Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: A. Mehmood

43 An Investigation for Information Asymmetry Nexus IPO Under-Pricing: A Case of Pakistan

Authors: Saqib Mehmood, Naveed Iqbal Chaudhry, Asif Mehmood

Abstract:

This study intends to investigate the information asymmetry theories of IPO and under-pricing in Pakistan. The purpose of the study is to validate the information asymmetry about firm value which leads to under-pricing. A total of 55 IPOs listed from 2000-2011 were included in this study. OLS multiple regression was applied to achieve the objectives of this study. The findings of the study confirm the significance of information asymmetry on under-pricing in Pakistan. The findings have implications for issuing firms and prospective investors.

Keywords: information asymmetry, initial public offerings, under-pricing, firm value

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
42 Exchange Rate, Market Size and Human Capital Nexus Foreign Direct Investment: A Bound Testing Approach for Pakistan

Authors: Naveed Iqbal Chaudhry, Mian Saqib Mehmood, Asif Mehmood

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This study investigates the motivators of foreign direct investment (FDI) which will provide a panacea tool and ground breaking results related to it in case of Pakistan. The study considers exchange rate, market size and human capital as the motivators for attracting FDI. In this regard, time series data on annual basis has been collected for the period 1985–2010 and an Augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) and Phillips–Perron (PP) unit root tests are utilized to determine the stationarity of the variables. A bound testing approach to co-integration was applied because the variables included in the model are at I(1) – first level stationary. The empirical findings of this study confirm the long run relationship among the variables. However, market size and human capital have strong positive and significant impact, in short and long-run, for attracting FDI but exchange rate shows negative impact in this regard. The significant negative coefficient of the ECM indicates that it converges towards equilibrium. CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests plots are with in the lines of critical value, which indicates the stability of the estimated parameters. However, this model can be used by Pakistan in policy and decision making. For achieving higher economic growth and economies of scale, the country should concentrate on the ingredients of this study so that it could attract more FDI as compared to the other countries.

Keywords: ARDL, CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests, ECM, exchange rate, FDI, human capital, market size, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
41 Effect of Chemicals on Keeping Quality and Vase Life of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Cv. Eskimo

Authors: Qurrat Ul Ain Farooq, Misha Arshad, Malik Abid Mehmood

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The experiment under discussion was carried out to check the effect of different concentrations of sucrose (2%, 4%, 6%), CuSO4 (200ppm, 300ppm, 400 ppm), GA3 (25ppm, 50ppm, 75 ppm), and combinations of sucrose and GA3 (2% +25 ppm), (4%+50 ppm), (6%+75 ppm) on the carnation cut flower. Visual symptoms of flower senescence, changes in weight (g) of a flower was observed and recorded by using weight balance. The experiment was laid out according to CRD (Complete Randomized Design) it was two-factor factorial, the software used for the analysis was Statistix. Maximum TSS were found in 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 (8.3 %) followed by CuSO4 400 ppm, 4% sucrose + 50 ppm GA3 and 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3. Maximum vase life in term of days was recorded in treatment. CuSO4 400 ppm and 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 (8 days) followed by CuSO4 200 ppm (7.7 days). CuSO4 300 ppm & 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 were at par (7 days). Maximum water uptake was also observed in 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 (56.7 ml) followed by CuSO4 400 ppm (49.7 ml) and 50 ppm GA3 (45 ml). Hence, CuSO4 400 ppm found best in all aspects.

Keywords: carnation, vaselife, GA3, CuSO4, sucrose

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
40 Self-Directed-Car on GT Road: Grand Trunk Road

Authors: Rameez Ahmad, Aqib Mehmood, Imran Khan

Abstract:

Self-directed car (SDC) that can drive itself from one fact to another without support from a driver. Certain trust that self-directed car obligate the probable to transform the transportation manufacturing while essentially removing coincidences, and cleaning up the environment. This study realizes the effects that SDC (also called a self-driving, driver or robotic) vehicle travel demands and ride scheme is likely to have. Without the typical obstacles that allows detection of a audio vision based hardware and software construction (It (SDC) and cost benefits, the vehicle technologies, Gold (Generic Obstacle and Lane Detection) to a knowledge-based system to predict their potential and consider the shape, color, or balance) and an organized environment with colored lane patterns, lane position ban. Discovery the problematic consequence of (SDC) on GT (grand trunk road) road and brand the car further effectual.

Keywords: SDC, gold, GT, knowledge-based system

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
39 Solving Flowshop Scheduling Problems with Ant Colony Optimization Heuristic

Authors: Arshad Mehmood Ch, Riaz Ahmad, Imran Ali Ch, Waqas Durrani

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This study deals with the application of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) approach to solve no-wait flowshop scheduling problem (NW-FSSP). ACO algorithm so developed has been coded on Matlab computer application. The paper covers detailed steps to apply ACO and focuses on judging the strength of ACO in relation to other solution techniques previously applied to solve no-wait flowshop problem. The general purpose approach was able to find reasonably accurate solutions for almost all the problems under consideration and was able to handle a fairly large spectrum of problems with far reduced CPU effort. Careful scrutiny of the results reveals that the algorithm presented results better than other approaches like Genetic algorithm and Tabu Search heuristics etc; earlier applied to solve NW-FSSP data sets.

Keywords: no-wait, flowshop, scheduling, ant colony optimization (ACO), makespan

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
38 Role of Judiciary in Developing Countries

Authors: Amir Shafiq, Asif Shahzad, Shabbar Mehmood, Muhammad Saeed, Hamid Mustafa

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Administration of justice in a society is evolutionary process. In pre-modern societies vital organs that we consider separate today i.e. legislation, implementation and adjudication were controlled by a King, the sovereign authority. Whereas now it is recognized that Development of a country revolves in seven arenas i.e. Civil Society, Political Society, Economic Society, Legislature, Judiciary, Executive & Bureaucracy. Each society whether developing or developed, has need of institutions and structures that can resolve difference of opinions of private or public nature between contending parties. Administration of justice has a key-role in the development of the society. Through this paper, it is to highlight that an independent judiciary having the support of public opinion therefore is inevitable to wriggle out from such problems in order to restore and protect the fundamental rights, constitution and democratic political system in third world countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: role of judiciary, developing countries, judicial activism, present scenario

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
37 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO₂, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH₄ emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH₄ emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH₄ emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: methane, emissions, landfills, solid waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
36 Effect of Leadership Style on Organizational Performance

Authors: Khadija Mushtaq, Mian Saqib Mehmood

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This paper attempts to determine the impact of leadership style and learning orientation on organizational performance in Pakistan. A sample of 158 middle managers selected from sports and surgical factories from Sialkot. The empirical estimation is based on a multiple linear regression analysis of the relationship between leadership style, learning orientation and organizational performance. Leadership style is measure through transformational leadership and transactional leadership. The transformational leadership has insignificant impact on organizational performance. The transactional leadership has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Learning orientation also has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Linear regression used to estimate the relation between dependent and independent variables. This study suggests top manger should prefer continuous process for improvement for any change in system rather radical change.

Keywords: transformational leadership, transactional leadership, learning orientation, organizational performance, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
35 Supply Chain Management in the Oil Industry: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Mehmood Faisal

Abstract:

In this globalization era, the supply chain management has acquired strategic importance in diverse business environments. In the current highly competitive business environment, the success of any business considerably depends on the efficiency of the supply chain. The importance of petroleum industry cannot be avoided in the global market; however, supply chain management in the petroleum industry is facing various challenges, particularly in the logistics area. These logistical challenges have a main influence on the cost of crude oil; therefore, the opportunities to save cost in logistics still do exist. The large oil producing companies are undertaking future contracts through 'swaps or options' practice that saves their millions of dollars. The objective of this paper is to throw light on the supply chain challenges and opportunities in the oil industry and on swap practices which are widely employed by large oil producing companies around the world, such as Chevron Corporation, Saudi Arabian Oil Company, BP and Exxon Mobil.

Keywords: logistics, oil industry, swap practice, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
34 Effect of Compaction and Degree of Saturation on the Unconsolidated Undrained Shear Strength of Sandy Clay

Authors: Fatima Mehmood, Khalid Farooq, Rabeea Bakhtawer

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For geotechnical engineers, one of the most important properties of soil to consider in various stability analyses is its shear strength which is governed by a number of factors. The objective of this research is to ascertain the effect of compaction and degree of saturation on the shear strength of fine-grained soil. For this purpose, three different dry densities such as in-situ, maximum standard proctor, and maximum modified proctor, were determined for the sandy clay soil. The soil samples were then prepared to keep dry density constant and varying degrees of saturation. These samples were tested for (UU) unconsolidated undrained shear strength in triaxial compression tests. The decrease in shear strength was observed with the decrease in density and increase in the saturation. The values of the angle of internal friction followed the same trend. However, the change in cohesion with the increase in saturation showed a different behavior, analogous to the compaction curve.

Keywords: compaction, degree of saturation, dry density, geotechnical investigation, laboratory testing, shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
33 Wear Behavior of Intermetallic (Ni3Al) Coating at High Temperature

Authors: K. Mehmood, Muhammad Asif Rafiq, A. Nasir Khan, M. Mudassar Rauf

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Air plasma spraying system was utilized to deposit Ni3Al coatings on AISI 321 steel samples. After thermal spraying, the nickel aluminide intermetallic coatings were isothermal heat treated at various temperatures. In this regard, temperatures from 500 °C to 800 °C with 100 °C increments were selected. The coatings were soaked for 10, 30, 60 and 100 hours at the mentioned temperatures. These coatings were then tested by a pin on disk method. It was observed that the coatings exposed at comparatively higher temperature experienced lower wear rate. The decrease in wear rate is due to the formation of NiO phase. Further, the as sprayed and heat treated coatings were characterized by other tools such as Microhardness testing, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction analysis. After isothermal heat treatment, NiO was observed the main phase by X-Ray diffraction technique. Moreover, the surface hardness was also determined higher than cross sectional hardness.

Keywords: air plasma spraying, Ni -20Al, tribometer, intermetallic coating, nickel aluminide

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32 Indigenous Patch Clamp Technique: Design of Highly Sensitive Amplifier Circuit for Measuring and Monitoring of Real Time Ultra Low Ionic Current through Cellular Gates

Authors: Moez ul Hassan, Bushra Noman, Sarmad Hameed, Shahab Mehmood, Asma Bashir

Abstract:

The importance of Noble prize winning “Patch Clamp Technique” is well documented. However, Patch Clamp Technique is very expensive and hence hinders research in developing countries. In this paper, detection, processing and recording of ultra low current from induced cells by using transimpedence amplifier is described. The sensitivity of the proposed amplifier is in the range of femto amperes (fA). Capacitive-feedback is used with active load to obtain a 20MΩ transimpedance gain. The challenging task in designing includes achieving adequate performance in gain, noise immunity and stability. The circuit designed by the authors was able to measure current in the rangeof 300fA to 100pA. Adequate performance shown by the amplifier with different input current and outcome result was found to be within the acceptable error range. Results were recorded using LabVIEW 8.5®for further research.

Keywords: drug discovery, ionic current, operational amplifier, patch clamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
31 Analysis of Backward Supply Chain in Beverages Industry of Pakistan

Authors: Faisal Mehmood

Abstract:

In this globalization era, the supply chain management has acquired strategic importance in diverse business environments. In the current highly competitive business environment, the success of any business considerably depends on the efficiency of the supply chain. Management has now realized that due to the inefficiency of any member of supply chain, the profitability of the business will be affected. This paper proposes an analysis of backward supply chain in the beverages industry of Pakistan. Although reuse of products and materials is a common phenomenon, companies have long ignored this important part of the supply chain, known as backward supply chain or reverse logistics. The beverage industry is among the pioneers of backward supply chain or reverse logistics in Pakistan. The empty glass bottles are returned back from the point of consumption to the warehouse for refilling and reusability purposes. Due to the lack of information on reverse flow of logistics and more attention on the forward distribution, beverages industry in Pakistan is facing high rate of inefficiencies and ineffectiveness. Analysis of backward or reverse logistics practiced in beverages industry is the subject of this study in which framework dictating the current needs of market will be developed.

Keywords: backward supply chain, reverse logistics, refilling, re-usability

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
30 Law and its Implementation and Consequences in Pakistan

Authors: Amir Shafiq, Asif Shahzad, Shabbar Mehmood, Muhammad Saeed, Hamid Mustafa

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Legislation includes the law or the statutes which is being reputable by a sovereign authority and generally can be implemented by the courts of law time to time to accomplish the objectives. Historically speaking upon the emergence of Pakistan in 1947, the intact laws of the British Raj remained effective after ablution by Islamic Ideology. Thus, there was an intention to begin the statutes book afresh for Pakistan's legal history. In consequence thereof, the process of developing detailed plans, procedures and mechanisms to ensure legislative and regulatory requirements are achieved began keeping in view the cultural values and the local customs. This article is an input to the enduring discussion about implementing rule of law in Pakistan whereas; the rule of law requires the harmony of laws which is mostly in the arrangement of codified state laws. Pakistan has legal plural civilizations where completely different and independent systems of law like the Mohammadan law, the state law and the traditional law exist. The prevailing practiced law in Pakistan is actually the traditional law though the said law is not acknowledged by the State. This caused the main problem of the rule of law in the difference between the state laws and the cultural values. These values, customs and so-called traditional laws are the main obstacle to enforce the State law in true letter and spirit which has caused dissatisfaction of the masses and distrust upon the judicial system of the country.

Keywords: consequences, implement, law, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
29 Continuous Differential Evolution Based Parameter Estimation Framework for Signal Models

Authors: Ammara Mehmood, Aneela Zameer, Muhammad Asif Zahoor Raja, Muhammad Faisal Fateh

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In this work, the strength of bio-inspired computational intelligence based technique is exploited for parameter estimation for the periodic signals using Continuous Differential Evolution (CDE) by defining an error function in the mean square sense. Multidimensional and nonlinear nature of the problem emerging in sinusoidal signal models along with noise makes it a challenging optimization task, which is dealt with robustness and effectiveness of CDE to ensure convergence and avoid trapping in local minima. In the proposed scheme of Continuous Differential Evolution based Signal Parameter Estimation (CDESPE), unknown adjustable weights of the signal system identification model are optimized utilizing CDE algorithm. The performance of CDESPE model is validated through statistics based various performance indices on a sufficiently large number of runs in terms of estimation error, mean squared error and Thiel’s inequality coefficient. Efficacy of CDESPE is examined by comparison with the actual parameters of the system, Genetic Algorithm based outcomes and from various deterministic approaches at different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels.

Keywords: parameter estimation, bio-inspired computing, continuous differential evolution (CDE), periodic signals

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
28 Effect of Microencapsulated Butyric Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance, Ileal Digestibility of Protein, Gut Health and Immunity in Broilers

Authors: Saeed Ahmed, Muhammad Imran, Yasir Allah Ditta, Shahid Mehmood, Zahid Rasool

Abstract:

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of microencapsulated butyric (MEB) on growth performance, gut health and immunity in commercial broiler chickens. In total, 336 day-old Hubbard classic broilers chicks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments (Control, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45g/kg of butyric acid) under completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 28 birds in each replicate. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, intestinal morphology, apparent ileal digestibility of protein and immunity parameters were evaluated. At the end of the experiment (35-d) 3 birds/replicate in each group were randomly selected and slaughtered to collect blood, duodenal samples and ileal digesta. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA technique. The results indicated improved body weight gain (P = 0.0222), feed conversion ratio (P = 0.0056), duodenal villus height (P = 0.0512), AID (P = 0.0098) antibody titer against Newcastle disease improved (P = 0.0326). Treatments remained unresponsive with respect to feed intake (P = 0.9685).

Keywords: butyric acid, broilers, gut health, ileal digestibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
27 Morpho-Genetic Assessment of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Genetic Resources in Pakistan

Authors: Asim Mehmood, Abdul Karim, Muhammad J. Jaskani, Faisal S. Awan, Muhammad W. Sajid

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Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an important commercial fruit crop of Pakistan. It is an allogamous crop having 25-40% cross pollination which on the one hand leads to clonal degradation and on the other hand can add variations to generated new cultivars. Morpho-genetic characterization of 37 guava accessions was carried out for study of the genetic diversity among guava accessions located in province Punjab, Pakistan. For morphological analysis, 17 morphological traits were studied, and strong positive correlation was found among the 7 morphological traits which included thickness of outer flesh in relation to core diameter, fruit length, fruit width, fruit juiciness, fruit size, fruit sweetness and number of seeds. For genetic characterization, 18 microsatellites were used, and the sizes of reproducible and scorable bands ranged from 150 to 320 bp. These 18 primer pairs amplified a total of 85 alleles in P. guajava, with an average total number of 4.7 alleles per locus and no more than two displayed bands (nuclear SSR loci). The phylogenetic tree based on the morphological and genetic traits showed the diversity of these 37 guava genotypes into two major groups. These results indicated that Pakistani guava is quite diverse and a more detail study is needed to define the level of genetic variability.

Keywords: Psidium guajava L, genetic diversity, SSR markers, polymorphism, dendrogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
26 Failure Analysis of Khaliqabad Landslide along Mangla Reservoir Rim

Authors: Fatima Mehmood, Khalid Farooq

Abstract:

After the Mangla dam raising in 2010, the maximum reservoir impoundment level of 378.5 m SPD (Survey of Pakistan Datum) was achieved in September 2014. The reservoir drawdown was started on September 29, 2014 and a landslide occurred on Mirpur-Kotli Road near Khaliqabad on November 27, 2014. This landslide took place due to the failure of a slope along the reservoir rim. This study was undertaken to investigate the causative factors of Khaliqabad landslide. Site visits were carried out for recording the field observations and collection of the soil samples. The soil was subjected to different laboratory tests for the determination of index and engineering properties. The shear strength tests were performed at various levels of density and degrees of saturation. These soil parameters were used in an integrated SEEP-SLOPE/W analysis to obtain the drop in factor of safety with time and reservoir drawdown. The results showed the factor of safety dropped from 1.28 to 0.85 over a period of 60 days. The ultimate reduction in the shear strength of soil due to saturation with the simultaneous removal of the stabilizing effect of reservoir caused the disturbing forces to increase, and thus failure happened. The findings of this study can serve as a guideline for the modeling of the slopes experiencing rapid drawdown scenario with the consideration of more realistic distribution of soil moisture/ properties across the slope

Keywords: geotechnical investigation, landslide, reservoir drawdown, shear strength, slope stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
25 Concept Mapping of Teachers Regarding Conflict Management

Authors: Tahir Mehmood, Mumtaz Akhter

Abstract:

The global need for conflict management is greater now in the early 21st century than ever before. According to UNESCO, half of the world’s 195 countries will have to expand their stock of educationist significantly, some by tens of thousands, if the goal development targets are desired to achieve. Socioeconomic inequities, political instability, demographic changes and crises such as the HIV/AIDs epidemic have engendered huge shortfalls in teacher supply and low teacher quality in many developing countries. Education serves as back bone in development process. Open learning and distance education programs are serving as pivotal part of development process. It is now clear that ‘bricks and mortar’ approaches to expanding teacher education may not be adequate if the current and projected shortfalls in teacher supply and low teacher quality are to be properly addressed. The study is designed to measure the perceptions of teaching learning community about conflict management with special reference to open and distance learning. It was descriptive study which targeted teachers, students, community members and experts. Data analysis was carried out by using statistical techniques served by SPSS. Findings reflected that audience perceives open and distance learning as change agent and as development tool. It is noticed that target audience has driven prominent performance by using facility of open and distance learning.

Keywords: conflict management, open and distance learning, teachers, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
24 A Retrospective Review of HIV-Infected Pregnant Females with Respect to Gestational Age and Mode of Delivery: Trends over a Decade

Authors: Qurat-ul-Ain, Humaira Mehmood

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Background: HIV infection (a global pandemic) in pregnant women has turn out to be an emerging aspect of public health because of its role in the spread of HIV infection, predominantly among children. Aim: The aim was to analyze the trends of diagnosis with respect to gestational age and an overview of the mode of delivery over ten years. Methods: A retrospective data collection from clinical records of diagnosed HIV infected pregnant females attended at HIV antenatal clinic (special clinic), at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, for various complaints during the period of 10 years from February 2007 to December 2016 was done. Results: A total of 113 pregnancies were reported with HIV infection in 10 years. Cases diagnosed at the 1st trimester (1-12 weeks) of pregnancy were (50.4%, 57/113), at the 2nd trimester (13-26 weeks) were (24.8%, 28/113), at the 3rd trimester (27-40+ weeks) were (24.7%, 28/113). Most deliveries were by caesarean section (53.1%, 60/113), elective caesarean sections were (58.3%, 35/60) and emergency caesarean sections were (41.6%,25/60). Vaginal deliveries were (26.5%, 30/113). Reported miscarriages were (17.7%, 20/113). Conclusion: At 1st trimester, 50% of the females were diagnosed with HIV infection, and 50% remained undiagnosed at their 1st trimester. Routine antenatal HIV testing throughout the country is vastly needed for timely diagnoses and prompt treatment(antiretroviral therapy), to suppress the virus, to reduce the risk of spread of HIV infection, to plan elective caesarean section delivery and to prevent mother-to-child transmission.

Keywords: gestational age, HIV infection, mode of delivery, pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
23 Rescue Emergency Drone for Fast Response to Medical Emergencies Due to Traffic Accidents

Authors: Anders S. Kristensen, Dewan Ahsan, Saqib Mehmood, Shakeel Ahmed

Abstract:

Traffic accidents are a result of the convergence of hazards, malfunctioning of vehicles and human negligence that have adverse economic and health impacts and effects. Unfortunately, avoiding them completely is very difficult, but with quick response to rescue and first aid, the mortality rate of inflicted persons can be reduced significantly. Smart and innovative technologies can play a pivotal role to respond faster to traffic crash emergencies comparing conventional means of transportation. For instance, Rescue Emergency Drone (RED) can provide faster and real-time crash site risk assessment to emergency medical services, thereby helping them to quickly and accurately assess a situation, dispatch the right equipment and assist bystanders to treat inflicted person properly. To conduct a research in this regard, the case of a traffic roundabout that is prone to frequent traffic accidents on the outskirts of Esbjerg, a town located on western coast of Denmark is hypothetically considered. Along with manual calculations, Emergency Disaster Management Simulation (EDMSIM) has been used to verify the response time of RED from a fire station of the town to the presumed crash site. The results of the study demonstrate the robustness of RED into emergency services to help save lives. 

Keywords: automated external defibrillator, medical emergency, response time, unmanned aerial system

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
22 Effect of Constant and Variable Temperature on the Morphology of TiO₂ Nanotubes Prepared by Two-Step Anodization Method

Authors: Tayyaba Ghani, Mazhar Mehmood, Mohammad Mujahid

Abstract:

TiO₂ nanotubes are receiving immense attraction in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells due to their well-defined nanostructures, efficient electron transport and large surface area as compared to other one dimensional structures. In the present work, we have investigated the influence of temperature on the morphology of anodically produced self-organized Titanium oxide nanotubes (TiNTs). TiNTs are synthesized by two-step anodization method in an ethylene glycol based electrolytes containing ammonium fluoride. Experiments are performed at constant anodization voltage for two hours. An investigation by the SEM images reveals that if the temperature is kept constant during the anodizing experiment, variation in the average tube diameter is significantly reduced. However, if the temperature is not controlled then due to the exothermic nature of reactions for the formation of TiNTs, the temperature of electrolyte keep on increasing. This variation in electrolyte bath temperature introduced strong variations in tube diameter (20 nm to 160 nm) along the length of tubes. Current profiles, recorded during the anodization experiment, predict the effect of constant and varying experimental temperatures as well. In both cases, XRD results show the complete anatase crystal structure of nanotube upon annealing at 450 °C. Present work highlights the importance of constant temperature during the anodization experiments in order to develop an ordered array of nanotubes with a uniform tube diameter.

Keywords: anodization, ordering, temperature, TiO₂ nanotubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
21 Pathological and Molecular Diagnosis of Caseous Lymphadenitis in Chinkara Deer (Gazella Bennettii), in Pakistan

Authors: Mudassar Iqbal, Riaz Hussain, Khalid Mehmood, Farah Ali, Fazal Mahmood, Abdul Ghaffar

Abstract:

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is an important cause of caseous lymphadenitis (CL), a complex, chronic devastating and destructive disease of small ruminants. In present study, postmortem examination of Chinkara deer (n=25) was conducted in year 2014. Pus samples suggestive of CL were collected from the superficial lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lungs during necropsy and subjected to standard microbiological procedures for isolation and molecular analysis of bacterial pathogens. Pus samples collected from carcasses (25) presenting clinical lesions of C. pseudotuberculosis infection was identified in 19 (76%) carcasses on the basis of culture characteristics. The frequency of C. pseudotuberculosis bacterium was higher in older animals as compared to young animals. Grossly, multiple tubercles of variable size having caseous material were observed in liver, lungs, spleen and lymph nodes. Histopathologically, tissue sections from all the visceral organs were extensively plugged with abscess. In present study specific prolineiminopeptidase (PIP) gene of the C. pseudotuberculosis was amplified by the Polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) in 17(25) cases. The efficient and reliable molecular analysis along with necropsy findings in present study can be used as valuable approach for diagnosis of caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants.

Keywords: Chinkara deer, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Caseous lymphadenitis, PCR

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20 Platelet Indices among the Cases of Vivax Malaria

Authors: Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Mubashra Ahmad, Ramlah Mehmood, Nazia Mahboob, Waqar Nasir

Abstract:

Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of thrombocytopenia and study changes in MPV and PDW among cases of vivax malaria. Design: Descriptive analytic study. Place and duration of study: Department of pediatrics, Fazle Omar Hospital, from January to December 2012. Methodology: All patients from birth to 16 years age, who presented in Fazle- Omar hospital, Rabwah from January to December 2012 were included in this study. Hundred patients with other febrile illnesses were taken as control. Full blood counts were checked by Madonic CA 620 analyzer. Name, age, sex, weight, platelet counts. MPV, PDW, any evidence of bleeding, outcome of cases included in this study and taken as control were recorded on data sheets. Results: One hundred and forty-two patients were included in this study. There was no incidence of death or active bleeding. Median platelet count was 109000/mm3. Thrombocytopenia was present in 108 (76.1%) patients. Severe thrombocytopenia was present in 10(7%) patients. Minimum count was 27000/mm3 and maximum was 341000/mm3. Platelet counts of control group was significantly more as compared with study group.(p<.001) Median MPV was 8.70. Minimum value was 6.40 and maximum was 11.90. MPV of study group was significantly more than control group.(p<.001) Median PDW was 11.30. Minimum value was 8.5 and maximum was 16.70. There was no difference between PDW of study and control groups (p=0.246). Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia is a common complication among pediatric cases of vivax malaria. MPV of cases of vivax malaria is higher than control group.

Keywords: malaria vivax, platelet, mean platelet volume, thrombocytopenia

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
19 Simplified Analysis Procedure for Seismic Evaluation of Tall Building at Structure and Component Level

Authors: Tahir Mehmood, Pennung Warnitchai

Abstract:

Simplified static analysis procedures such Nonlinear Static Procedure (NSP) are gaining popularity for the seismic evaluation of buildings. However, these simplified procedures accounts only for the seismic responses of the fundamental vibration mode of the structure. Some other procedures which can take into account the higher modes of vibration, lack in accuracy to determine the component responses. Hence, such procedures are not suitable for evaluating the structures where many vibration modes may participate significantly or where component responses are needed to be evaluated. Moreover, these procedures were found to either computationally expensive or tedious to obtain individual component responses. In this paper, a simplified but accurate procedure is studied. It is called the Uncoupled Modal Response History Analysis (UMRHA) procedure. In this procedure, the nonlinear response of each vibration mode is first computed, and they are later on combined into the total response of the structure. The responses of four tall buildings are computed by this simplified UMRHA procedure and compared with those obtained from the NLRHA procedure. The comparison shows that the UMRHA procedure is able to accurately compute the global responses, i.e., story shears and story overturning moments, floor accelerations and inter-story drifts as well as the component level responses of these tall buildings with heights varying from 20 to 44 stories. The required computational effort is also extremely low compared to that of the Nonlinear Response History Analysis (NLRHA) procedure.

Keywords: higher mode effects, seismic evaluation procedure, tall buildings, component responses

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18 The Determinants of Customer’s Purchase Intention of Islamic Credit Card: Evidence from Pakistan

Authors: Nasir Mehmood, Muhammad Yar Khan, Anam Javeed

Abstract:

This study aims to scrutinize the dynamics which tend to impact customer’s purchasing intention of Islamic credit card and nexus of product’s knowledge and religiosity with the attitude of potential Islamic credit card’s customer. The theory of reasoned action strengthened the idea that intentions due to its proven predictive power are most likely to instigate intended consumer behavior. Particularly, the study examines the relationships of perceived financial cost (PFC), subjective norms (SN), and attitude (ATT) with the intention to purchase Islamic credit cards. Using a convenience sampling approach, data have been collected from 450 customers of banks located in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A five-point Likert scale self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) through the procedures of principal component and multiple regression analysis. The results suggested that customer’s religiosity and product knowledge are strong indicators of attitude towards buying Islamic credit cards. Likewise, subjective norms, attitude, and perceived financial cost have a significant positive impact on customers’ purchase intent of Islamic bank’s credit cards. This study models a useful path for future researchers to further investigate the underlined phenomenon along with a variety of psychodynamic factors which are still in its infancy, at least in the Pakistani banking sector. The study also provides an insight to the practitioners and Islamic bank managers for directing their efforts toward educating customers regarding the use of Islamic credit cards and other financial products.

Keywords: attitude, Islamic credit card, religiosity, subjective norms

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17 A Pilot Epidemiological Survey of Parasitic Problems of Goats in and Around Derawar Fort Area, Cholistan, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Tahir Riaz, Khalid Mehmood, Ahmad Waseem Akhtar, Tariq Abbas, Sadaqat Ali, Muhammad Altaf

Abstract:

Livestock sector contributes around 55.9 and 11.8% to agriculture and GDP respectively, according to economic survey of Pakistan 2013-2014. The goats population has been estimated about 66.6 million (M). Parasitic infestation is a major health problem in goats causing loss in body weight, poor body condition, low birth weights, and difficulty in kidding. Keeping in view the utilization of these animals in the country, a pilot epidemiological survey was conducted to find out the major parasitic problems of goats in and around Derawar fort area, Cholistan. Data regarding 662 fecal samples of goats was collected from 25 tobas of Cholistan during June 2012 to June 2013. All the fecal samples were examined through Direct Smear Method and Salt Flotation Technique for the presence of helminth eggs. External parasites were taken from the various components of the carcass of goat and were conserved in 70% alcohol in hygienic, properly enclosed glass jars that were tagged thoroughly. The collected date was analyzed statistically by Chi-square test to find out the prevalence in goats. Out of 662 goats, 261 (39.42%) were found positive for parasites. 233 (35.20%) goats were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites while 28 (4.23%) were positive for external parasites including ticks 20 (3.02%) and mange 8 (1.21%). The higher prevalence of parasites in the study area may be due to pasture grazing, poor management and lack of extension work. In this regards proper management and control measures should be adopted to minimize the Parasitic Problems.

Keywords: Cholistan, goats, parasite, surveillance

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16 Reservoir Potential, Net Pay Zone and 3D Modeling of Cretaceous Clastic Reservoir in Eastern Sulieman Belt Pakistan

Authors: Hadayat Ullah, Pervez Khalid, Saad Ahmed Mashwani, Zaheer Abbasi, Mubashir Mehmood, Muhammad Jahangir, Ehsan ul Haq

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to explore subsurface structures through data that is acquired from the seismic survey to delineate the characteristics of the reservoir through petrophysical analysis. Ghazij Shale of Eocene age is regional seal rock in this field. In this research work, 3D property models of subsurface were prepared by applying Petrel software to identify various lithologies and reservoir fluids distribution throughout the field. The 3D static modeling shows a better distribution of the discrete and continuous properties in the field. This model helped to understand the reservoir properties and enhance production by selecting the best location for future drilling. A complete workflow is proposed for formation evaluation, electrofacies modeling, and structural interpretation of the subsurface geology. Based on the wireline logs, it is interpreted that the thickness of the Pab Sandstone varies from 250 m to 350 m in the entire study area. The sandstone is massive with high porosity and intercalated layers of shales. Faulted anticlinal structures are present in the study area, which are favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbon. 3D structural models and various seismic attribute models were prepared to analyze the reservoir character of this clastic reservoir. Based on wireline logs and seismic data, clean sand, shaly sand, and shale are marked as dominant facies in the study area. However, clean sand facies are more favorable to act as a potential net pay zone.

Keywords: cretaceous, pab sandstone, petrophysics, electrofacies, hydrocarbon

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15 Hemato-Biochemical Studies on Naturally Infected Camels with Trypanosomiasis

Authors: Khalid Mehmood, Riaz Hussain, Rao Z. Abbas, Tariq Abbas, Abdul Ghaffar, Ahmad J. Sabir

Abstract:

Blood born diseases such as trypanosomiasis have negative impacts on health, production and working efficiency of camels in different camel-rearing areas of the world including Pakistan. In present study blood samples were collected from camels kept at the desert condition of cholistan to estimate the prevalence of trypanosomiasis and hemato-biochemical changes in naturally infected cases. Results showed an overall 9.31% prevalence of trypanosomiasis in camels. Various clinical signs such as pyrexia, occasional shivering, inappetence, urticaria, swelling, lethargy, going down in condition and edema of pads were observed in few cases. The statistical analysis did not show significant association of age and sex with trypanosomiasis. However, results revealed significantly decreased values of total erythrocyte counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, serum total proteins and albumin while increased values of mean corpuscular volume was recorded in infected animals as compared to healthy. A significant (P<0.01) increased values of total leukocyte count, monocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophils, and eosinophils was recorded in infected animals. Moreover, microscopic examination of blood films obtained from naturally infected cases showed the presence of parasite and various morphological changes in cells such as stomatocyte, hyperchromasia, and polychromasia. Significantly increased values of different hepatic enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also recorded.

Keywords: camel, hematological indices, serum enzymes, Trypanosomiasis

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14 Evaluation and Association of Thyroid Function Tests with Liver Function Parameters LDL and LDH Level Before and after I131 Therapy

Authors: Sabika Rafiq, Rubaida Mehmood, Sajid Hussain, Atia Iqbal

Abstract:

Background and objectives: The pathogenesis of liver function abnormalities and cardiac dysfunction in hyperthyroid patients after I131 treatment is still unclear. This study aimed to determine the effects of radioiodine I131 on liver function parameters, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) before and after I131 therapy hyperthyroidism patients. Material & Methods: A total of 52 patients of hyperthyroidism recommended for I131were involved in this study with ages ranging from 12–65 years (mean age=38.6±14.8 & BMI=11.5±3.7). The significance of the differences between the results of 1st, 2nd and 3rd-time serum analysis was assessed by unpaired student’s t-test. Associations between the parameters were assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. Results: Significant variations were observed for thyroid profile free FT3 (p=0.04), FT4 (p=0.01), TSH (p=0.005) during the follow-up treatment. Before taking I131 (serum analyzed at 1st time), negative correlation of FT3 with AST (r=-0.458, p=0.032) and LDL (r=-0.454, p=0.039) were observed. During 2nd time (after stopping carbimazole), no correlation was assessed. Two months after the administration of I131 drops, a significant negative association of FT3 (r=-0.62, p=0.04) and FT4(r=-0.61, p=0.02) with ALB were observed. FT3(r=-0.82, p=0.00) & FT4 (r=-0.71, p=0.00) also showed negative correlation with LDL after I131 therapy. Whereas TSH showed significant positive association with ALB (r=0.61, p=0.01) and LDL (r=0.70, p=0.00) respectively. Conclusion: Current findings suggested that the association of TFTs with biochemical parameters in patients with goiter recommended for iodine therapy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool. The significant changes increased in transaminases and low-density lipoprotein levels after taking I131drops are alarming signs for heart and liver function abnormalities and warrant physicians' attention on an urgent basis.

Keywords: hyperthyroidism, carbimazole, radioiodine I131, liver functions, low-density lipoprotein

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