Abstract:

Indian culture, religions, literature and philosophy has attracted attention of the scholars across the globe since time immemorial. They endeavoured to interpret these dimensions as per their comprehension of Indian Society. The present paper is an attempt to portray a critical analysis of traditional bases of Indian Society as articulated by the great Indians who immensely contributed by shaping, practicing and passing these sub-systems on to the successive generations. India was endowed with a class of intellectuals par excellence during ancient times that traversed lengths and breaths of the country, interacted with the people, understood their capabilities & limitations and needs and churned such knowledge with their fellow beings. It witnessed an era of emergence of Varnashrama, Purushartha, Dharma and Sanskara system. Mention of Varna system in the Purush hymn of Rigveda, Vrihadyaranyak Upnishda. Shantiparva of Mahabharata, the Gita and the interpretations offered by Lord Krishna, Bhrigua Rishi, Yudhishtra and philosophers of modern times give a glimpse of macro level division of labour in ancient Indian Society. The Ashrama system, the four stages of life as referred to in Upnishdas (Chandogaya, Jawali) Sutras (Vashisht Dharma Sutra, Gautma Dharma Sutra), Smritis (Manusmiriti) and four step ladder described by Ved Vyasa is a comprehensive scheme of harmonious development of physical, mental and spiritual capabilities of human beings during different stages of life. The Purushartha, the four broad duties (Dharama, Artha, Kama & Moksha) of human being, lays emphasis on discharging duties as per ones Varna, Ashrama and also keeping in view the time, space and circumstances. Sanskaras are methods and a process to purify mind, body and soul. Today, one gets refraction (not reflection as shades of beliefs, customs practices and interpretations of Varnashrama, Purushartha, Dharma and Sanskara in letter and spirit has undergone changes) of such traditional bases from the writings of Indologists and other scholars.

Keywords: traditional, Intellectuals, Rigveda, Sanskaras

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62 Religion and Social Mobility: A Historical Study of Neovaishnavism of Srimanta Shankardeva

Authors: Satyajit Kalita

Abstract:

Assam from an early period has gone through various religious transformations and has witnessed its impact in different period. One of such epoch is the epoch of Srimanta Shankardeva. Srimanta Shankareva is regarded, as the greatest religious preacher and social reformer in the history of Assam. It was Shankardeva, who brought the faith of vaisnavite movement that prevailed in other parts of India. Before and during his time, the people of Assam were followers of Sakta worship, the worshipping of different gods and goddesses. People worshiped idols and offered sacrifices. Srimanta Shankardeva under the faith neo-vaishnavism and propagated the Eka-Saran-Naam-Dharm, through which spread the splendor of one and only Lord Vishnu or Krishna and abolished offering sacrifices. With the help of Eka-Saran-Naam-Dharma, Srimanta Shankardeva tries to vanish the superstitious beliefs and irrational practices of Assamese society. The NeoVaishnavite faith developed a democratic outlook which permeates the entire teachings and practices in Assamese people. His contributions not only made the foundations of Assamese literature, culture, and social structure but also established the super structures the upon. It is understood that all contributions of Srimanta Shankardeva bear his marks distinctively. Religion is said to be biggest and the most influential aspect in bringing about change in the society. In Assam, with the essence of neo-vaishnavism by Shankardeva and the emergence of the Eka-Saran-Naam-Dharma came into a huge Change to the region. The movement of religion brought about a social mobility to all sections of society. This paper is a mere initiative to look into the organizational structure of Srimanta Shankardeva Sangha and its maintenance of the ideology and principles without failure. It is aimed to examine the assimilation of different groups and communities of people under the fold of Srimanta Shankardeva Sangha.

Keywords: Neo-Vaishnavism, Srimanta Shankardeva, Srimanta Shankardeva Shangha, Eka-Saran-Naam-Dharma

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
61 Combined Aplication of Indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens and the AM Fungi as the Potential Biocontrol Agents of Banana Fusarium wilt

Authors: Eri Sulyanti, Trimurti Habazar, Eti Farda Husen, Abdi Dharma, Nasril Nasir

Abstract:

In this study, combination of some biocontrol agents with different mechanisms was an alternative to improve the effectiveness of the biological control agents. Single and combined applications of indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens and Arbuscular Mychorrhizae Fungi (AM Fungi) isolates were tested to induce the resistance on susceptible Cavendish banana against F.oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 under greenhouse conditions. These isolates originally isolated from healthy banana rhizosphere at endemic Fusarium wilt areas in the centre of production banana in West Sumatra. These researches were conducted with Randomized Block Design with 16 treatments and 10 replications. The treatments were three indigenous isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Par1-Cv, Par4-Rj1, Par2-Jt1) and 3 isolates of AM Fungi (Gl1BuA4, Gl2BuA6, and Gl1KeP3. The biocontrol agents were applied as single agents and combination two of them. This study demonstrated that the application of combination biocontrol organisms Pseudomonas fluorescens and AM Fungi provided were more effective than single application. The combination of Par1-Cv and Gl1BuA4 isolates was the most effective to control Fusarium wilt and followed by the combination of Par1-Cv and Gl2BuA6 and Par2-Jt1 and Gl1P3.

Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, pseudomonad fluorescens (Pf), arbuscular mychorrhizae fungi (AM Fungi) indigenous isolates, soil rhizosphere

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
60 Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Strategy in Teaching Sociolinguistics to Enhance Students' Mastery: A Survey Research in Sanata Dharma ELESP Department

Authors: Nugraheni Widianingtyas, Niko Albert Setiawan

Abstract:

For ELESP Teachers’ College, teaching learning strategies such as presentation and group discussion are classical ones to be implemented in the class. In order to create a breakthrough which can bring about more positive advancements in the learning process, a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is being offered and implemented in certain classes. Interestingly, FGD is frequently used in the social-business inquiries such as for recruiting employees. It is then interesting to investigate FGD when it is implemented in the educational scope, especially in the Sociolinguistics class which regarded as one of the most arduous subjects in this study program. Thus, this study focused on how FGD enhances students Sociolinguistics mastery. In response to that, a quantitative survey research was conducted in which observation, questionnaire, and interview (triangulation method) became the instruments. The respondents of this study were 29 sixth-semester students who take Sociolinguistics of ELESP, Sanata Dharma University in 2017. The findings indicated that FGD could help students in enhancing Sociolinguistics mastery. In addition, it also revealed that FGD was exploring students’ logical thinking, English communication skill, and decision-making.

Keywords: Sociolinguistics, focus group discussion, teaching strategy, material mastery

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
59 [Keynote Talk]: Pragmatic Leadership in School Organization and Research in Physical Education Professional Development

Authors: Ellie Abdi

Abstract:

This paper is a review of a recently published book (April 2018) by Dr. Ellie Abdi. The book divides into two sections of 1) leadership in school organization and 2) pragmatic research in physical education professional development. The first part of the book explores school organizational development in terms of 1) communication development, 2) community development, and 3) decision making development. It concludes to acknowledge that decision making is the heart of educational management. This is while communication and community are essential to the development of the school organization. The role of a leader in a professional learning community (PLC) is acknowledged with the organizational development plan and moves onto 5 overall objectives of a professional development plan. It clarifies that professional learning community (PLC) benefits both students and professionals in education. Furthermore, professional development needs to be involved in opportunities to value diversity and foundations of learning, in addition to search for veteran teachers who offer a rich combination of experience and perspective. School educational platform in terms of teacher training in physical education is discussed in the second part. The book reviews that well-designed programs are powerful and constructive ways to identify the strength and weaknesses of teachers. Post-positivism, constructivism, advocacy/participatory, and pragmatism in teacher education are also disclosed. The book specifically unfolds pragmatic research in professional development of physical education. It provides researchers, doctoral, and masters level students with defined examples. In summary, the book shows how appropriate it is when many different traditions are displayed in a pragmatic way, following the stages of research from development to dissemination.

Keywords: Leadership, Professional Development, Physical Education, Pragmatic

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58 The Effect of Four-Week Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on NT-proBNP and Plasma Troponin I

Authors: Rostam Abdi, Ahmad Abdi, Zahra Vahedi Langrodi

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate four-week resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400 cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400 cc low fat milk. Control-water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood sample of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p ≤ 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT–proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. The mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.

Keywords: Milk, NT-proBNP, resistance exercise, troponin I

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57 Dose Determination of Tenebrio molitor (Mealworm) Extract as an Anti-Diabetic Agent

Authors: Dwi Yulian Fahruddin Shah, Muhammad Al Rizqi Dharma Fauzi, Andre Pratama, Ari Hasna Widyapuspa, Ganden Supriyanto

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is still known as one of diseases which give a big amount of death in the world. From 2012 to 2014, diabetes is estimated to have resulted in 1.5 to 4.9 million deaths each year. In this paper, we present our research in the analysis and dose determination of Tenebrio molitor (Mealworm) extract as an anti-diabetic agent which is believed by Indonesian people as a traditional treatment to prevent and treat diabetes. We found that Tenebrio molitor extract has a potential as an anti-diabetic agent by in vitro test to Mus musculus which were divided into six group of treatment. Our dose determination analysis gave a conclusion that at 2,5 g/mL of concentration of the extract would give the optimal result in healing a wound given to Mus musculus which were induced by aloxane monohydrate. These results show that Tenebrio molitor extract is potential to be used as an Anti-Diabetic agent.

Keywords: Diabetes, Extraction, Traditional Medicine, Tenebrio molitor

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56 Happiness of Undergraduate Nursing Students, College of Nursing, Ratchaburi, Thailand

Authors: Paveenapat Nithitantiwat, Kwanjai Pataipakaipet

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the happiness level of nursing students, Boromarajonani College of nursing, Ratchaburi, Thailand. A purposive sampling of 652 first to four-year nursing students was used. This research is descriptive research. The instruments were questionnaires that developed by the researcher. It included the demographic data and nursing student’s perception about healthcare, safety, life security, family, proud of oneself, education and activities, dormitories and environment in college, and how to improve their happiness. Frequencies, percentage, mean, and T-test is used to analysis the data. The results of the research have shown that family and moral value was an important thing in nursing student’s life. In addition, the mean of the happiness level was a high level. The first year nursing students had the higher mean score of the happiness level than the fourth year, second year, and the third year, respectively. Therefore, nursing students would realize that the important things in their life are family and Buddhism’s teaching. In addition, dharma is guideline how to be both academic achievements and successful in life.

Keywords: Happiness, nursing students, nursing students’ perceptions, bachelor program

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
55 Investigation of the Morphology and Optical Properties of CuAlO₂ Thin Film

Authors: T. M. Aminu, A. Salisu, B. Abdu, H. U. Alhassan, T. H. Dharma

Abstract:

Thin films of CuAlO2 were deposited on clean glass substrate using the chemical solution deposition (sol-gel) method of deposition with CuCl and AlCl3 taken as the starting materials. CuCl was dissolved in HCl while AlCl₃ in distilled water, pH value of the mixture was controlled by addition of NaOH. The samples were annealed at different temperatures in order to determine the effect of annealing temperatures on the morphological and optical properties of the deposited CuAlO₂ thin film. The surface morphology reveals an improved crystalline as annealing temperature increases. The results of the UV-vis and FT-IR spectrophotometry indicate that the absorbance for all the samples decreases sharply from a common value of about 89% at about 329 nm to a range of values of 56.2%-35.2% and the absorption / extinction coefficients of the films decrease with increase in annealing temperature from 1.58 x 10⁻⁶ to1.08 x 10⁻⁶ at about 1.14eV in the infrared region to about 1.93 x 10⁻⁶ to 1.29 x 10⁻⁶ at about 3.62eV in the visible region, the transmittance, reflectance and band gaps vary directly with annealing temperature, the deposited films were found to be suitable in optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: reflectance, transmittance, absorbance, copper aluminium-oxide (CuAlO2), band gaps

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
54 Scheduling of Bus Fleet Departure Time Based on Mathematical Model of Number of Bus Stops for Municipality Bus Organization

Authors: Ali Abdi Kordani, Sid Mohammad Boroomandrad, Hamid Bigdelirad

Abstract:

Operating Urban Bus Transit System is a phenomenon that has a major role in transporting passengers in cities. There are many factors involved in planning and operating an Urban Bus Transit System, one of which is selecting optimized number of stops and scheduling of bus fleet departure. In this paper, we tried to introduce desirable methodology to select number of stops and schedule properly. Selecting the right number of stops causes convenience in accessibility and reduction in travel time and finally increase in public preference of this transportation mode. The achieved results revealed that number of stops must reduce from 33 to 25. Also according to scheduling and conducted economic analysis, the number of buses must decrease from 17 to 11 to have the most appropriate status for the Bus Organization.

Keywords: Scheduling, number of optimized stops, organizing bus system, urban transit

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53 Study of Nanocrystalline Scintillator for Alpha Particles Detection

Authors: Azadeh Farzaneh, Mohammad Reza Abdi, A. Quaranta, Matteo Dalla Palma, Seyedshahram Mortazavi

Abstract:

We report on the synthesis of cesium-iodide nanoparticles using sol-gel technique. The structural properties of CsI nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Also, optical properties were followed by optical absorption and UV–vis fluorescence. Intense photoluminescence is also observed, with some spectral tuning possible with ripening time getting a range of emission photon wavelength approximately from 366 to 350 nm. The size effect on CsI luminescence leads to an increase in scintillation light yield, a redshift of the emission bands of the on_center and off_center self_trapped excitons (STEs) and an increase in the contribution of the off_center STEs to the net intrinsic emission yield. The energy transfer from the matrix to CsI nanoparticles is a key characteristic for scintillation detectors. So the scintillation spectra to alpha particles of sample were monitored.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Luminescence, scintillator, sol gel

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52 Suppressing Ambipolar Conduction Using Dual Material Gate in Tunnel-FETs Having Heavily Doped Drain

Authors: Dawit Burusie Abdi, Mamidala Jagadesh Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, using 2D TCAD simulations, the application of a dual material gate (DMG) for suppressing ambipolar conduction in a tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) is demonstrated. Using the proposed DMG concept, the ambipolar conduction can be effectively suppressed even if the drain doping is as high as that of the source doping. Achieving this symmetrical doping, without the ambipolar conduction in TFETs, gives the advantage of realizing both n-type and p-type devices with the same doping sequences. Furthermore, the output characteristics of the DMG TFET exhibit a good saturation when compared to that of the gate-drain underlap approach. This improved behavior of the DMG TFET makes it a good candidate for inverter based logic circuits.

Keywords: dual material gate, suppressing ambipolar current, symmetrically doped TFET, tunnel FETs, PNPN TFET

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
51 Project Management Agile Model Based on Project Management Body of Knowledge Guideline

Authors: Iraj Mahdavi, Mehrzad Abdi Khalife

Abstract:

This paper presents the agile model for project management process. For project management process, the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) guideline has been selected as platform. Combination of computational science and artificial intelligent methodology has been added to the guideline to transfer the standard to agile project management process. The model is the combination of practical standard, computational science and artificial intelligent. In this model, we present communication model and protocols to keep process agile. Here, we illustrate the collaboration man and machine in project management area with artificial intelligent approach.

Keywords: Project Management, Artificial Intelligent, standard, conceptual model, man-machine collaboration

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
50 Comparison of DPC and FOC Vector Control Strategies on Reducing Harmonics Caused by Nonlinear Load in the DFIG Wind Turbine

Authors: Hamid Havasi, Mohamad Reza Gholami Dehbalaei, Hamed Khorami, Shahram Karimi, Hamdi Abdi

Abstract:

Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) equipped with a power converter is an efficient tool for converting mechanical energy of a variable speed system to a fixed-frequency electrical grid. Since electrical energy sources faces with production problems such as harmonics caused by nonlinear loads, so in this paper, compensation performance of DPC and FOC method on harmonics reduction of a DFIG wind turbine connected to a nonlinear load in MATLAB Simulink model has been simulated and effect of each method on nonlinear load harmonic elimination has been compared. Results of the two mentioned control methods shows the advantage of the FOC method on DPC method for harmonic compensation. Also, the fifth and seventh harmonic components of the network and THD greatly reduced.

Keywords: Energy Conversion, THD, DFIG machine, nonlinear load, DPC, FOC

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49 Comparison of Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction in Normal Users and Users with Internet Addiction

Authors: Mansour Abdi, Hadi Molaei Yasavoli

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to comparison of self- efficacy and life satisfaction in normal users and users with internet addiction. The present study was descriptive and causal-comparative. Therefore, 304 students were selected random sampling method from students of Semnan University and completed questionnaires of internet addiction (young), Self-Efficacy Questionnaire and Life Satisfaction (SWIS). For data analysis was used the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The results showed that internet addiction users have lower levels of self-efficacy and life satisfaction in comparison with normal users and the difference in p=0/0005 significantly. The findings showed that 78 percent of the variance in the dependent variables of self-efficacy and life satisfaction by grouping variables (internet addiction users and normal) is determined. Finally, considering that the rate of self-efficacy and life satisfaction is effective in the incidence of Internet addiction, it is proposed required measures are taken to enhance self-efficacy and life satisfaction in Internet users.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Internet Addiction, Life Satisfaction, users, normal users

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48 A Case Study of Decision Making and Adjustment Behaviour of Visually Challenged Adolescents

Authors: Bincy Mathew, B. William Dharma Raja

Abstract:

Successful decision making in a social setting depends on the ability to understand the intentions, emotions and beliefs of others. Children live and grow in the social world. Individuals think to satisfy their curiosity and mush of their social thought is practical, to attain their goal. Children’s thought about their social world influences how they behave towards it. The main purpose of this paper is to review the influence of decision making on adjustment behaviour of visually challenged adolescents. The sample was purposively selected to study the cases of two of the visually challenged adolescents from a Special School, in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India. The authors appraised the observed behaviour of adjustment in these children. It may be concluded that the social cognitive ability of decision making is at least, to certain extent, influences adjustment behaviour of visually challenged adolescents. Adjustment behaviour attempts to maintain a child’s level of physiological and psychological equilibrium and it is directed towards tension reduction. It involves a state of harmonious relationship existing between the individual and one’s environment so that adjustment is a matter of interaction between the capacities of the individual and the demands of the environment. The study also found that music induces a receptive mood that generally enhances cognitive processing and every decision that the child makes has its brunt on the behaviour. It is solely based on the case study carried out by the authors.

Keywords: Decision Making, Adolescents, Social Cognition, adjustment behaviour

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47 Parental Restriction and Children’s Appetitive Traits: A Study Among Children Aged 5-11 Years Old in Dubai Private Schools

Authors: Behnaz Farahani, Hajar Aman Key Yekani, Yusra Mushtaq, Hamed Abdi

Abstract:

This study explores associations between parental restriction and children's appetitive traits, putting to test the hypothesis that parental 'restriction' is associated with having a child with stronger food approach tendencies (food enjoyment (FE) and food over-responsiveness (FR)). The participants, from 55 nationalities, targeting 1081 parents of 5- to 11-year-old children from 7 private schools in Dubai, UAE, who completed self-reported questionnaires over the 2011-2012 school year. The questionnaire has been a tailored amalgamation of CEBQ and CFQ in order to measure the children’s appetitive traits and parental restriction, respectively. The findings of this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis confirmed the hypothesis in that 'parental restriction' was positively associated with child food responsiveness (r, 0.183), food enjoyment (r, 0.102). To conclude, as far as the figures depict, the parents controlling their children’s food intake would seemingly a reverse impact on their eating behaviour in the short term.

Keywords: Children, parental restriction, eating behaviour, schools in Dubai

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46 Clash of Civilizations without Civilizational Groups: Revisiting Samuel P. Huntington's Clash of Civilizations Theory

Authors: Jamal Abdi

Abstract:

This paper offers a critique of Samuel P. Huntington's Clash of Civilizations thesis. The overriding argument is that Huntington's thesis is characterized by failure to distinguish between 'groups' and 'categories'. Multinational civilizations overcoming their internal collective action problems, which would enable them to pursue a unified strategy vis-à-vis the West, is a rather foundational assumption in his theory. Without assigning sufficient intellectual attention to the processes through which multinational civilizations may gain the capacity for concerted action, i.e., become a group, he contended that the post-cold-war world would be shaped in large measure by interactions among seven or eight major civilizations. Thus, failure in providing a convincing analysis of multi-national civilizations' transition from categories to groups is a significant weakness in Huntington's clash theory. It is also suggested that so-called Islamic terrorism and the war on terror is not to be taken as an expression of the presence of clash between a Western and an Islamic civilization, as terrorist organizations would be superfluous in a world characterized by clash of civilizations. Consequences of multinational civilizations becoming a group are discussed in relation to contemporary Western superiority.

Keywords: groups, Clash of Civilizations, Categories, groupism

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45 Control HVAC Parameters by Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC)

Authors: Javad Abdi, Azam Famil Khalili

Abstract:

Modeling emotions have attracted much attention in recent years, both in cognitive psychology and design of artificial systems. However, it is a negative factor in decision-making; emotions have shown to be a strong faculty for making fast satisfying decisions. In this paper, we have adapted a computational model based on the limbic system in the mammalian brain for control engineering applications. Learning in this model based on Temporal Difference (TD) Learning, we applied the proposed controller (termed BELBIC) for a simple model of a submarine. The model was supposed to reach the desired depth underwater. Our results demonstrate excellent control action, disturbance handling, and system parameter robustness for TDBELBIC. The proposal method, regarding the present conditions, the system action in the part and the controlling aims, can control the system in a way that these objectives are attained in the least amount of time and the best way.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, temporal difference, brain emotional learning based intelligent controller, heating- ventilating and air conditioning

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44 Theoretical Literature Review on Lack of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Its Effects on Children

Authors: E. Abdi

Abstract:

The purpose of this theoretical literature review is to study the relevant academic literature on lack of cardiorespiratory fitness and its effects on children. The total of thirty eight relevant documents were identified and considered for this review which nineteen of those were original research articles published in peer reviewed journals. The other nineteen articles were statistical documents. This document is structured to examine 4 effects in deficiency of cardiorespiratory fitness in school aged children: (a) obesity, (b) inadequate fitness level, (c) unhealthy life style, and (d) academics. The categories provide a theoretical framework for future studies. The results are broken down into 6 sections: (a) academics,( b) healthy life style, (c) low cost, (d) obesity, (e) Relative Age Effect (RAE), and (f) race/poverty. The study discusses that regular physical fitness assists children and adolescents to develop healthy physical activity behaviors which can be sustained throughout adult life. Conclusion suggests that advocacy for increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviors at school and home are necessary.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Endurance, Cardiorespiratory, Physical Fitness

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43 Clash of Civilizations without Civilizational Groups: Revisiting Samuel P. Huntington´s Clash of Civilizations Theory

Authors: Jamal Abdi

Abstract:

This paper is largely a response/critique of Samuel P. Huntington´s Clash of Civilizations thesis. The overriding argument is that Huntington´s thesis is characterized by failure to distinguish between ´groups´ and ´categories´. Multinational civilizations overcoming their internal collective action problems, which would enable them to pursue a unified strategy vis-à-vis the West, is a rather foundational assumption in his theory. Without assigning sufficient intellectual attention to the processes through which multinational civilizations may gain capacity for concerted action i.e. become a group, he contended that the post-cold-war world would be shaped in large measure by interactions among seven or eight major civilizations. Thus, failure in providing a convincing analysis of multi-national civilizations´ transition from categories to groups is a significant weakness in Huntington´s clash theory. It is also suggested that so-called Islamic terrorism and the war on terror is not to be taken as an expression of presence of clash between a Western and an Islamic civilization, as terrorist organizations would be superfluous in a world characterized by clash of civilizations. Consequences of multinational civilizations becoming a group are discussed in relation to contemporary Western superiority.

Keywords: groups, civilizations, Categories, clash, groupness

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42 The Effect of 8 Weeks Endurance Training and L-NAME on Apelin in Adipose Tissue, Glucose and Insulin in Elderly Male's Rats

Authors: Ahmad Abdi, Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Fatemeh Fani

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks endurance training and L-NAME on apelin in adipose tissue, glucose and insulin in elderly male’s rats. Methods: For this purpose, 24 vistar elderly rats with average 20 months old purchased from Razi Institute and transferred to Research Center were randomly divided into four groups: 1. control, 2. training, 3.training and L-NAME and 4. L-NAME. Training protocol performed for 8 weeks and 5 days a week with 75-80 VO2 max. All rats were killed 72 hours after the final training session and after 24 hours of fasting adipose tissue samples were collected and kept in -80. Also, Data was analyzed with One way ANOVA and Tucky in p < 0/05. Results: The results showed that the inhibition of nitric oxide on apelin in adipose tissue of adult male rats after eight weeks of endurance training increased significantly compared to the control group (p < 0.00). Also, the results showed no significant difference between the levels of insulin and glucose groups. Conclusion: It is likely that the increased apelin in adipose tissue in mice independent of insulin and glucose.

Keywords: Endurance Training, L-NAME, apelin in adipose tissue, elderly male rats

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41 Elaboration of Polymethylene Blue on Conducting Glassy Substrate and Study of Its Optical, Electrical and Photoelectrochemical Characterization

Authors: Abdi Djamila, Haffar Hichem

Abstract:

The poly methylene bleu (PMB) has been successfully electro deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass as substrate. Its optical, electrical and photoelectrochemical characterizations have been carried out in order to show the performances of such polymer. The deposited film shows a good electric conductivity which is well confirmed by the low gap value determinated optically by UV–vis spectroscopy. Like all polymers the PMB presents an absorption difference in the visible range function of the polarization potential, it is expressed by the strong conjugation at oxidized state but is weakened with leucoform formation at reduced state. The electrochemical analysis of the films permit to show the cyclic voltamperogram with the anodic oxidation and cathodic reduction states of the polymer and to locate the corresponding energy levels HOMO and LUMO of this later. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy permit to see the conductive character of such film and to calculate important parameters as Rtc and CPE. The study of the photoelectro activity of our polymer shows that under exposure to intermittent light source this later exhibit important photocurrents which enables it to be used in photo organic ells.

Keywords: Electropolymerization, polymethylene blue, homo-lumo, photocurrents

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40 Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows at Different Parities: A Case Study in Enrekang Regency, Indonesia

Authors: Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Muhammad Yusuf, Abdul Latief Toleng, Ambo Ako, Sahiruddin Sahiruddin, Abdi Eriansyah

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to know the reproductive performance of dairy cows at different parities. A total of 60 dairy Holstein-Friesian cows with parity one to three from five small farms raised by the farmers were used in the study. All cows were confined in tie stall barn with rubber on the concrete floor. The herds were visited twice for survey with the help of a questionnaire. Reproductive parameters used in the study were days open, calving interval, and service per conception (S/C). The results of this study showed that the mean (±SD) days open of the cows in parity 2 was slightly longer than those in parity 3 (228.2±121.5 vs. 205.5±144.5; P=0.061). None cows conceived within 85 days postpartum in parity 3 in comparison to 13.8% cows conceived in parity 2. However, total cows conceived within 150 days post partum in parity 2 and parity 3 were 30.1% and 36.4%, respectively. Likewise, after reaching 210 days after calving, number of cows conceived in parity 3 had higher than number of cows in parity 2 (72.8% vs. 44.8%; P<0.05). The mean (±SD) calving interval of the cows in parity 2 and parity 3 were 508.2±121.5 and 495.5±144.1, respectively. Number of cows with calving interval of 400 and 450 days in parity 3 was higher than those cows in parity 2 (23.1% vs. 17.2% and 53.9% vs. 31.0%). Cows in parity 1 had significantly (P<0.01) lower number of S/C in comparison to the cows with parity 2 and parity 3 (1.6±1.2 vs. 3.5±3.4 and 3.3±2.1). It can be concluded that reproductive performance of the cows is affected by different parities.

Keywords: dairy cows, parity, days open, calving interval, service per conception

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39 Vegetation Index-Deduced Crop Coefficient of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Using Remote Sensing: Case Study on Four Basins of Golestan Province, Iran

Authors: Hoda Zolfagharnejad, Behnam Kamkar, Omid Abdi

Abstract:

Crop coefficient (Kc) is an important factor contributing to estimation of evapotranspiration, and is also used to determine the irrigation schedule. This study investigated and determined the monthly Kc of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using five vegetation indices (VIs): Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI), and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) of four basins in Golestan province, Iran. 14 Landsat-8 images according to crop growth stage were used to estimate monthly Kc of wheat. VIs were calculated based on infrared and near infrared bands of Landsat 8 images using Geographical Information System (GIS) software. The best VIs were chosen after establishing a regression relationship among these VIs with FAO Kc and Kc that was modified for the study area by the previous research based on R² and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The result showed that local modified SAVI with R²= 0.767 and RMSE= 0.174 was the best index to produce monthly wheat Kc maps.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Wheat, vegetation indices, crop coefficient

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38 Effects of Six Weeks of Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Training with a Pomegranate Juice on Plasma Leptin in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: A. Abdi, M. Golzade Gangraj, H.faraji

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of six weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise with pomegranate juice (PJ) on plasma leptin in adult women selection of type-2 diabetes. Methods: Survey postmenopausal diabetic women aged 45 to 60 years in the city of Babylon, who coordinated Diabetes Association presented the city, among them 34 were selected as subjects were randomly divided into four groups: control, PJ, practice and PJ. Experimental groups consisted of 6 weeks of aerobic exercise training program three times a week for at least 45 minutes per meeting. Two days before and after the training period in the fasting state (12 h) blood samples from the brachial vein was performed in a sitting position. Results: Results showed that aerobic exercise with consumption of pomegranate juice alone and interaction with each significantly decrease levels of leptin plasma in older women with type 2 diabetes compared to control group. Conclusion: According to the research findings can be stated the exercise with pomegranate juice beneficially effects fat tissue and decreases plasma leptin in adult women with type 2 diabetes and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Diabetes, Aerobic Exercise, pomegranate, leptin

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37 ADCOR © Muscle Damage Rapid Detection Test Based on Skeletal Troponin I Immunochromatography Reaction

Authors: Muhammad Solikhudin Nafi, Wahyu Afif Mufida, Mita Erna Wati, Fitri Setyani Rokim, M. Al-Rizqi Dharma Fauzi

Abstract:

High dose activity without any pre-exercise will impact Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS). DOMS known as delayed pain post-exercise and induce skeletal injury which will decrease athletes’ performances. From now on, post-exercise muscle damage can be detected by measuring skeletal troponin I (sTnI) concentration in serum using ELISA but this method needs more time and cost. To prevent decreased athletes performances, screening need to be done rapidly. We want to introduce our new prototype to detect DOMS acutely. Rapid detection tests are based on immunological reaction between skeletal troponin I antibodies and sTnI in human serum or whole blood. Chemical methods that are used in the manufacture of diagnostic test is lateral flow immunoassay. The material used is rat monoclonal antibody sTnI, colloidal gold, anti-mouse IgG, nitrocellulose membrane, conjugate pad, sample pad, wick and backing card. The procedure are made conjugate (colloidal gold and mAb sTnI) and insert into the conjugate pad, gives spray sTnI mAb and anti-mouse IgG into nitrocellulose membrane, and assemble RDT. RDT had been evaluated by measuring the sensitivity of positive human serum (n = 30) and negative human serum (n = 30). Overall sensitivity value was 93% and specificity value was 90%. ADCOR as the first rapid detection test qualitatively showed antigen-antibody reaction and showed good overall performances for screening of muscle damage. Furthermore, these finding still need more improvements to get best results.

Keywords: ELISA, DOMS, sTnI, rapid detection test

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36 Carbon Nitride Growth on ZnO Architectures for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Application

Authors: Špela Hajduk, Sean P. Berglund, Matejka Podlogar, Goran Dražić, Fatwa F. Abdi, Zorica C. Orel, Menny Shalom

Abstract:

Graphitic carbon nitride materials (g-CN) have emerged as an attractive photocatalyst and electrocatalyst for photo and electrochemical water splitting reaction, due to their environmental benignity nature and suitable band gap. Many approaches were introduced to enhance the photoactivity and electronic properties of g-CN and resulted in significant changes in the electronic and catalytic properties. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of thin and homogenous g-CN layer on highly ordered ZnO nanowire (NW) substrate by growing a seeding layer of small supramolecular assemblies on the nanowires. The new synthetic approach leads to the formation of thin g-CN layer (~3 nm) without blocking all structure. Two different deposition methods of carbon nitride were investigated and will be presented. The amount of loaded carbon nitride significantly influences the PEC activity of hybrid material and all the ZnO/g-CNx electrodes show great improvement in photoactivity. The chemical structure, morphology and optical properties of the deposited g-CN were fully characterized by various techniques as X-ray powder spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), high-resolution scanning microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Keywords: Carbon Nitride, zinc oxide, photoanode, solar water splitting

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