Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: A. W. Chalmers

5 Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: The Swedish Approach of Transformation

Authors: Fawaz Saad, Hamid Alalwany

Abstract:

Sweden has succeeded to maintain a high level of growth and development and has managed to sustain highly ranked position among the world’s developed countries. In this regard, Swedish universities are playing a vital role in supporting innovation and entrepreneurship at all levels and developing Swedish knowledge economy. This paper is aiming to draw on the experiences of two leading Swedish universities, addressing their transformation approach to create entrepreneurial universities and fulfilling their objectives in the era of knowledge economy. The objectives of the paper include: (1) Introducing the Swedish higher education and its characteristics. (2) Examining the infrastructure elements for innovation and Entrepreneurship at two of the Swedish entrepre-neurial universities. (3) Addressing the key aspects of support systems in the initiatives of both Chalmers and Gothenburg universities to support innovation and advance entrepreneurial practices. The paper will contribute to two discourses: (1) Examining the relationship between support systems for innovation and entrepreneurship and the Universities’ policies and practices. (2) Lessons for University leaders to assist the development and implementation of effective innovation and en-trepreneurship policies and practices.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial University, Chalmers University, Gothenburg University, innovation and entrepreneurship policies, entrepreneurial transformation

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4 Trust in Technology: Investigating Aspects Influencing Users’ Trust in an Automated Delivery Bot

Authors: Fredrick Ekman, Lars-Ola Bligård, MariAnne Karlsson

Abstract:

Automated delivery bots (bots) have been presented as a possible solution for last-mile deliveries (LMD) of parcels. However, before logistic service providers and logistic personnel can reap the benefits of bots for LMD, trust in this novel technology must first be established. A project was therefore initiated where a bot was implemented in the logistic system at Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden, with the aim to evaluate how logistic personnel experienced and trusted a bot as a tool for LMD of parcels. Based on pre-and post-study interviews and questionnaires, the findings show that the logistic personnel’s trust in the bot was affected by; (i) perceived risk in terms of possible theft and traffic accidents, (ii) how difficult it was for the bot to conduct a task, (iii) the degree to which the bot increased task difficulty and workload for the personnel, and finally (iv) the personnel’s experience of the bot not adding any benefit to the logistic system at the university. Thus, whereas most studies on trust in automated artefacts often focus only on trust in the specific automated artefact, this study shows that the users’ trust in the delivery bot was not only a matter of trust in the technology or the automated artefact per se but also how the artefact performed within the context of work.

Keywords: automated delivery bot, trust in automation, last-mile delivery, logistics

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3 Digital Mapping as a Tool for Finding Cities' DNA

Authors: Sanja Peter

Abstract:

Transformation of urban environments can be compared to evolutionary processes. Systematic digital mapping of historical data can enable capturing some of these processes and their outcomes. For example, it may help reveal the structure of a city’s historical DNA. Gathering historical data for automatic processing may be giving a basis for cultural algorithms. Gothenburg City museum is trying to make city’s heritage information accessible through GIS-platforms and is now partnering with academic institutions to find appropriate methods to make accessible the knowledge on the city’s historical fabric. Hopefully, this will be carried out through a project called Digital Twin Cities. One part of this large project, concerning matters of Cultural Heritage, will be in collaboration with Chalmers University of Technology. The aim is to create a layered map showing historical developments of the city and extracting quantitative data about its built heritage, above and below the earth. It will allow interpreting the information from historic maps through, for example, names of the streets/places, geography, structural changes in urban fabric and information gathered by archaeologists’ excavations. Through the study of these geographical, historical and local metamorphoses, urban environment will reveal its metaphorical DNA or its MEM (Dawkins).

Keywords: Gothenburg, mapping, cultural heritage, city history

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2 Good Banks, Bad Banks, and Public Scrutiny: The Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility in Times of Financial Volatility

Authors: A. W. Chalmers, O. M. van den Broek

Abstract:

This article examines the relationship between the global financial crisis and corporate social responsibility activities of financial services firms. It challenges the general consensus in existing studies that firms, when faced with economic hardship, tend to jettison CSR commitments. Instead, and building on recent insights into the institutional determinants of CSR, it is argued that firms are constrained in their ability to abandon CSR by the extent to which they are subject to intense public scrutiny by regulators and the news media. This argument is tested in the context of the European sovereign debt crisis drawing on a unique dataset of 170 firms in 15 different countries over a six-year period. Controlling for a battery of alternative explanations and comparing financial service providers to firms operating in other economic sectors, results indicate considerable evidence supporting the main argument. Rather than abandoning CSR during times of economic hardship, financial industry firms ramp up their CSR commitments in order to manage their public image and foster public trust in light of intense public scrutiny.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR), public scrutiny, global financial crisis, financial services firms

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1 Increased Efficiency during Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste in an Industrial Scaled Circulating Fluidized Bed-Boiler

Authors: Angelica Corcoran, Fredrik Lind, Pavleta Knutsson, Henrik Thunman

Abstract:

Solid waste volumes are at current predominately deposited on landfill. Furthermore, the impending climate change requires new solutions for a sustainable future energy mix. Currently, solid waste is globally utilized to small extent as fuel during combustion for heat and power production. Due to its variable composition and size, solid waste is considered difficult to combust and requires a technology with high fuel flexibility. One of the commercial technologies used for combustion of such difficult fuels is circulating fluidized beds (CFB). In a CFB boiler, fine particles of a solid material are used as 'bed material', which is accelerated by the incoming combustion air that causes the bed material to fluidize. The chosen bed material has conventionally been silica sand with the main purpose of being a heat carrier, as it transfers heat released by the combustion to the heat-transfer surfaces. However, the release of volatile compounds occurs rapidly in comparison with the lateral mixing in the combustion chamber. To ensure complete combustion a surplus of air is introduced, which decreases the total efficiency of the boiler. In recent years, the concept of partly or entirely replacing the silica sand with an oxygen carrier as bed material has been developed. By introducing an oxygen carrier to the combustion chamber, combustion can be spread out both temporally and spatially in the boiler. Specifically, the oxygen carrier can take up oxygen from the combustion air where it is in abundance and release it to combustible gases where oxygen is in deficit. The concept is referred to as oxygen carrier aided combustion (OCAC) where the natural ore ilmenite (FeTiO3) has been the oxygen carrier used. The authors have validated the oxygen buffering ability of ilmenite during combustion of biomass in Chalmers 12-MWth CFB boiler in previous publications. Furthermore, the concept has been demonstrated on full industrial scale during combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) in E.ON’s 75 MWth CFB boiler. The experimental campaigns have showed increased mass transfer of oxygen inside the boiler when combustion both biomass and MSW. As a result, a higher degree of burnout is achieved inside the combustion chamber and the plant can be operated at a lower surplus of air. Moreover, the buffer of oxygen provided by the oxygen carrier makes the system less sensitive to disruptions in operation. In conclusion, combusting difficult fuels with OCAC results in higher operation stability and an increase in boiler efficiency.

Keywords: OCAC, ilmenite, combustion, CFB

Procedia PDF Downloads 158